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THE SURVEY 



Vol. XXXVI 
April, 1916 — September, 1916 



WITH INDEX 



New York 
SURVEY ASSOCIATES, Inc. 

1 1 2 East 19 street 




SURVEY ASSOCIATES, Inc. 



NATIONAL COUNCIL 

ROBERT W. DE FOREST Chairman 



JANE ADDAMS Chicago 

ERNEST P. BICKNELL.... Washington 
ROBERT S. BREWSTER.... New York 

RICHARD C. CABOT Boston 

J. LIONBERGER DAVIS St. Louis 

EDWARD T. DEVINE New York 

ARTHUR P. ESTABROOK Boston 

LIVINGSTON FARRAND Boulder 

SAMUEL S. FELS Philadelphia 

LEE K. PRANKEL New York 

JOHN M. GLENN New York 

C. M. GOETHE Sacramento 

WILLIAM E. HARMON New York 



WM. TEMPLETON JOHNSON, San Diego 

JOSEPH LEE Boston 

JULIAN W. MACK Chicago 

V. EVERIT MACY New York 

CHARLES D. NORTON New York 

SIMON N. PATTEN Philadelphia 

JULIUS ROSENWALD Chicago 

GRAHAM TAYLOR Chicago 

LILLIAN D. WALD New York 

ALFRED T. WHITE Brooklyn 

FRANK TUCKER, Treas New York 

ARTHUR P. KELLOGG, Sec. .New York 



THE STAFF 

PAUL U. KELLOGG, Editor 



ASSOCIATE EDITORS 

EDWARD T. DEVINE 

GRAHAM TAYLOR 

JANE ADDAMS 



ARTHUR P. KELLOGG 

GRAHAM R. TAYLOR 

JAMES P. HEATON 

JOHN A.. FITCH 

DAVID C. DAVIS 

WINTHROP<'D. LANE 

GRACE M. JOHNSTON 

MARY CHAMBERLAIN 

GERTRUDE SEYMOUR 



I 



CONTRIBUTING EDITORS 

BERNARD FLEXNER 
HENRY W. THURSTON 

PHILIP JACOBS 

ALEXANDER JOHNSON 

FLORENCE KELLEY 

SAMUEL McCUNE LINDSAY 

JOHN IHLDER 

PORTER R. LEE 

SHELBY M. HARRISON 

ALICE HAMILTON 

KATE HOLLADAY CLAGHORN 

I. M. RUBINOW 



A JOURNAL of SOCIAL EXPLORATION 



Index 



volume xxxvi 
April, 1916 — September, 1916 

The material in this index is arranged under authors and subjects and in a 
few cases under titles, except poems and book reviews, which are listed only 
under those headings. Anonymous articles and paragraphs are entered under 
their subjects. The precise wording of titles has not been retained where ab 
breviation or paraphrase has seemed more desirable. 



Abbott, Grace, Democracy of Internationalism, 

478. 
Aberdeen, Earl of, 455. 
Academy of Medicine, 425, 436. 
Accident prevention, 395. 
Accidental irony (cut), 215. 
Accidents increased by prosperity, 631. 
Accounting dispensary, free, for charitable or- 
ganizations, 290. 
Actors, 1'nions for, 43. 
Adam (J. N.) Memorial Hospital, picture and 

motto in, 218. 
Adamson, Ruth A. E., Workshops for the handi- 
capped. 392. 
Adamson bill. «SYe Eight-hour law. 
Addams, Jane. Reaction of simple women to 

trade-union propaganda, 304. 

War times challenging woman's traditions, 

475. 
Adler. Felix, 199. 

Portrait, 199, 534. 
Advertising. 

Emerson and Baby Week, 30. 

Medical, quack, 207. 
Agramonte, Aristide, 223. 
Agriculture, for discharged soldiers, 327. 
Aked, ('has. K, 280, 444. 

Alabama, program for county rebuilding, 010. 
Alaska. 

Labor forces in the fish canneries, 351. 

Mail delivery, 135. 
Albany Social Science Society, 298. 
Alcohol, 220, 394. 

Birmingham, Ala., and a distorted Survev 
article, 03. 

Boston Licensing Board, 401. 

Inadequacy of press reports of inebriety 
meetings Of (he National Conference, 294. 

License in place of licensing, 035. 

Social problem and. 451. 

Unitarian Temperance Society's sandwich- 
man (cut) 279. 

Alden, Percy, 112. 

Alice's adventures in tincanland, 107. 

Allen, ('has. J., 413. 

Allen, Herbert C. Letter on birth control, 107. 

Aiiinson, Mary, 543. 

Allyn, Lewis B., 519. 

Almshouses, merging in Maine, 518. 

Almy, Frederic, 219, 231. 

Address as president-elect of National Con- 
ference, 195. 

Fetter, 397. 

Letter on the Buffalo overseer of the poor, 
294. 

Portrait and note, 208. 
Along the quay (colored cut), cover of issue 

of July 1. 
Ambulances. 

Automobile, in Paris (cut), 471. 

Red Cross (cut), 468. 
America. 

Land where hatred dies (poem), 380. 

Land where hatred dies (letter), S. N. Pat- 
ten on, 546. 

Opportunity in promoting lasting peace, 473. 
American Academy of Political and Social 

Science, twentieth annual meeting, 170. 
American Association for Labor Legislation, 

617, 618. 
American Chemical Society, 519. 
American citizenship. See Citizenship. 
American Conference on Social Betterment, 65. 
American Federation of Labor. See under 

Labor. 
American Hospital Association Committee on 

Dispensary Work, 207. 
American Institute of Social Service, 175. 
American Interchurch College, 318. 
American Labor Legislation Review, 580. 
American Medical Association. 

Annual Survey of typhoid, 223. 

Committee on social insurance, 205. 

Health insurance at Detroit convention, 436. 
American Neutral Conference Committee, 629. 
American Posture League. See Posture League. 
American School Peace League, 88. 
American Social Hygiene Association. See So- 
cial hygiene. 
American Spirit (P. K. Lane), 411. 
American Union Against Militarism. See Union 

Against Militarism, 
Americanism, 267, 473, 474. 

Future, 480. 

Tyrannical, 479. 
Americanization, Fader-Mens — a story, 15. 
Amusement parks in Chicago, immorality 

(edit.), 163. 



Anderson, Elizabeth Milbank, 271, 592. 
Anderson, Victor U., 610. 
Andrews, John B. 

Farm hands (letter), 642. 

New federal workmen's compensation law, 
• 617. 

Portrait, 017. 
Angell, .las. B., appreciation, 116. 
Angell, Norman. 419. 
Animal of extinction (edit.), 165. 
Anopheles. See Mosquitoes. 
Anthony, Katharine, Trans, of Vandervelde on 

Alcoholism. 451. 
Anthracite Coal Industry, bargaining in, 227. 
Anti-Preparedness. Ties Moines Register car- 
toons, 170. 
Anti-Preparedness Committee, 37. 

Change of name. 95. 

See ul no Preparedness. 
Anti I rust law, Ohio indictments quashed, 57. 
Antwerp, Red Cross headquarters, 558. 
Appeals (letter), 546. 
Appendicitis, "Honeymoon", 142. 
Aran Islands, 139. 
Arbitration. 

Fundamental principle of, 623. 

Mole's book on, 607, 

Railroad Strike (letter), 5:>2. 

it. R. telegraphers, 498. 

Railroads, President Wilson and, 531. 
Argentina. See Child welfare. 
Argetsinger bill, 100. 
Ariel (cul ), 347. 
Arizona. 

Embargo on Btrike-breakers, 143. 

Stale prison. 510. 
Armament, limitation of, 57:'.. 
Armenians. 

Celebrating Easter in New fork, 107. 

Map showing deportation, 70. 

Armor plate, dinosaur (cut), 37. 

Armour, J. Ogden, 518. 

Arms, Man & Co. Letter on law and order, 

295. 
Army. U S. 

In justice lo the dul'onts, 420. 

New law, pacifist view of, 309. 

Post's (C. Jl, plan for vocational training 
in, 2(11. 

Arsenals, See Efficiency. 
Arsenobenzol, 49, 511. 

Asbburn. Major P. M., 435. 
Association lo Abolish War, 128. 
Atlantic City, municipal struggles, 210. 
Auburn prison. 

Headpieces, cover and frontispiece of April 1 
issue. 

Old round and new, 1. 
Audits, free. See Accounting dispensary. 
Austria Hungary, prisoners of war, .".22. 
Automobiles, Flint, Michigan, 548-557. 
Avres, Leonard 1'.. 188, 389. 



B 
Babies. 

Baltimore traffic. 157. 

Book on care of, 395. 

Cleveland, fight for life, 634. 

In motion pictures (with cut), 302. 
Babson, Roger W., 421, 510. 
Baby week, Philadelphia and advertising, 36. 
Baby week committee I legend on door), 215. 
Back to the land from the trenches, 327. 
Bailey. Dr. Pearce. 197. 
Baker, Harvey IF, sonnet in memory of, 47. 
Baker, Newton D., Villa vs. (edit.) 33. 
Balch, Emily Greene, 70, 2x0. 

On peace meetings of the war's 2d anni- 
versary. 4X7. 488. 

On the Ford peace expedition, 444. 
Baldwin, Edward R., 545. 

The consumptive ami bis neighbors, 429. 
Ball. Elsie. The Dounithornes, 431. 
Balligbala, India, 031. 
Baltimore. 

Alliance of charitable and social agencies, 187. 

Community workshops for the handicapped, 
392. 

Vice Commission's showing of traffic in 
babies, 157. 

Vice conditions (letter), 229. 

Vice report (letter and reply), 127. 
Bamford Hills, 124. 
Bankside Theater, 257, 347. 
Barbarians, who's who among, 105. 
Barnes, Chas. B., 593. 
Barnhart, Harry II., 414. 
Barrymore, Jack, in Justice, 72. 



Bartlett, Maud O. Experiments in movies for 

children. 504. 
Barton, Clara, 608. 
Baseball, 506. 
Bath tubs. 457. 
Bathing in the Ganges, 60 and cover of April 

x issue. 
Bathing on Chicago Lake Shore Drive, 631. 
Baylor, Margaret, 66. 
Beard. Chas. S., 170. 
Beck, Carl, 01. 

Bedford Reformatory, mental clinic, 444. 
Beemer, Miles W., 414. 
Beeters, 

August in the beet fields, 517. 

Colorado condition (letter and reply), 593. 

Colorado women and, 372. 

June in the beet fields, 374. 
Belgian colliery (colored cut), 358. 
Belgian iron workers (cut), 361. 
Belgium. 

Bicknell, E. P., on, 558 504. 

Drama, 137. 

Gleason, Arthur, on social workers and, 185. 
Bemis, Edward W., 295. 

Bennet, Wm. S., atlack on Ellis Island ad- 
ministration, 445. 
Berkeley, Calif. 

Greek Theater, 257, 259. 

Police training, 503. 
Berlin, new Free Folk Theater, 138. 
lierner, G. B., 593. 
Bernstein, Chas., 438. 
Bicknell, Ernest P. 

First aid to Europe (war relief), 465. 

Nation on strike (Belgium), 558-564. 

Portrait. 119. 
Bill of rights for the world, 281. 
Birmingham, Ala. 

1 1 iiliilil 1:11 and a distorted St itvicv artiil: 
63. 

Prohibition in (letters), 295, 296. 
Birney, A. A., 295. 

Owen-Keating bearing (letter), 191. 
Birney. Mrs. A. A., 48, 191, 211, 295. 
Birth control. 

Letter from a woman, 397. 

Letters on. 107. 

State laws, different, 319. 
B'ackie, Canada, 33. 

Blackwell, Alice Stone. Reply to John Mar- 
tin's articles on woman. 78. 
Blake, Kate Devereux. Letter on John Mar- 
tin's articles, 128. 
Blakev, Leonard, 391. 
Blast furnaces (cut), 360. 
Blindness. 

China, 217. 

Illinois Society for the Prevention of, 529. 

Indiana, 118. 

Massage for the blind, 128. 
Bloody fun of it. 390. 
Blossom, Frederick A., 529. 
Blue, Dr. Rupert, 409. 
Board of child welfare, 270. 
"Boarding round", 505. 
Bohemia. 116. 
Bohsle, K. R., 60. 
Bohunks, 8. 
Bonn. M. J., 177. 
Bonus giving (letter), 398. 
Book reviews. 

Adolescent Period. The (Starr), 294. 

Alcohol — Its Influence on Mtnd and Body 
(Bowers). 52X. 

Alcohol nnil Society (Koren), 439. 

American Citu The (Wright). 507. 

American Country Girl, The (Crow), 210. 

American I.uhor Unions (Marot). 102. 
Vmerican Municipal Progress (Zueblin), 507. 

Autobiography, An (Trudeau), 103. 

Backward Children (Holmes), 209. 

Being Well-Bom (Guyer), 462. 

Beloved Physician, The (Chalmers), 103. 
Bodilii Chani/es in Pain, Hunger, Fear and 
Ra</r (Cannon), 292. 

Bon Scouts Year Book (McGuire and 
Mathiewsl, 211. 

Business Employments (Allen), 607. 

Camp nnil Outing Activities (Cheley and 
Baker), 210. 

Child in Human Progress, The (Payne). 208. 

Child Study and child Training (Forbush), 
210. 

Child Training (Ililyer), 210. 

Child Welfare Work in California (Slinger- 
land), 209. 

Child Welfare Work in Pennsylvania 
(Slingerland) 209. 



Ill 



IV 



Index 



Church, The, and the People's Play (At- 
kinson), 528. 

Citizen's Book, The (Hebble and Goodwin), 
527. 

Clinical Laboratory Technic for Nurses 
(Gibson), 544. 

Community Civics (Field and Nearing), 507. 

Community Development (Farrington), 507. 

Community Drama and Pageantry (Beegle 
and Crawford), 526. 

Cooperation in Coopcrsburg (Brunner), 606. 

Counter-Currents (Repplier) 500. 

Delinquent Child and the Home, The, 2d ed. 
(Breckinridge and Abbott). 211. 

Democracy anil Education (Dewey), 541. 

Educational Hygiene (Rapeer), 543. 

Elements of Record-Keeping for Cltild-Help- 
ing Organizations (Ralph), 209. 

Essays in Social Justice (Carver), 394. 

Ethics of Jesus and Social Progress (Gard- 
ner), 589. 

Everybody's Business (Eisenman), 590. 

Fishers of Boys (McCorraick), 210. 

Freedom and Causality (Howerton), 5S9, 590. 

Oary Schools, The (Bourne), 541. 

Handbook of Atitlctic Games, etc. (Bancroft 
and Pulvermacher) , 210. 

Health-Care of the Growing Child (Fischer), 
395. 

History of the Family as a Social and Edu- 
cational Institution (Goodsell), 526. 

Holy Earth, The (Bailey), 606. 

Honesty (Healy), 461. 

How to Knoio Your Child (Scott), 440. 

How to Live (Fisher and Fisk) 103. 

Human Motives (Putnam), 292. 

Industrial Accident Prevention (Beyer), 395. 

Industrial and Vocational Education (Com- 
ings), 607. 

Industrial Arbitration (Mote), 607. 

Introduction to the Study of Sociology 
(Hayes), 542.. 

Learning to Earn (Lapp and Mote), 402. 

Legal Minimum Wage, A (O'Grady), 440. 

Life of Clara Barton (Epler), 608. 

Longshoremen, The (Barnes), 293. 

Meaning of Dreams (Coriat), 292. 

Minimum Kates in Die Box-making Industry 
(Bulkley), 608. 

Minimum Wage by Law, The, 607. 

New Wars for Old (Holmes), 508. 

Occupations (Gowin and Wheatley), 543. 

Outlines of Sociology (Blackmar and Gillin), 
542. 

Painless Childbirth (Davis), 527. 

Persistent Public Problems (Taylor), 440. 

Poverty and Wealth (Ward), 589. 

Poverty the Challenge to the Church (Pen- 
man), 589, 590. 

Practical and Social Aspects of Christianity 
(Robertson), 589. 

Prevocutional Education in the Public Schools 
(Leavitt and Brown), 461. 

Principles of Labor Legislation (Commons 
and Andrews). 460. 

Psychology of Relaxation (Patrick) 394. 

Public Schools and Women in Office Service, 
543. 

Relationship, The, Between Persistence in 
School and Home Conditions (Holley), 544. 

Religion and Reality (Tuckwell), 5S9, 590. 

Satellite Cities (G. R. Taylor), 102. 

Second Missionary Adventure, The (Wilson), 
589, 590. 

Seventeen Years in the Underworld (Scott) 
440. 

Shoe Industry, 'The (Allen), 544, 

Sleep ami Sleeplessness (Bruce), 292. 

Social Institution and Ideals of the Bible 
(Soares), 589. 

Social Problems (Towne), 514. 
gk Stories of Thrift, etc. (Prltchard and Turk- 
ington), 208, 211. 

Straight America, <i Call to Valional Service 
(Kellor) 528. 

Street Land (Davis), 2<i9. 

Tin-Plate Industry, The (Dunbar), 104. 

Trade Union Woman. The (Henry), 102. 

Unemployment (Johnson), 461. 

Vicious Circles in Sociology and Their Treat- 
ment (Hurry), 461. 

Wage Worth of School '/'ruining (Hedges), 
543. 

Wayward Child, The (Scboff), 208. 

What the War is Teaching (Jefferson) 508. 

Wreckage (Manners), 590. 
Books received, 104, 294, 395, 396, 402, 508, 

528. 544. 
Borah, Wm. E., quoted on militarism, 309. 
Boston. 

License (Woods), 635. 

Licensing Board, 401. 

North End congestion, 579. 

Police court psychologic laboratory, 610. 
Boulton, Alfred J. 314. 
Bowen, Louise de Koven, 34. 
Bowers, Edwin I'., 528. 
Boy Scouts, 898. 
Boyd, Captain. 380. 
Boyer Fred G. L.. Dnvton prepared (letter), 

396. 
Brabant, Mrs. 1S2. 
Bradley, It. M. Health insurance "made in 

Europe." 204, 
Brady, Edw. L. 235. 
Brandeis, Louis !>., 73, 221, 269. 

Confirmation, 279. 

Letter from Florence Kelley on the opposi- 
tion to, 191. 



Brandes, George, 281. 

Brass foundry (cut), 360. 

Braucher, Howard S. oelf respect (letter), 

546. 
British Dominions Woman Suffrage Union, 516. 
Britton, Gertrude Howe, 438. 
Brooklyn. 

Services of Seth Low, 633. 

Social agencies mobilized, ol9. 
Brooklyn Hospital and Dispensary, 207. 
Brown, Dr. Adelaide 603, 605. 

Portrait, 603. 
Brown, Egerton. Preparedness (letter), 126. 
Brown, Geo. W., 221. 
Brown, Dr. Lawrason, 610. 
Brown, Philip King. Interstate traffic in 

tuberculosis, 458. 
Brown & Sharpe Mfg. Co., 6. 
Bryn Athyn, Fa., 399. 
Bryn Mawr. 

Fire prevention committee and Gimbel 
Brothers, 111. 

Gimbel Brothers, 318. 

Summer in the tenements (poem) 3.26. 
Buenos Aires. See Child welfare. 
Buffalo. 

Charity notes, 129. 

Health center, 125. 

Municipal Hospital picture, 218. 

Open Forum Council, 234. 

Overseer of the poor, 294. 

Waning red lights, 218. 
Bull-fighting, 235 (2). 

Mexico 239. 

Spanish boys playing, cover of issue of 
June 3, 238, 239. 
Bunting case, 221, 222. 
Burdette, Mrs. Robt. J.. 601. 

Portrait, 602. 
Bureau of Education, U. S., 88. 
Bureau of Mines, Safety First exhibit, 190. 
Burk, Frederic. Reply to a letter on individual 

instruction, 229. 
Burmah transforming rest-houses into recrea- 
tion centers, 367. 
Burns, Allen T., 389. 

Cleveland survey (letter), 66. 
Burt, Chas. L., 129. 
Butler, Amos W. portrait, 119. 



Cabarets in Chicago, immorality, 218. 

Cabot, Richard C, 125. 

(.'actus. See Peyote. 

• 'abulia, 631. 

Caldwell, Dr. Chas, P., 47. 

Caliban of the Yellow Sands, 343-350. 

See also Pageants. 
i lalifornia. 

Camps of laborers, 335. 

Child welfare work, 521, 537. 

Child-welfare work (rejoinder by II. II. 
Hart), 639. 

Vital statistics, 441. 

Women's civic leagues, 601. 
California, University of, health, 619. 
Caiisthenic drill in Manila (illust.), opposite p. 

235 (2). 
( 'amps. 

California, 335. 

Detention, for war prisoners, 322. 
Canada, social research in western, 526 
Cancer. 

groping toward the cure of, 302. 

Portsmouth, England, 88. 

< :i nnrries. 

Alaska tish, 351. 

New York, 111, 160, 167. 

< tanning contest, 20. 

Capital punishment, games about (sketch), 287 
Capper's Weekly, 191. 
Carhart, Chas. L. 

Letter congratulating The SuBVBT, 108. 

Letter on B. Clark's article, 509. 
Carnival of the Nations, 405. 
Caroline Rest, 318. 
Carpio, M. del. Letter on Americans and Mex 

ico, 12. 

Carranza, 371. 
Carter, James M., 129. 
Carver, Prof. Thos. N., 52. 

Case No. 228. Sre Oregon ten hour case 
( !ase work (letter), 126. 
( 'alholicism, Roman. 

Charity controversy, I 16. 

Minimum wage and, 576. 

New York institutions and Farrcllism, 64. 

si-c also New York (City). 
Cellars. See Tenements. 
Cells and souls, 71. 

Chadeayne, Hlennor J. Letter on John Mar- 
tin's articles on woman, 82. 
Chamber of commerce, federal aid to schools 

391. 
Chamberlain, Joseph P. Letter on B. Clark's 

article. 510. 

chambers of Commerce, Junior, c>2. 

Chance, Menitt O., 133. 

Changsa. china, i2t>. 
Chapin Standard, 598. 
Cbargln, Louis, 207. 

Charities. 

City Inspection (N. Y.) for iis wards, ::■ 
Federation and Its fruits, 187. 
Federation questions, 816. 

Good ease work I lei lert, 126. 
Indiana Board, 119, 120. 



New Jersey Conference, 197. 

Newark, N. J., 173. 

Oregon conference, 234. 

Report by committee on statistics as to 
methods, 235. 

See also National Conference of Charities 
and Correction; New York (City). 
Charity. 

America's (cartoon), cover of issue of Aug. 
12. 

Kith and kin of. See National Conference, 
etc., proceedings. 

Mixing politics with (Maryland), 427. 
Charity (picture in J. N. Adams Memorial 

Hospital), 218. 
Charity Organization Society. See New York 

Charity Organization Society. 
Charters. 

Grand Rapids, proposed, 454. 

Model city, 225. 
Chicago. 

Bathing on Lake Shore Drive, 631. 

Cabarets, 218. 

City Club symposium on ideals, 267. 

City Club symposium on national ideals 
(Pond), 328. 

Clothing workers' protocol, 113. 

Cook County Board, 437. 

Employment tribute, 457. 

Gifts for social work, 518. 

Health bulletin, 224. 

House of Correction prisoners' families, 390. 

Juvenile Protective Association, 303. 

Juvenile Protective Association and amuse- 
ment parks (edit.), 163. 

Municipal pier in action, 520. 

New force (women) in politics (edit.), 34. 

Police training, 503. 

Politics and a tragic death, 47. 

Politics, women voters and Dr. Sachs (let- 
ter), 127. 

Sachs death and the Tuberculosis Sanatorium 
(editorial), 105. 

Survey of defectives, 494. 

Teachers' Federation and Board of Educa- 
tion, 384. 

Tuberculosis sanitarium and spoilsmen, 497. 

Y. M. C. A. hotel, 303. 
Chicago Tribune on our country, 267. 
Child helping, Minnesota (letter), 545. 
Child hygiene travelling exhibit, 463. 
Child labor. 

Beet lields, 374. 

Bill endorsed by President, 424. 

Cartoon, 69. 

Colorado "beeters", 372. 

Federal bill and politics, 629. 

Federal bill as passed by the Senate, 533. 

Motion pictures, regulating, 301. 

National Congress of Mothers and Keating 
bill, 48. 

National Congress of Mothers and Keating 
bill (letter), 191. 

National Congress of Mothers and Keating 
bill i letter and editorial reply I. 211. 

Senate, r. S., 69. 

See also "Beeters"; Children; Industry. 
Child welfare. 

California work, 521, 537. 

California work (H. II. Hart's rejoinder), 
c,:;'. i 

I iist American Congress on, Buenos Aires, 
:,:vi. 

i iregon, 316. 

Bight to marry (Meyer), 243, 266 

See also Widows' pensions. 
Child Welfare Hoard. .Sec, under Widows' pen- 
sions, New York Citj . 
Children. 

Family homes (in New York) instead of in- 
stitutions, 384. 

Homes wanted (letter), 591. 

Housing cartoon, Philadelphia, 226. 

Institution "help" (letter), 591 

Motion pictures for, 504. 

New York City school, 597. 

Study of New York City Children granted 
employment certificates, 44. 

Three classes In the United states, 533. 
Children's diseases, 31S. 
Children's Home Bureau, .'!*- 1 
Children's institutions, city inspection. 323. 
China, trachoma in, 318. 
Chinese blind, 217. 
Chinese klndergartner, 236. 
t'hipman, Miner. Efficiency and organized 

labor, 523. 
Choate, Joseph II., 191, 192, 
"Cholera Cloud," 32. 
Cholera in India, 60. 
christian Science, 292, 
Christmas. 

Good fairy (cut), cover of Sept. 16 Issue 

Shop parl.\ ( vers,, i , 613. 
churches. 

Country, co-operation for, 51. 

i 'leveland. "Old Cedar." 284 

Duty as to European War, 410. 
Cincinnati. 

Anti-Tuberculosis League, 124. 

I took on, 527. 

Consumers' League slogan. 516. 

Council of social Agencies, 187. 

"Don't spit on the sidewalk," 821 

Exhibit of Associated Charities showing how 

money is used fcut I, i "- s 

Health center. !"."■ 

Playground workers. 506 
Tuberculosis, 223. 



Index 



Cities. . 

Commission governed, finances, 61. 

Made to order (satellite), 102. 
Citizenship : Why I became an American citi- 
zen, 524. 
City charter, new model, 225. 
City employes, improved methods of discipline, 

122. 
City planning. 

Dublin, Ireland, 455. 

Flint, Michigan, 548-557. 

In social work, 581. 

Massachusetts federation of boards, 505. 

New York, neighborhood interest, 123. 

New York adopts zone plan, 488. 

New York districting, 324. 

Reconstruction exposition in France, 195. 

Subjects announced for 8th national confer- 
ence, [193]. 
Civic leagues, women's, 601. 
Civic periodicals, recent, 122. 
Civic Theater Corporation, 258. 
Civics. 

Books on, 507. 

France, 37. 
Civil service, making it effective, 54. 
Clark, Badger, 397, 509. 

Cowards and fools — fall in! (Mexico), 325. 

Letter on his article "Cowards and fools — 
fall in !" 511. 
Clark, Fred. J. Letter on J. Martin's articles 

and The Survey, 297. 
Clark, Mrs. O. P., portrait, 604. 
Clarke, Judge John Ilessin, civic interests, 424. 
Clayton bill, 404. 
Cleanliness. 

Hotels and restaurants, 125. 
. Poliomyelitis and, 596. 
Clean-up work, 455. 
Cleveland. 

Associated Charities Day, 76. 

Babies' Dispensary and Hospital, 634. 

City Hospital venereal wards, 91. 

Community co-operation, 414. 

Cooley Farms, 399. 

Cost of living for city fathers, 62. 

Federation for Charity and Philanthropy, 
187, 188. 

Federation for Charity, list of speakers, 399. 

Moving picture censorship, 298. 

"Old Cedar", 284. 

Recruiting scenes, 529. 

Relief agencies report (letter), 211. 

Result of red-light closing, 113. 

School survey brings home facts of city's 
schools, 388. 

Serologist, 318. 

Social workers, 610. 

Sugareoating the gas bill, 76. 

Survey (correspondence — Burns and Lee), 66. 

University social service training, 290. 
Clifton, Arizona, 143. 
Clinics, venereal, 206. 
Cloak, suit and skirt manufacturers, 196. 

Agreement expected, 406. 

Garment workers fighting on, 321. 

Public opinion and, 283. 

Shame of it (cartoon), 485. 

Strike settlement terms, 443. 

Strikers return to work, 493. 
Clopper, B. N. 

America for America's children (Buenos 
Aires Congress), 532. 

August in the beet fields, 517. 

June in the beet fields, 374. 
Clothing workers, Chicago protocol, 113. 
Club women. See Women's clubs. 
Clymer, John L., 398. 
Coal Age, 593. 

Coal cases in Colorado, 283. 
Coal industry. See Anthracite coal industry. 
Coal miners, bath tubs and, 457. 
Cochiti man, cover of May 13 issue. 
Coe, Geo. A., 330. 
Cofer, Dr. L. E., confirmation as health officer 

of port of New York, 111. 
Collective bargaining. 

Methodists and, 301. 

Railroads, 305. 
Colleges. 

Immigrant program in, 291. 

Rural community efforts, 455. 
Collier, John, 170. 

For a new drama, 137-141. 

Shakespeare pageant and masque (Caliban), 
343-350. 

Stage, the : a new world, 251-260. 
Collins, W. B., 382. 
Colorado. 

"Beeters" (letter and reply), 593. 

Coal cases petering out, 283. 

King of Huerfano county, 405. 

Women and "beeters" (edit.), 372. 

Year after the coal strike. 190. 
Colorado Fuel and Iron Co., 190. 
Columbia (S. C.) Sociological Society, 441. 
Columbia University, professors' statement on 

garment workers' lockout, 283. 
Columbus, Ohio. 

Penitentiary, voluntary incarceration, 36. 

Social service training, 290. 
Colyer, W. T.. 516. 
Commission government, 61. 
Committee of One Hundred Citizens. See New 

York (City). 
Commodore Mine. See under Minnesota. 
Common welfare. See Monthly News Sum 

mary. 
Community centers. 

First national conference on, 169, 170, 171. 



School as a, 621. 
Community choruses, 414. 
Community co-operation in Cleveland, 414. 
Community drama, 255-260. 
. Community welfare. 

College work for, 455. 

Sacrifices for (letter), 591. 
Compensation. 

Heroism not a bar, 336. 

See also Workmen's compensation. 
Coney Island, social hygiene exhibit at, 630. 
Conferences. 

Calendar, 108, 213, 214, 319, 320, 441, 529, 
530, 644. 

Various reports, 233. 
Congestion in Boston North End, 579. 
Congress, U. S. 

I'oint of order on definition of "strike", 56. 

Rural credits through the Senate, 177. 

Social legislation, 38. 
Congresssional Union, 216. 
Connecticut, night work for women (letter), 

213. 
Conscription, federal, 596. 
Conservation, 93. 
Consumers' League, 499, 500, 533, 534. 

Cincinnati slogan, 515. 

New York accomplishments for women in 25 
years (edit.), 164. 

Overtaking the courts, 173. 

Rhode Island, 47. 
Consumption. See Tuberculosis. 
Contracts broken in New York traction trouble, 

632. 
Cook County Bureau of Social Hygiene, 437. 
Cooley, Chas. H. A builder of democracy (J. 

B. Angell), 116. 
Cooley, Harris R., 284. 

Portrait, 285. 
Coolidge, Mary Roberts, 601, 603. 

Portrait, 601. 
Co-operation. 

Community, 414. 

In industrial research, 586. 

International, 421. 

See also Rural life. 
Corkerell, Theo. D. A. Letter on appeals, 546. 
Corn club, bovs', 20. 
Cornell, Dr. Geo. B., 130. 
Corporation schools. See National Association 

of Corporation Schools. 
Cost of living. See Food. 
Cothern, Marion B. When strike-breakers 

strike, 535. 
Coulter, Prof. John Lee, 51. 
Coulter, Prof. John M.. 330. 
Country. See Rural life. 
County government, program for rebuilding, 

616. 
Courts, campaign for overtaking, 173. 
Cowards and fools — fall in !, 325. 

Letters on, 397, 509. 
Cradle song (cartoon), 49. 
Craig, Gordon, 260. 
Cram, Ralph Adams, 329, 330, 399. 
Crampton, C. Ward, 597. 

Crane, Caroline Bartlett. Reply to John Mar- 
tin's articles on woman, 77. 
Crime. 

Disease known as, 53. 

Training for (Scott's book), 440. 
Cripples, German cities for, 27. 
Crow Indians, 272. 
Croxton, Fred. C, 441. 
Culex. See Mosquitoes. 
Curran, J. J. Four years of peace ahead in 

anthracite, 178. 
Curtis, Edward S., opp. p. 343. 



D 

Dallas, Texas, public service and municipal elec- 
tion, 114. 

Daly, Henry, 144. 

Dancing. 

Folk dancing in the Philippines, 241. 
Indians and peyote worship, 181. 

Daniels, John, 384. 

Homes wanted (letter), 591. 
New name for the National Conference (let- 
ter), 65. 

Daniels, Josephus, 176, 177. 

Dannemora, 33. 

Darsie, Charles. Little church in a big city 
(Cedar Avenue, Cleveland), 284. 

Dauria detention camp, 323. 

Davenport, Wm. II., 427. 

Davies, Hyrvel, 144. 

Davis, Arthur J. Duluth and other anti- 
saloon cities (letter), 643. 

Davis, Michael M., Jr., 207. 

Davis, Ozora S. Social service : the field of 
unity, 453. 

Davis, Philip. 

Letter on Street Land, 591. 

Davis, Wm. Stearns. Social workers and the 
war (letter), 297. 

Dawson, Miles M., 618. 
Portrait, 618. 

Day, Caspar. Fader-mens — a story, 15. 

Day, John W. St. Louis war-relief bazar (let- 
ter), 65. 

Dayton, Ohio, prepared (letter), 396. 

Deaf-mutes, Indiana, 118. 

Death (cut of protagonist in Caliban masque), 
346. 

Death penalty. See Capital punishment. 

Defectives, 243, 266. 

Oregon Child Welfare Commission, 316. 



Statistics, 592. 

See also Mental hygiene. 
Del Carpio. See Carpio. 
Democratic Party platform, 336. 
Department of Agriculture, 20-26. 
Department stores. 

Hygiene, 434. 

Saleswomen in the gymnasium, 93. 
Dependent children. 

Indiana, 100. 

Statistics, 592. 
Des Moines Register cartoon, 176. 
Detroit. 

Booming Detroit, 449. 

School superintendents, 188. 
Detroit News cartoon, 177. 
Deutschland's cargo, 441. 
Dicker, S. B., 500. 
Dickinson, Edward, 329. 
Dickinson, Thos. N., 256. 
Diet. See Food. 
Dinosaur, armored, 37, 176. 

Rejoinders, etc., to the anti-preparedness ex- 
hibit (edit.), 165. 
Dirt in restaurants and hotels, 125. 
Disarmament. See Armament. 
Discipline for city employes, 122. 
Disease known as crime, the, 53. 
Dispensaries. 

France, social hygiene, 318. 

Important place of, 206. 
District idea, 93. 
Districting in cities, 324. 
Dix, Dorothea, 117. 
Doane, Harriet Lloyd. Letter on John Martin's 

articles on woman, 84. 
Doctor of Humanity, 441. 
Dodd, Alvln E., 575. 
Dohertv, Wm. J., 50, 263. 
Dole, Chas. F., 128. 

Pan-Americanism and preparedness (letter), 
230. 
Ponnithornes, the, 431. 
Doorstep to doorstep (letter), 592. 
Doria, Rodriguez, 224. 

Dorn, Dudley. Cost of feeblemindedness (let- 
ter), 294. 
Dowling, Dr. Oscar, 377. 
Dows, Kenneth, 631. 
Drama. 

European theaters, 138. 

For a new drama (Collier), 137-141. 

St. Louis, outdoor, 414. 

Stage, the : a new world, 251-260. 
Drama League of America, 258. 
Drew, Walter. 

Letter on "efficiency in arsenals," 512. 

Letter on the open shop, 212. 
Drexel, Constance. Letter on John Martin's 

articles on woman, 81. 
Druco drug stores, 36. 
Drugs. 

Arsenobenzol, 49, 50. 

Harrison law, a year of the, 58. 

Indian hemp, 224. 

Pamphlet on, 611. 

Peyote worship and Indians, 181. 
Dublin, Ireland, city plan, 455. 
Dublin, Louis I., 94, 302. 
Dudley, Helena S. Letter, 397. 
I in Four, Wise, 252. 
Duluth dry by labor's vote, 579, 643. 
Duncan, Isadora, 251. 

Portrait, 252. 
Dunlap, Flora. Letter on John Martin's arti- 
cles on woman. 84. 
Dunn, John J., 263, 613. 
Dunphy, Mary C, 298. 
duPonts, in justice to the, 426. 
Durkin, Douglas. Social research in western 

Canada, 525. 
Dutch painter (Heyenbrock), 358. 
Dyspepsia, emotional, 293. 

E 

East Harlem Community Organization, 277. 
Eastland disaster. 

Effect, 443. 

Why did she sink? 488. 
Eastman, E. Fred, 609. 
Eastman. Ida Rauh, 319. 
Easton, Elizabeth J. Sparks, 55. 
Eckhardt, Carl C. What we have to build on 

(internationalism), 481. 
Economic Psychology Association, 129. 
Education. 

British economy in war time, 303. 

Maryland reform, 391. 

School superintendents at Detroit, 188. 

See also National Education Association; 
Schools. 
Efficiency. 

Arsenals (edit.), 266. 

Arsenals (letter), 512. 

Organized labor and, 523, 586. 
Eight-hour day. 

Editorial, 32. 

Great Britain, 639. 

New England women, 269. 

Pennsylvania miners, 178. 

Railroad conference on, 305. 

Railroads, 599. 

Railroads, President Wilson and, 531. 

Sudden spread of, 5. 

Women, conferences on, 628. 

See also Hours of work. 
Eight-hour law. 

Cartoon, 615. 



VI 



Index 



Passage averts railroad strike, 577. 
Eisinger, Jacob S., 596. 
Electric chair. Sec Capital punishment. 
Eliot, Chas. W. 

Inscription on Washington, D. C, post office, 
facing p. 133. 

Quoted on L. D. Brandeis, 270. 
Eliot. Sigrid W. Army social service (letter), 

306. 
Elkinton, Joseph. Letter on B. Clark's article. 

509. 
Elkus, Ahram I., 463, 503. 
Elliott, John U, 203. 
Ellis, Ilavclock, 183. 

Ellis Island. Sec Immigrants ; Immigration. 
El I'aso, Texas, 1-14. 371, 373. 

Jordan, I). S., at. 415. 

Mexicans in, 380 : cover of issue of July 8. 
Emerson, Dr. Haven, 425. 
Emery, .las. S., 69. 
Emlen, John T. Letter on B. Clark's article, 

500. 
Employment bureau, federal, 129, 576. 
Employment bureau, public, 432. 
Employment offices. 

American Association of Public Employment 
Offices, annual meeting, 574. 

American Association, etc., 586, 593. 

Chicago tribute-levying, 457. 
England. 

Cancer in Portsmouth, 88. 

"Conscientious objectors," 424. 

Friends Ambulance Service, 112. 

Under the eaves of war, 161. 

Woman and the war, 507. 
Engle, Anna. Review of Gibson's Clinical 

Laboratory Technic for Nurses, 544. 
Epidemic curves (N. Y.), 495. 
Epidemiology, 441. 
Epigrams, 55. 
Erectors' Association, 212. 
Erie, federation of charities, 187. 
Estabrook, Henry D., 177. 
Ethical Culture, forty years of, 199. 
Eubank, Earle E. Letter as to public welfare 

departments, 545. 
Eugenics: right to marry (Meyer), 243, 266. 
Europe, first aid to (war relief), 465. 
Evans, Elizabeth Glendower. Prizes for posters 

(letter), 65. 
Excursion steamers, 443, 488. 
Exhaustion. Sec Fatigue. 



F 

Fader-Mens — a story, 15. 

Fagan, Jas. O., 456. 

Fabler, 72. 

Falkenberg village plan, 28. 29. 

Family, history of the, 526. 

Farm credits. 130. 

gee also Federal Farm Loan. 
Farm hands (letter), 546. 
Farm hands and compensation (letter), 642. 
Farmers. 

Co-operation, 26. 

How the government helps, 20 -26. 

Marketmeu and, 26. 

See also Rural life. 
Farr, Jefferson, 405. 
Farrell, Win. B., 50, 64, 263, 013. 
Farrellism. 50, 64, 446. 
Farwell, Arthur, 343. 
Fatigue, 221, 222. 

Literature of, 610. 

Oregon law and U. S. Supreme Court, 73. 
Faulkner, ('. E. Child helping (letter), 545. 
Federal Council of Churches of Christ In 

America. 400. 
Federal Farm I/Oan Associations, 177, 444. 
Federal farm loan bill enacted. 444. 
Federation of charities. See under Charities. 
Feebleminded Adrift, 399. 
Feeblemindedness. 

Cost of, 232. 

Cost of (letter), 294. 

Indiana, 118. 

Massachusetts, 3d State School, 390. 

Meetings to discuss, 76. 

New Jersey, 197. 

Pennsylvania exhibit, 38. 

Feiss. Richard A., 421. 
Fellowes. Edw. C, 218. 
Feminism, gee Martin, John. 
Filene, Edward A.. 176, 281. 
Filipinos. See under Philippines. 
Finley, John II., 4oc>. 
Finns in iron ranges, Minn., 8. 
Fireless cooker, 22, 24. 
Fisher, Geo. J., 406. 
Fisher, Irving, 379. 380. 

What Mexico thinks of us. 38C. 
Fisheries in Alaska, 351. 
Fisk, Eugene Lyman, 268. 
Fitch. John A., 515. 

Arizona's emliargo on strikebreakers, 143. 

Beating the devil around the stump, 456. 

Democracy In Industry, 334. 

Fundamental principle of arbitration, 623. 

May it please the court, 56. 

Outlawing exhaustion, 73. 

Railroad conference, 305. 

Settling a strike by Congressional enactment, 
509. 
Fitzgerald, Wm., 493. 

Fleming. T. Alfred. 610. 
Flexner. Dr. Simon, on poliomyelitis, 578. 
Flint, Mich, (with illusts.), 548-557. 
Flower aristocrats (edit.), 163. 



Food. 

Cleanliness in hotel and restaurant employes, 
125. 

How to live on 24 cents a day, 598. 

See also Pure food. 
Food handlers, 398. 
Food orders, 598. 
Football, 506. 
Ford neutral congress, 70. 

Appeal, 113. 

See also Neutral Conference for Continuous 
Mediation. 
Ford peace expedition, 444, 592. 
Ford profit-sharing plan, 308. 
Fordham University, chair of peace, 318. 
Forstall, Walton. Letter on E. W. Bemis as a 

public utility expert, 295. 
Forums. 

New York Labor Forum, 61. 

Open Forum Council, Buffalo, 234. 

See also School building. 
Foster, Solomon. 391. 
Foster, Wm. Horton, 234. 
Foster, Wm. T., 234. 
Fox, Austen G., 192. 
France. 

Rebuilding war-destroyed cities and towns, 
195. 

Social centers as war memorials, 37. 
Francqui, Emil, 561. 
Frankel, Dr. Lee K., 94. 
Frankfurter, Felix, 221. 
Fraser, Lovat. 105. 
Frayne, Hugh, 632. 
Free Religious Association, 441, 516. 
Free Trade. Sec Protection. 
Frev, Dr. John G., 318. 
Frey, John P., 329. 
Fridiger, Mr., 632. 
Friends. Sec Quakers. 
Friends' Ambulance Service, 112. 
Frost, Dr. W. H., 515. 
Fryer, Geo. B., 217. 
Fuld, Leonhard Felix. Improved disciplinary 

methods for city employes. 122. 
Fuller, Walter G. On preparedness and the 

armored dinosaur (cut), 37. 
Fuller Construction Co., 212. 
Funeral, sketch of poor children and, 431. 
Funk, Chas. E. Farm hands (letter), 546, 642. 



G 

Gallagher, Rachel, 575. 

Galsworthy, John, 72. 

Gammell, Win. Letter on B. Clark's article, 509. 

Ganges. See India, 

Garcia, Rutino, 144. 

Garden cities, Germany, 27. 

Gardens, city, in Massachusetts, 505. 

Gardiner, Evelyn (Jail. 315. 

Garment workers : root of sweatshop evil, 499. 

See also strikes. 
Garretson, A. B., 305, 515. 
Garrett. Miss, 48, 191, 212, 295. 
Gary, I ml., playgrounds, 315. 
Gary, Judge Elbert IL. 334. 

Gary plan. New York extension, 92. 
Gemberling, Adelaide. Arbitration in railroad 

strike (letter), 502. 
General Federation of Women's Clubs. See 

Women's clubs. 
German iron works (cut), 360. 
German war monuments of tomorrow, 27. 
Germans, 105. 
Germany. 

Economic efficiency in the war, 468. 

Hospital supplies for. 496. 

Monroe Doctrine and, 177. 

Patriotism, 249. 
Gerry. Annie I., 128. 
Client People's House, 137. 
Giddings, Franklin II., 177. 
Gifts, Chicago, 518. 

Gilman. Charlotte Perkins. Reply to John Mar- 
tin's articles on woman. 80. 
Glmbel Brothers' Philadelphia store fire risks, 

111, :us. 
Giovannittl, Axturo. Revolution, the (verse), 

335. 
Girls. 

Detained and deported Immigrants, 154, 155. 
Immoral, 316. 
Saturday holidays. 308. 

Gladden. Washington. Plan for helping Mex- 
ico. 370. 

Glass house (cut), 360. 

Glass rural credits bill. 235. 

Gleason. Arthur, 200, 297, 307. 317. 
Social workers and the war, 185. 

Gleason, Caroline J., 610. 

For working women in Oregon, 585. 

Gleason, George, 405. 

Gloria Ylctls (cut of statue), 91. 

Glueck, Dr. Bernard, 144, 

Goeldl, Nina. Why I l>ecame an American citi- 
zen, 524. 

Goethe. C. M.. 503, 631. 
Rlograpblcal note. 235 (2). 
Children of loneliness (Norway), 567, 571. 
New wine for old bottles (Bnrmah). 367. 
Plavground experiment in the Philippines, 
237 241. 

Goldmark, Josephine, 73. 

Goldwater S 8., 208, 425. 

Gompers, Samuel. 403. 104. 443. 

Labor conference (Mexican) at Washington, 

382. 
Opposes health insurance, 115. 



Quoted on Seth Low, 634. 
Gonorrhoea, 142. 
Good fairy (photo of sculpture), cover of Sept. 

16 issue. 
Goodnight, Scott H., 610. 
Gordnier, Thos. H. Letter on birth control, 

107. 
Gorgas, General W. C, 206. 
Gow, Chas. R., 635, 637. 
Granbery, John C, 114. 
Grand Rapids, Mich., 315. 

Charter, 454, 632. 
Gray, George, 573. 
Great Britain. 

Conference of women, 516. 

Educational economy, 303. 

Health of Munitions Workers' Committee (re- 
port), 638. 

Health service, 88. 

Hospital supplies for Germany, 496. 

Munitions workers, 217. 
Greely, Laura, 97. 
Greenbaum, Justice, 613. 
Greeni. Joe, 535. 
Greineisen, Wanda. Summer play in spite of 

an epidemic, 501. 
Gronau dwellings, 27, 28, 30. 
Group-dwellings, 27. 
Guilfoy, Dr. W. II., 611. 
Gulick, Sidney L., 177. 
Gunmen, village government by, 630. 
Gwin. J. B.. 380. 381. 



II 

Eager, Wm. H. Letter on B. Clark's article, 

509. 
Hague, The, 113. 

Hague Conference anniversary, 88. 
Halg, Robt. Murray, 333. 
Hall, Bolton. 310. 

Bonus-giving (letter), 398. 
Hall, G. Stanley, 294. 
Hall, Dr. II. J., 393. 
Hall. Keppele. Scientific management (letter 

and ed. reply), 65. 
Hallinan, Chas. T. New army law, 309. 
Hamilton, Alice. 

Attitude of social workers toward the war, 
307. 

Wartime economy and hours of labor, 638. 
Handicapped, workshop for, 392. 
Harris, Ahram W., 319. 
Harrison law. 58. 
Hart, Hastings II. 

Child welfare work in California — a rejoinder, 
639. 

Statistics to order (letter), 592. 
Hart. Schaffner and Marx. 

Protocol, 113. 

Sulijerts for prizes announced. 235. 
Hartley, Helen S., 610. 
Hartman. Edw. T. letter. 397. 
Harvard University, religion at, 453. 
Hastings bill. 273. 
Hay Chamberlain act, 596. 
I lavs. Frances, '■'• i > . 

Health. 

California, University of, 010. 
//(,/-• In Lin i Fisher and Fiski. 103. 
Recommendations for hotel and restaurant 
employes. 125. 

See also Hygiene; Public health. 

Health car, 50. 

Health center experiments, 93. 

Health centers. 

Buffalo, Cincinnati, 125. 

Definition, 125. 

Health exhibit. 630. 
Health insurance. 

Before Congress, 115. 

Brief on. 580. 

"Made in Europe," 204. 

Meeker (Royal) on, 205. 

Spread of (lie movement (Rnhinow). 4O7-409. 

Student community, 619. 

Theme of medical conventions. 186, 
Health Messenger, 129. 
Heart disease, rival of tuberculosis. 124. 
Hebberd, Robert W.. 263, 613. 

Resignation as secretary N. v. State Hoard 

of Charities. 115. 
Hebrew charities. Sec .lev s. 
Iledley. Frank. 505. 032. 

Heights and weights of children in industry. 04. 
i bin. Benny, 5*0. 

Henderschott. F ('., 4LM. 

Henderson. Arthur S. I/etter on B. Clark's art I 

ile. 509. 
Ilennessy. Wm. F.. 285. 
Henry, Alice. 

"Justice" re-enacted in England (letter). 307. 
Henry Street Settlement. 253 

Endowment for visiting nurse service. 271. 
502, 50.'.. 

Summer play, 501. 
Heredity: right to marry (Meyer), 213. 260. 
Heroism and compensation. 886 
Heyenbrock, Herman (with portrait and re- 
production of his pictures), 358-368 
Hibbing. Nic under Minnesota. 
Higglns, Mrs Milton P.. and Mrs. Wm. 1" 

Thacher. Child labor hill and mother's con 

-less I let ten. '-' 11 
Hill, Clara, 435 and cover of July 22 issue 
Hill. Dr. II \\\. 32. 
Hindu fakir on bed of nails nut). i'.T" 

Hoagland, Susan w., 107. 

Hoagland and Dicker's garment chart. 500. 



Index 



Vll 



Hoan, Daniel W. (with portrait), 69, 70. 

Hobby horse dancers (cut), 344. 

Hoffman, Frederick F. Prostitution in Japan 

(letter), 592. 
Hoffmann, G. von. "Socialized Germany" (let- 
ter), 126. 
Holland, Belgian refugees in, 562, 563. 
Hollingswortli, T., 144. 
Hollis bill, 177. 
Holmes, A. Marion, 516. 
Holmes, John Haynes, 516. 
Holmes, Jos. D., 229, 396. 

St. Paul on vice reports (letter and reply), 
127. 
Holmes, Justice, 222. 
Holt, Frederick H., 280. 
H.,11. Hamilton, 281, 629. 
Homes wanted (letter), 591. 
"Honeymoon appendicitis," 142. 
Hooker, Edith Houghton. 

Payment in full, 261. 

Public school, 564. 

The widower, 142. 
Hooker, Geo. E., 267, 328. 
Hookworm, 224. 
Hoover, Herbert C, 412, 561. 
Hopkins, Mary I). Human conservation and 

the Supreme Court, 221. 
Horn, John L., quoted, 580. 
Hospital supplies for Germany, 496. 
Ilnss. Lula B. Individual instruction (letter), 

229. 
Hotels. 

Chicago's Y. M. C. A., 303. 

Cleanliness in, 125. 
Hours of work. 

Consumers' League and overtaking the courts, 
173. 

Eight-hour day for New England women, 269. 

Girls and. 303. 

Longshoremen, 450. 

Maine, 613. 

Miners, 178. 

Oregon ten-hour law before U. S. Supreme 
Court, 73. 

Railroads, 456. 

Wartime economy (British), 638. 

Women in Rhode Island, 47. 

See also Eight-hour day. 
Household economy, demonstrating, 22. 
Household health, five points, 224. 
Household work for life training, 438. 
Housing. 

Boston North End, 579. 

Flint, Michigan, 548-557. 

German garden cities for war cripples, 27. 

New Jersey and Captain Allen, 413. 

Philadelphia cartoon, 226. 

State experiment, Massachusetts, 91. 
Houston Foundation, 610. 
Ilowatson, Margaret, 610. 
Howe, Frederic C, 318. 

Attacked by Wm. S. Bennet, 445. 

Report on charges against, 610. 

Turned back in time of war; Ellis Island 
under war conditions (with illustrations), 
147-156. 
Howe, H. H. Letter on John Martin's articles, 

128. 
Howell, Wm. H., 322. 

Howes, Gertrude C. Out with Connecticut (let- 
ter), 213. 
Hoxie, Robt. F., 66 ; death, 399. 
Hrdllcka, Ales. 183. 
Hudson, J. Ellery, 48. 

Hudson Guild, Laffertv's speech at, 203. 
Hughes, Chas. E.. 336. 
Hughes. J. S., 144. 
Hull, Walter Henry, 437. 
Hull House Players, 254. 
Human conservation and the Supreme Court, 

221. 
Humanism. Sec Martin. John. 
Hunt, Governor Geo. W. P. (with portrait), 

143, 144. 
Hunter, Geo. McPherson, 591. 
Ilurff, Mrs. E. C, 604. 

Portrait, 604. 
Hutchinson, Paul. St. Paul on vice (letter), 

229. 
Hygiene. 

Industrial Committee and department stores, 
434. 

Institure of, 321. 

Massachusetts industrial conditions. 434. 

New York city school children, 597. 

See also Health ; Tublic health ; Social hy- 
giene. 



Idealism shattered by war, 267. 
Ideals, national, 328. 
"Idle-house" and mad-nouse, 36. 
Ihlder, John. 235. 

Booming Detroit. 449. 

Flint, Michigan. 548-557. 

New Jersey's debt to Captain Allen, 413. 
Iiams, Mary A., 603. 
Illegitimacy, Baltimore, 157. 
Illinois. 

Babies' sore eves. 529. 

Survey of defectives, 494. 
Illinois Public Health and Welfare Associa- 
tion. 610. 
Immigrants. 

Beet fields, 517. 

College work among, 291. 

Democracy of internationalism, 478. 



Dramatic beginnings, 137. 

Drawings by Joseph Stella, 147-156. 

Ellis Island administration attacked, 445. 

Ellis Island under the explosion, 486. 

San Francisco Y. M. C. A. work, 291. 
Immigration. 

Ellis Island under war conditions, 147-156. 

Gulick, S. L., on. 177. 
Immunity, 423. 

Incapacity, warning against, 217. 
Independent, The, 281. 
Indeterminate sentence in Indiana, 98. 
India. 

Bathing in the Ganges and water pollution, 
60, and cover of April 8 issue. 

Playground movement, 631. 
Indian hemp, 224. 
Indiana. 

Board of State Charities, 119, 120. 

State aged 100 (social progress), 97. 

State aged 100 (2d article), 117. 
Indians. 

Administration, 272. 

Peyote worship, 181. 

gee also Alaska. 
Industrial Commission (New York State), 166. 
Industrial democracy, Methodists and, 301. 
Industrial education. 

Federal aid, chambers of commerce favor, 391. 

In the army : plan by C. J. Post, 201. 
Industrial hygiene. See Hygiene. 
Industrial preparedness : engineering experts 

and Consumers' league, 217. 
Industrial research, co-operating in, 586. 
Industrial unrest, 166. 
Industrial workers, guidance for, 291. 
I. W. W., 179. 
Industry. 

Democracy in, 334. 

Inquiry and reply (Denver workingman), 227. 

New York city children, statistics, 94. 
Inebriety. See Alcohol. 
Infant mortality. 

Guilfoy's studies, 611. 

Bee also Babies. 
Infantile paralysis. See Poliomyelitis. 
Insanity. 

Indiana, 117. 

Life's clinic, 261. 

Tennessee county care, 578. 
Inscription, post office, facing p. 133. 
Insomnia, 292. 

Inspection of excursion steamers, 443, 488. 
Institution "help" (letter), 591. 
Institutions, investigation, New York, 50, 64, 

324. 
Insurance. See Health insurance. 
Tnternationaal i periodical), 42. 
International affairs, summer college courses on, 

128. 
International Committee of Women for Perma- 
nent Peace. 42. 
International Council of Women, 282. 
International Health Board, 321. 

Internationalism, 165. 

Conference on. 419. 

Democracy of (immigrants in America), 478. 

Obstacles, aids, forces at work, 484. 

Official, 481. 

Political affairs. 483. 

Private activities, 4S:{. 

Prizes for posters, 65. 

Scientific and social, 482. 

What we have to build on, 481. 

Women's clubs and, 282. 
Investigations, bibliography of certain, 610. 
Iowa. 

Telephone and laundry girls, 57. 

Woman suffrage. 318. 
Iowa Association for the Prevention of Tuber- 
culosis, 610: cover of Sept. 10 issue. 
Irish theater, 139. 



Jails, influence on boys, 545. 
Japan. 

Debating vice segregation, 427. 

Prostitution, 405. 

Prostitution (letter from F. L. Hoffman), 592. 
Jefferson. Rev. Chas. 10.. 95, 177. 
Jephthah's Daughter, 253. 
Jews. 

Tuberculosis, 45. 

War sufferings, 235. 
Jingo, 165. 
Johns Hopkins University, 321. 

Tuberculosis research, 631. 
Johnson, Alexander. 

Portrait, 119. 

State aged 100 (Indiana), 97. 

State aged 100 (Indiana) (2d article), 117. 
Johnson, Chas. II., 441. 
Johnson, Tom L., 284. 

Portrait, 285. 
Jones, Herschel. Making civil service effective, 

54. 
Jones, Senator Richard. 579. 
Jones, Robt. Edmond, 260, 343, 350. 
Jones-Casey bill, 376, 377. 
.Toplin, Mo., lead and zinc miners, 228. 
Jordan, David Starr, 487. 

El Paso, 415. 
Judah, Theodore, 412. 
.Tudd, Chas. H., 188, 384. 
Judges and labor laws. 190. 
Justice, party platforms on, 372. 
Justice (play), 72. 



Kahn, Morris J., 434. 

Kansas : cartoon illustrating middle west views 

on militarism, 177. 
Karluk, 356. 
Keating bill, 48, 69, 211. 

Keegan, Myrtle. Letter on John Martin's arti- 
cles on woman, 83. 
Kelley, Florence. 

Colorado "beeters" and woman suffrage, 372. 

Federal child labor law, 533. 

Letter on Mr. Brandeis, 191. 

Letter on the "beeters" in reply to Marian 
M. Whitney, 593. 

Portrait, 533. 
Kellman, Isabelle F., 610. 
Kellogg, Paul II. 

New era of friendship for North America, 
415-417. 

Progressives, the, 304. 

Three platforms, 336. 
Kelso. J. J. Institution "help" (letter), 591. 
Kennard, Beulah. Up and down the liberty 

pole, 93. 
Kent hill, 233. 

Argument for, 458. 
Kern-McGillicuddy bill, 424, 617. 
King, Edith Shatto. Health insurance In a 

student community, 619. 
King of a county deposed, 405. 
Kingsbury, John A., 263, 298, 324, 384, 613. 
Kirchwey, Ceo. W., 406. 

Sing Sing work, 489. 
Kirk, Wm. Labor forces of the Alaska coast, 

351. 
Knoxville, Tenn., 62. 
Koch. Frederick H.. 346. 
Krause, Dr. Allen K., 631. 

Krehbicl, Edward. Is nationalism an anachro- 
nism? 247. 
Kruttschnitt, Julius, quoted, 599. 



Labor. 

Alaska salmon fisheries, 351. 

American Federation headquarters in Wash- 
ington, 404. 

Camps. 335. 

Efficiency and organized labor, 523. 

Fear of scientific management (edit.), 266. 

Federation counsel against injunction, 593. 

Mexican conference at Washington, 382. 

Mexican-United States conference at Washing- 
ton (with group of delegates), 402, 403. 

Pan-American meetings, pamphlet. 611. 

Scientific management (letter), 512. 

Tin plate, 104. 

War anthem, 605. 

Women on (2 books reviewed). 102. 

Women's division in U. S. Department of 
Labor, 376, 377. 

See also Trade unions ; Workmen's compensa- 
tion. 
Labor laws, judges and, 190. 
Labor Pageant, poster and verse, 335. 
Labor Sunday, 529. 

ladies Garment Workers' Union. See strikes. 
Lafferty, Edward. From one of the gang, 203. 
La Fontaine, Henri. 

America's opportunity, 473. 

Appeal to Americans (with portrait). 385. 
Lambert, Adelaide. Letter on John Martin's 

articles on woman, 84. 
Lambert, Dr. Alex., 436. 
Land where hatred dies (poem), 386. 

Letter and note on, 546. 
Lane, Franklin K., 573. 

American spirit. 411. 
Lane. Winthrop I).. 396. 

Just flickerings of life. 157. 

Mayor Mitchel takes the stand, 263. 

Militarist laws of New York, 313. 

One day after another (Sing Sing and Au- 
burn), 1. 

Teaching and military training (N. E. A.), 
418. 
Lantern bearers. Sec Drama. 
Lanza, A. J., 228. 
Lasker, Bruno. 

Back to the land from the trenches, 327. 

German war monuments of tomorrow, 27. 

Unemployment statistics (letter), 609. 
Lathrop. Brvan, 518. 
Lauck. W. Jett, 610. 
Laundry workers.. 57. 
Law arid order : letter from Arms, Man & Co., 

295. 
Law enforcement. 129. 
I-awrance, Wm. I., 516. 
Lawrence, David, 282, 573. 
Lead miners. 228. 
League to Enforce Peace, 176, 574. 

Wilson's address to, 281. 
Lee, Elisha. 305, 515. 
Lee, Gerald Stanley, 363, 516. 
Lee, Joseph. 

Criticized as reviewer, 609. 
Lee, Porter R. 

Letter on Cleveland relief agencies report, 
211. 

Letter on the Cleveland survey, 66. 
Leeds, Jno. B. Definition of strike" (letter), 

126. 
Legislation. 

Congress a laggard, 38. 

Congressional. 177. 

Maryland, 174. 

Massachusetts gains, 322. 



Vlll 



Index 



New Jersey measures, 48. 

New York, 111, 313. 

Senate, U. S., 69. 
Legislative information, 454. 
Lehmann, T. Social workers and the war 

(letter), 297. 
Lewis, Dr. Paul A., 578. 
Lewisohn, Alice. England under the eaves of 

war, 161. 
License in place of licensing, 635. 
Liebknecht, Karl, sentence made heavier, 580. 
Life, take the "if" out of, 195. 
Life Extension Institute, 268. 
Life's clinic, 142, 2oT, 564. 
Lindsay, Sam'l McCune, portrait, 534. 
Lindsley, Henry D., 114. 
Lippmann, Walter, 176. 
Liquor question. See Alcohol ; Prohibition ; 

License. 
Little Country Theater, 256. 
Loan sharks. 

Massachusetts legislative efforts against, 49. 

Organized fight on, 497. 
Lobingier, Mrs. Andrew S., 602. 
Lochner, Louis P., 279. 
Lodging houses : Y. M. C. A. hotel in Chicago, 

303. 
Lola, 399. 
London, Meyer, 56. 
Long Beach, Calif., 602, 605. 
Longshoremen. 

War and, 450. 
Loretto, Mt, 50. 

Los Angeles, women's clubs, 602, 604. 
Louisiana. 

Politics and public health, 377. 

State Board of Health, 59. 
Lovejoy, Owen It., 629. 

Portrait, 533. 
Lovett, Dr. R. W., 515. 
Low, Seth, biography and portrait, 633. 
Ludlow, Dr. C. S., 311. 
Lues, 262. 

Lynchings in the South, 196, 616. 
Lyon, C. C, 36. 

M 

McCall, Samuel W., 322, 637. 

Licensing Board, 401. 
McCorkle, Daniel S. Letter on B. Clark's arti- 
cle, 509. 
McCrudden, .Tas. P., 455. 
McCulloch, Oscar C, portrait, 99. 
McDonald, Charles. Letter complimenting Tub 

Survey, 108. 
McDowell, Mary. Tried in her father's stead, 

116. 
McDowell, Mary E., 384. 
McDowell, Wm. P., 319. 
Macfarland, Chas. S. Is ours a moratorium of 

Christian faith? 409. 
Machinery, painter of, 358. 
Mack, Julian W., fiftieth birthday, 518. 
Mackay, Constance D'Arcy, 399. 
Mackaye, Percy, 343. 
McKelwav, Alex. J., 593. 

Portrait, 534. 

"We" and the Mothers' Congress (letter), 295. 
McLean, Francis H., 399. 
Macrille, Ida Finney, 603. 

Portrait, 603. 
Madrid : painting of bull-fight, 237. 
Magruder, J. W. Baltimore vice (letter), 229. 
Mahon, W. D., 493. 
Mail privileges for prisoners, 519. 
Mails. See Post office. 
Maine. 

Almshouses, 518. 

Fifty-four-hour law, 613. 
Malaria, New Jersey inviting, 435. 
Manhattan Trade School, 291. 
Manila, 236. 

Calisthenic drill of children (illust), opposite 
p. 235 (2). 
Marketing, Bureau of, 52 
Marketing and Farm Credits, 130. 
Markets, illustrations, 21. 

Marriage: right to marry (A. Meyer), 243, 260. 
Marsh, Benjamin C. New York's tax report 

(letter), 643. 
Marshall, Florence M., 291. 
Martin, Anna C. Letter on B. Clark's article, 

510. 
Martin, John. 

Editorial on his articles on woman, 86-87. 

Letters on his articles, 128, 229, 230, 297. 

Rejoinder to symposium and letters criticizing 
his articles on woman, 85. 

Symposium of rebuttal to his articles on the 
"Four Ages of Woman," with letters and 
rejoinder, 77-85. 
Maryland. 

Educational reform, 391. 

Legislation, social, 174. 

Mixing charitv and politics, tl'T. 
Masarvk, Alice O., 116, 213, 463. 
Masaryk, Thos. G., 116. 
Masetield, John, Interview with, 40. 
Massachusetts. 

City garden, 505. 

Federation of town planning boards, 505. 

Health in Industry committee, 434. 

Homestead Commission's housing proposi- 
tions, 91. 

I/oan sharks, 49. 

Non-pulmonary tuberculosis, 529. 

Social legislation gains, 322. 
Massachusetts General Hospital, 124. 
Massage as work for the blind, 128. 



Masselink, G. Letter on The Survey, 398. 

Masses, The, 396. 441. 

Matinecock Neighborhood Association (letter), 

609. 
Matthews, W. D., 165. 

Mead, Lucia Ames. Statesmanship or battle- 
ship? 387. 
Medical dictionary, 441. 
Medical education for women, 125. 
Medical examiners, national board proposed, 394. 
Medical federation in Philadelphia, 341. 
Medicines, proprietary, 398. 
Meeker, Royal, 575. 

On health insurance, 205. 
Menard, Clyde. Letter on Benny Hein's case, 

545. 
Mental hygiene. 

Chicago's survey of defectives, 494. 

Prisoners, 444. 

Progress of organized work, 114. 
Mereie, 91. 

Merit, acquiring in old way, 370. 
Merriam, Chas. E., 329. 
Merrick, Benj. P. Proposed Grand Rapids 

charter, 454. 
Merrill, Edwin G. Social workers and the war 

(letter), 296. 
Mesaba Range. See under Minnesota. 
Mescal. See Peyote. 
Metal workers (cuts), 358-362. 
Metchnikoff, Elie, career, death, portrait, 423. 
Methodist Episcopal Church and collective bar- 
gaining, 301. 
Metropolitan Life Insurance Co., 233, 429. 
Mexican border (cartoon), 401. 
Mexican labor in the United States, 143. 
Mexican students (letter and note), 591. 
Mexican-American League, 591. 
Mexicans. 

In El Paso, 380 ; cover of issue of July 8. 

Labor conference at Washington, 382. 

Labor conference at Washington (with group 
of delegates) 402, 403. 
Mexico. 

Americans and (letter), 642. 

Bull-fighting, 239. 

Civilian intervention proposed, 373, 371. 

Cowards and fools — fall in! (Badger Clark), 
325. 

Gladden's plan for helping, 379. 

Health conditions, 382. 

Iiabor pamphlet, 611. 

La Fontaine's appeal to Americans against 
invasion, 385. 

New era of friendship between United States 
and Mexico. 415-417. 

I'evote worship, 181. 

Popular protests in the United States against 
war, 379. 

Purpose of United States (edit), 371. 

Villa vs. Baker (edit.), 33. 

What she thinks of us, 386. 

See also Cowards and fools — fall in ! 
Meyer, Adolf. The right to marry. 243, 266. 
Meyer, Annie Nathan. Letter on Chicago's poli- 
tics, etc., 127. 
Michigan commission to investigate poor relief, 

315. 
Michigan, University of, 116. 
Miles. It. E. Social community planning for 

Ohio. 413. 
Militarism. 

Borah, Wm. E., quoted on, 309. 

Dlnosaurlans (cartoon), 96. 

Kansas views, 177, 191. 

Letters on, 397 

Murray, Sir G., on, 424. 

Statesmanship or battleship? 387. 

Wilson and. 198. 

See also Union Against Militarism. 
Military prisons in England, 397. 
Military training. 

Conscription joker, 596. 

National Education Association on, 418. 

New York Commission, 406. 

New York's new laws, 313. 

New York (State) schools, 615. 
Military Training Commission, 313, 615. 
Militia, Red Cross plans for, 374. 
Mill;. Cambridge, Mass., 441. 
Millar, Beatrice, 302. 
Miller, B. M. Negroes up against it (letter), 

545. 
Milwaukee : Socialist mayor chosen, 69. 
Miners. 

Anthracite agreement, 17S. 

.Toplin, Mo.. 228. 

Trees, gardens and bathtubs, 457. 

See also miller Minnesota. 
Mines. 

Arizona, 1 13 

n, , also Bureau of Mines. 
Minimum wage 

Catholics and. 576. 

Ore-on. revised code of rulings, 585. 

Oregon working, 576. 

Pamphlet on, t •< >~ 

Minnesota. 

Child helping (letter), 545. 
Developing play, '-"-6. 

lion mines strikers, 535. 

Life in the iron ranges— Mesaba. Virginia, 
Ilibbing. Commodore Mine, etc., 8. 
Minnesota. University of. 610. 
Minnesota Municipalities. 122. 
Missouri School of Social Economy, 341. 
Mltchel, -T P.. 446, 032, 643. 

Second transportation strike averted, 531. 

Takes the stand, 268, 

Transportation strike, 403. 



Mitchell, John, 618. 

Portrait, 618. 
Mitchell, S. Weir, 183. 
Mob law, 616. 
Moderwell, H. K., 138. 
Monthly news summary, 35, 166, 268, 373, 485, 

572. 
Mooney, James, 182. 
Moore, Ernest C, 329. 
Moore, Lillian H. Letter on John Martin's 

articles on woman, 84. 
Moores, Bertha, 610. 
Moravian Church, 606. 
Morey, Captain, 380. 
Morris plan, 497. 
Morrissey, P. H., 217. 
Morrow, Dr. Prince A., 92. 
Morton, Guy, 335. 
Morton, Dr. Rosalie Slaughter, 435 and cover 

of July 22 issue. 
Mosquitoes. 

Killing, 610. 

Malarial in New Jersey, 435. 

Romance of a campaign against, 311. 
Mothers. 

Conservation of, 527. 

National congress of, 48, 211, 295. 
Mothers' pensions. See Widows' pensions. 
Motion pictures. 

Censorship, Cleveland, 298. 

Child labor in, regulating, 301. 

Cleveland Babies' Dispensary and Hospital, 
634. 

Experiments in movies for children, 504. 

India, 370. 
Moton, Robt. R., installation address, 215. 
Mott, John R., 573. 
Moulton, Dr. Richard Green, 32. 
Mountaineers. See Southern Mountain Work- 
ers. 
Muerman, J. C. On Oregon rural schools, 75. 
Muhlhauser, Hilda, 129. 
Mulvey, Harry R., 36. 
Municipal Bulletin, 123. 
Municipal League, National, 225. 
Municipal ownership league, New York city, 318. 
Municipal pier, Chicago, 520. 
Municipal theater, 257. 
Munitions of war. 

Explosion on Black Tom and Ellis Island, 486. 

In justice to the duPonts, 426. 

Wages for loading vessels, 450. 
Miinsterberg, Hugo, 331. 
Murder, games about (sketch), 287. 
Murray, Sir Gilbert. On "conscientious ob- 
jectors," 424. 
Murray, Lady Mary. 597. 
Music: community choruses, 414. 
Myers, Ocorge, 610. 
Myers. Jos. F., 144. 



N 

Narcotics. Sec Drugs. 

National Association of Corporation Schools, 

391, 421. 
National child Labor Committee, 629. 
National Conference of Charities and Correction. 

Groups, "side-shows,'' kindred organizations, 
219, 

New name proposed, 220. 

New name proposed (letter), 65. 

New president, officers and 1917 program, 
195. 

Prcx dings of 43d meeting (Indianapolis), 

•.•19. 220, 231-283. 

Return* 5 of proceedings, 268. 
National Defense Act, 596 
National Defense and Baby Week Committee 

I cut I. 215. 
National Education Association, 188. 

Editorial addressed to, 371. 

Military training position, 418. 
National (Jivard, strike duty, 56. 
\ ational Xndex, 12S. 
National League of Women Workers. Pittsfield 

(■invention, 398. 
National Municipal League. Srr Municipal 

League, National. 
National Social Unit Organization. Sec Social 

I'nit Organization. 
National Woman's Party. See Woman's Party. 
National Woman's Trade I'nlon League, 630. 
Nationalism. 

European, 480. 

Is it an anachronism? 247. 
Naval bill. 

Neergaard. ('has 1'. 207 
NefT. Dr. Irwin 1L, ■• 

Negroes. 

Lppeal for elimination of mob law. 616 

Farming, 20 

Social service instruction In St. T/Ouis. 88 

Up against it i letter), 545 
Neighborhood Playhouse (N !.)■ '-'■"•- 
Nell, Henry, 502. 
Neill. C. B. letter on John Martin's articles 

on woman. 82, 
Neutral Conference for Continuous Mediation, 

|s.s. 592 

Batch, E. G., on. 444. 

Ford proposals (letter), 317. 

Manifesto, central working committee, etc, 
270 
Neutral congress. Fee Ford : Stockholm. 
Neutral nations, peace and. 620. 
New England eight hour day for women, 269. 
New Jersey. 

Conference of Charities and Corrections, 



n 



d e x 



IX 



meeting, 197. 

Debt to Captain Allen, 413. 

Malarial mosquitoes, 435. 

Social welfare laws, 48. 
New Review, The, 441. 
New York (City). 

Catholic laymen on the charities controversy, 
446. 

Charities controversy outcome, 613. 

Child Labor Committee, 301. 

Children's Home Bureau, 384. 

Children's institutions and Mayor Mitchel, 
263. 

Commission on Building Districts and Re- 
strictions, 123, 488. 

Committee of One Hundred Citizens, 446. 

Districting principle in planning, 324. 

Epidemic curves, 495. 

Family homes for dependents, 384. 

Fifth Avenue, saving, 123. 

Fire department discipline, 122. 

Gary plan extension, 92. 

Getting tired of it (labor trouble cartoon), 
629. 

Organizing public health forces, 425. 

Pageant of Nations and of the Public School, 
345, 348. 

Play for children, 315. 

Poliomyelitis scourge, 401. 

Polish drama, 140. 

Proposed new bureau of inspection of insti- 
tutions for child-caring, 323. 

Public School 39, 621. 

Public School 63, 345. 

Quarantine against poliomyelitis, 445. 

School children to be safeguarded, 597. 

Shakespeare pageant, 343. 

Subway workers' strike, 71. 

Subway workers get more pay, 112. 

Taxation of buildings, 332. 

Taxation of buildings (letter and reply), 643. 

Tenement conditions, 62. 

Transportation strike, 493. 

Transportation strike (2d) averted, 531. 

Transportation strike of Sept. 7, 595. 

Transportation troubles and sympathetic 
strike prospect, 632. 

West Side track model, 441. 

West Side track solution, 225. 

Widows' pensions, 270. 

Widows' pensions, first annual report, 595. 

Zone plan adopted, 488. 
New York (State). 

Board of Charities, 323. 

Board of Charities investigation, 50, 64, 263. 

Bureau of Employment, 432. 

Legislation, 111. 

Militarist laws passed in 1916, 313. 

Military Training Commission, 406, 615. 

Military training in the schools, 615. 

Senate Committee on Civil Service, 54. 
New York Central Lines : telegraphers' and 

towermen's case, i98. 
New York Central tracks, 225. 
New York Charity Organization Society, food 

orders, 598. 
New York Retail Dry Goods Association, 434. 
New York Social Hygiene Society. See under 

Social hygiene. 
New York Sun and Evening Sun, 379. 
Newark, N. J. 

Abandoned social work, 174. 

Celebration compared with her charities, 173. 

Evening News, 174. 

Evening News survey of third ward, 123. 

Pageant, 346, 347, 349. 

Prize poster (cut), 174. 

Social service exhibit, 391. 
Newman, Bernaru J., 438. 
Newman, Sir George, 217. 
News. See Monthly news summary. 
Nice, Margaret Morse. Letter on John Mar- 
tin's articles on woman, 82. 
Nicholson, Timothy, portrait, 99. 
Nieuport, Red Cross workers, 559. 
North Carolina, tuberculosis, 298. 
/lorth Dakota, University of, pageant, 346, 347. 
Northampton, Mass., 257. 

Norton, Jean Cowdrey. Letter on John Mar- 
tin's articles on woman, 84. 
Norton, Wm. J. City planning in social work, 

581. 
Norway, loneliness in, 567-571. 
Norwich Pathological Laboratory, 128. 
Nudd, Howard W., 188. 

Nurses' Settlement. See Henry Street Settle- 
ment. 
Nursing. 

Ohio public health nursing, 616. 

Visiting, endowment for, 271. 
Nutter, E. J. M. Letter on The Survey, 398. 



Odencrantz, Louise C, 574. 
Odgen, Wm. J., 427. 
O'Hara, Edwin V., 576. 
Ohio. 

Labor law violations, 190. 

Old Age Pension League, 517. 

Public health nursing, 616. 

Recruiting scenes, 529. 

Social community planning, 413. 

Social service directory, 392. 

Social service training, 290. 
Ohio Hospital Association, fl93]. 
Ohio State University, 290, 616. 
Oklahoma, Five Civilized Tribes of, 273. 
Okubu, Toshitake, 405. 



Old age pensions, Ohio plan, 517. 
"Old Cedar" (with cuts), 284. 
Old men's toy shop, 71. 

Olmsted, Frederick Law. Letter on birth con- 
trol, 107. 
Open shop (letter from Walter Drew), 212. 
Open-air schools, 398. 
Oppenheim, James, 463. 
Oppression, struggle against (sculpture), cover 

of May 20 issue. 
Optimism, 268. 
Ore strippings, 8. 
Oregon. 

Child Welfare Commission's traveling exhibit, 
316. 

Revised code of rulings by Industrial Wel- 
fare Commission, 585. 

Rural schools, 75. 

State conference of Social Agencies, meeting, 
234. 
Oregon Industrial Welfare Commission, 610. 

See also Oregon. 
Oregon ten-hour case before the Supreme Court, 

221. 
Orenburg, 322, 631. 
Osborne, T. M., 129. 

Collapsing charges, 375, 376. 

On prison administration in the past, 1. 

Photographs in prison, 2, 3. 

Posing in the head-cage, cover of April 1 
issue, 2. 

Restored to wardenship of Sing Sing, 405. 
Oshkosh General Welfare Association, 187. 
Overstreet, Harry A., 330. 
Owen-Keating bill, 424. 
Owen-Keating hearing (letter), 191. 
Owens, John W. Mixing politics with charity, 

427. 
Ozafcl, Mr., 427. 

P 
Pacifists, 105. 

Middle West (letter). 191. 

View on new army law, 309. 
Page, Calvin Gates. Sacrifices Cotter), 091. 
Pageantry, 526. 

American, latest and earliest (cuts), opp. p. 
343. 
Pageants. 

Caliban masque, 343. 

Nations and the Public School, 345, 348. 

Newark, 346, 347, 349. 

North Dakota, University of, 346, 347. 

Pageant of Sunshine and Shadow, 399. 

St. Louis, 346. 

Shakespeare, 88. 
Palacios, Rudolfo, 144. 

Pamphlets, 299, 319, 399, 421, 463, 513, 644. 
Pan-American labor movement, 402. 
Pan-Americanism, 473. 

Preparedness and (letter from C. F. Dole), 
230. 
Parents, tainted, 245. 
Paresis, 261. 

Parham, Lucy S. Letter on The Survey, 397. 
Paris. See France. 
Park, Alice. Letter on John Martin's articles 

on woman, 82. 
Parkinson, Thos. O., 69. 
Parks: Chicago, immorality (edit.), 163. 
Parsons, Elsie Clews, 329. 

Reply to John Martin's articles on woman, 77. 
Party platforms, 336, 372. 
Pasadena Woman's Civic League, 601, 602. 
Pasteur Institute, 423. 
Patriotism, effect of war on, 267. 
Patten, Elizabeth. Letter on wages, 230. 
Patten, S. N., 170. 

Letter on a real song, 546. 
Pauper care in Indiana, 100. 
Peace. 

Letters on The Survey's attitude, 591. 

Meetings on Aug. 1, 1916, anniversary of 
war, 487. 

Neutral public opinion as a factor, 629. 

Preparedness for lasting, 474. 

Racial appeals (students), 487. 

Spiritual preparedness and. 516. 

Women in Europe working for, 42. 
Peace Day, 88. 
Peace plans, 166. 
Peck, Emelyn, 318. 
Peixotto, Jessica B., 039. 

Child-welfare work in California, 521. 

Some recent steps in California child- welfare 
work, 537. 
Peking Gazette, 427. 
Pelham, Laura Dainty. 254. 
Pellagra, food and. 223. 
Pennsylvania, feeblemindedness exhibit, 38. 
Pennsylvania School for Social Service, 438. 
Pennybacker, Mrs. Percy V., 282. 
Pensions. 

Swift & Co.. 610. 

See also Old age pensions ; Widows' pensions. 
Perkins, Geo. W., 329. 
Perrysburg, 218. 
Pests, war against. 23. 
Peyote worship, 181. 
Peyser, Nathan. The school as a community 

center, 621. 
Pfeiffer, C. Whit. From Bohunks to Finns, 8. 
Phelan, Raymond V. Publish the names (letter 

on vice reports), 396. 
Philadelphia. 

Carnival of the Nations, 405. 

Gimbel Brothers' fire risk. Ill, 318. 

Housing report cartoon, 226. 
Philanthropy, school in the South, 318. 
Philippines. 

Play in, 239. 



See also Manila. 
Phillips, Wilbur C, 93. 
Phipps Tuberculosis Dispensary, 631. 
Physical training in New York State schools, 

615. 
Physicians. 

Industrial, Association, 610. 

Industrial, organization, 408. 

Woman, bas-relief of Woman's Medical Col- 
lege, Phila., 435 and cover of July 22 issue. 

See also American Medical Association. 
Pickering, Ruth. 

Longshoremen and the war, 450. 

Sudden spread of the eight-hour day, 5. 
Piers, Chicago recreation, 520. 
Piffle, Theophilus, 176. 
Pilgrim, Dr. Chas. W., 628. 
Pincbot, Gifford, 93. 
Pittsburgh. 

Commercialized vice, 215. 

Smoke nuisance, 123. 
Placing out, Indiana, 100. 
Platform, party, 336. 
Piatt, Philip S., 206. 
Play. 

Children of loneliness (Norway), 567-571. 

Church's attitude to, 528. 

Contrast between New York City and Gary, 
Ind., 315. 

Experiments in the Philippines, etc., 237. 

Minnesota, 226. 

Rest-houses of Burmah, transforming, 367. 

Self-respect (letter), 546. 

Summer play in N. Y. in spite of epidemic, 
501. 

War and, 507. 
riavground and Recreation Association of 

America, 236. 
Playground workers, Cincinnati, 505. 
Playgrounds in India, 631. 
Poems. 

August night, 498. 

Baker, II. II., sonnet on, 47. 

Boys (war), 584. 

Deceiver, the, 121. 

Faith, 162. 

Good tidings, 111. 

In memoriam, 106. 

Land where hatred dies, 386. 

My bit of green, 136. 

Night court, 637. 

Out of my lovely leisure, 534. 

Prisoner, the, 242. 

Queensboro Bridge, 448. 

Question of all time, 588. 

Shop early, 613. 

Smoky roses, 428. 

Trysts, 180. 

War anthem of labor, 605. 

Weavers, 308. 

Wouldn't you think (Sing Sing), 101. 
Poetry. English, Masefield on, 40. 
Point Loma, 257. 

Poisons and drugs, pamphlet on, 611. 
Poland, American food admission to (cartoon), 

443. 
Police, professional training for, 503. 
"Polio" (game), 441. 
Poliomyelitis, 401, 402. 

Brooklyn social agencies, 519. 

Cartoon, cover of Sept. 30 issue. 

Chart of New York boroughs, 579. 

Cleanliness vs., 596. 

Hit and miss quarantine, 445. 

Organizing New Y'ork public health forces, 
425. 

Other disease curves, 495. 

Poverty and, 447. 

Probabilities, 515. 

Progress report, 578. 

Quarantine snarl, 490. 

Summer play in spite of, 501. 
Polish drama in New York, 140. 
Polish social workers (letter), 609. 
Politics and the child labor law, 629. 
Pond, Allen B. Ideals of contemporary life, 328. 
Poor relief, Michigan's commission to investi- 
gate, 315. 
Poorhouse, woman's struggle against, 364. 
Portenar, A. F. New York State Bureau of 

Employment, 432. 
Portland! Oreg., Junior Chamber of Commerce, 

02. 
Post. Chas. Johnson, 396. 426. 

Armv as a social service, 201, 396. 

Sketch, 201. 
Post office. 

Alaska dog team (cut), 135. 

Discontent (letter), 545. 

Mail delivery by automobiles (cut), 134. 

United States service, 133-136. 

Washington, D. C, inscription, facing p. 133. 
Postal savings, 318. 
Posters, prizes for peace, 65. 
Posture League. American, 125. 
Potter, Daniel C, 50, 64, 263, 613. 
Pottsville, Pa., 178. 
Poverty. 

Alcohol and, 451. 

Donnithornes, the, 431. 

End of, 268. 

Poliomyelitis and, 447. 

Topic for 1917 meeting of National Confer- 
ence, 195. 
Powell, George, 143, 144, 146. 
Poyntz, Juliet, 115. 
Praeger, Otto, 133. 
Preparedness, 165. 

Alcohol sandwich-man in Boston (cut), 279. 

Anti-preparedness campaign and exhibit, 37. 



Index 



Conference on "real" (social and economic), 

at Washington and New York, 420. 
For peace, 473. 

Future foreign policy of the United States 
discussed ;it Philadelphia, April 28 and 29, 
17(i. 

Letter from E. Brown. 126. 
Pan-Americanism and (letter from C. F. 
Dole), 230. 

Parade in New York, and opinions as to its 
significance, 197, 198. 

Red cross and, 173. 

"Save the little brick school house" (letter), 
127. 

Spiritual, 510. 

Spiritual, national and international, 441. 

Sugar and, 293. 

Uncle Sam as fighter and as friend, exhibit, 
197. 

Villa vs. Baker (edit.), 33. 

Women and (letter), 126. 

See also Union Against Militarism. 
President of the United States (cartoon), 614. 
Prison reform. 

Dr. Cooley of Cleveland and, 286. 

Indiana, 97. 
Prisoners. 

Cells and souls, 71. 

Families of, 390. 

Mail privileges, 519. 

Mental clinics for, 444. 

Venereal disease and parole (letter), 229. 
Prisoners of war. 

Pen picture in letter to D. S. Jordan, 487. 

Russia, 322. 
Prisons. 

Columbus, Ohio, State Penitentiary, 36. 

Headpieces, cover and frontispiece of April 
1 issue, 2. 

Sixteen-hour night, with diagram (edit.), 32. 
"Pro Patria" (cartoon), 379. 
Profit-sharing. Sears, Roebuck & Co., 426. 
Progressive Party, 304. 

Platform, 336. 
Prohibition. 

After the war (letter), 609. 

Anti-saloon cities (letter), 643. 

Birmingham, Ala., 63. 

Birmingham (letters), 295, 296. 

Duluth, 579, 643. 

Fiance and England, 609. 

Spokane and Washington, 216 
Proprietary medicines, 398. 
Prosperity, accidents increased by, 631. 
Prostitution. 

Cleveland, 113. 

Illinois court ruling, 463. 

Japan, 405. 427. 

Japan (letter from F. L Hoffman), 592. 

Law enforcement, 129. 

St. Louis treatment, 497. 
Protection: war and free trade (letter), 317. 
Protocol, 2S3, 494. 

Chicago, 113. 
Providence, R. I. : Strand Theater movies for 

children, 504. 
Prueha, John, 398. 
Psychiatry, 444. 
Psycho-analysis, 197, 292, 444. 
Psychopathic laboratory, Chicago, 494. 
Public Comfort (league), 88. 
Public health. 

Dispensaries. 206. 

Health centers, 93. 

Indiana State Hoard, bulletin, 195. 

Louisiana, 377. 

New profession, degrees, etc., 321. 

New York epidemic curves. 495. 

New York forces, organizing, 425. 

Party platforms on, 372. 
Public healtn nursing. 

Ohio, 616. 

Scholarships for the South, [193] 
Public Health Service. 

Harrison law workings, 60. 

Pellagra, 223. 

Poliomyelitis, 490. 
Public opinion as a factor in peace, 629. 
Public schools. See Schools. 

Public Servant, 122. 
Public service, Dallas, Texas, 114. 
Public utility expert. 295. 
Public welfare departments, 545. 
Pure food campaigns, 519. 



Quack medical notices for men's diseases, 207, 

630. 
Quakers. 

England, ambulance service, 112. 

Indiana activity. 99. 
Quarantine. 

Baltimore, 398. 

Transfer of New York station to federal gov- 
ernment, 111. 
Quay, along the (colored cull, cover of issue of 

July 1. 



R 

Race prejudice: appeal for elimination of mob 

law, 616. 
Racine, Wis,, High School auditorium, 258. 
Railroads. 

Condi I ions of service, 456. 

Conference on hours, etc., 305. 

Controversy still unsettled, 531. 



Controversy with trainmen (summary), 572. 

Fitch, John A., on strike settlement, 599. 

National discussion on demands of the men. 
217. 

Strike averted by eight-hour bill, 577. 

Strike cartoon, 577. 

Telegraphers' and towermen's case, 498. 

White House conference with chiefs, 515. 
Kainsford, Rev. W. S. Letter on The Sukvey, 

397. 
Raleigh, Jessie McCutcheon, cover of Sept. 16 

issue. 

Rand School of Social Science, 335. 

Randall, Kate L. Letter on The Survey's 

feminism, 229. 
Randall s Island, 130, 298. 
Rauh. See Eastman. 
Recreation. 

Chicago pier, 520. 

Sec also Play. 
Recruiting in Ohio, 529. 
Red Cross. 

Barton, Clara, life of, 608. 

Belgium work (E. P. Bicknell), 558-564. 

Campaign for a million members, 173. 

Executive management, 610. 

Hospital supplies for Germany, 496. 

Membership increase, 611. 

Mobile base hospitals, 529. 

Motor cycle for supplies (cut), 468. 

Plans for the militia, 374. 

Prisoners of war, 322. 

Seal funds, 341. 

Shipments to Central Powers, 235. 

Turkey's policy, 88. 

War relief work, 472. 
Redfield, Secy., Eastland investigation, 488. 
Reely, May K. Letter on war, 397. 
Reicher, Emanuel (with portrait), 140, 141. 

Letter on J. Martin's articles, 230. 
Reinhardt, Dr. G. F., 619. 
Religious conference announced at Columbia 

University Summer Session, 235. 
Remedial Loan Associations, 497. 
Repplier, Agnes, 609. 
Republican Party platform, 336. 
Rest-houses in Burmah, 367. 
Restaurants, cleanliness in, 125, 
Revolution, the (verse), 335. 
Reynolds, James, 610. 

Rheumatism an industrial accident. 334. 
Rhode Island women's night work, 47. 
Rice, James G., 296, 

Prohibition in Birmingham (letter), 295. 
Rice, Smart A. Letter on B. Clark s article, 

:,o9. 
Richmond, Mary E., 220. 
Richmond, Winifred. Letter on John Martin's 

articles on woman, SI. 
Riley. John, 45(1. 

Riley, Thos. J. Poverty and poll yelltis, 147. 

Ripley, 10. P., quoted, 599. 

Ripley, Mrs. Win. /,., 270. 
Rising, Henry, 210. 

Robinson, i nard G., 444. 

Rochester community choruses. 414. 

Rockefeller Foundation, 426. 

Rogers, Dr. Jos. G.. 117. 

Kollier, motto by, 218. 

Roman Catholics. See Catholicism ; New York 

(city). 
Rome State Custodial Asylum. 438. 
Roosevelt. Theodore, 3(14, 

Rosenow, Dr. E. C, 436. 

Rosiclare, 111., 630. 

Roty. Louis (I., 88. 

Rourke, Ellen M., 57. 

Rowe, Leo S., 177, 416. 

Royal Insurance Company, Ltd., 298. 

Rubinow, I. M., 115, 205. 

Health insurance: the spread of the move- 
ment, 4(i7 409. 
Runyon, Laura L. Preparedness and women 

i letter), 126. 
Rural credits. 

Class bill, 235. 

See also Federal farm loan bill. 
Rural life. 

College effort for rural communities, 4.>.>. 

Co-operation for belter business schools and 
churches, 51. 
Rural schools. Bee Under Schools. 
Rushton, Wyati. 616. 
Russia, 105. 

Prisoners of war. 322. 

Russian Prohibition, 398. 

Russian signature of G. R. Taylor, 631. 
Ryan, John A., 107, 576. * 



S 
Sachs, Theodore B., 31. 497. 

civic martyrdom (editorial i. 105, 

Suicide, 47. 
Sac lis (Theodore B.) Fund. 213. 
Sacrifices ( letter), 591. 

Saeter girl, 567 571 . 

Safetj First exhibit, 190. 

Sagamore Sociological Conference, 841, 121. 

Sanler, Helen, coyer of May 20 issue. 

si. Joseph, Mo, federation of social agencies, 

1ST. 
St. Louis. 

Negro Instruction in social service, ^ 

i lutdoor drama, 1 1 1. 

Pageant, 346. 

Prostitution, treatment, 497. 

Survey of schools, 318. 

Survey of social agencies, 399. 



Unemployment program, 235. 

War-relief bazar (letter of correction), 65. 
Saleswomen, gymnastics for, 93. 
Salmon fisheries, 351. 
Saloon. ,s'ce Prohibition; Alcohol. 
Salvarsan, substitute drug, 49. 
Sanders, J. J., 519. 
San Francisco women's league, 603. 
San Jose. Calif., Woman's Civic League, 603, 

6114. 
Saranac Lake. See Tuberculosis ; Trudeau. 
Saturday holidays, 303. 
Savings banks, school, 398. 
Schamberg, Dr. Jay, 49. 
Schapiro, Louis, 224. 
Schiff, Jacob H., 283. 

Schlesinger, Benjamin, 196, 406, 443, 493. 
Schneider, Herman. On methods of vocational 

guidance, 330. 
Schoff, Hannah Kent (Mrs. Frederic), 48, 49, 

212. 
.v, ikool anil Society, 303. 
School buildings as forums, 61. 
School community centers, 277. 
School Peace League. See American School 

I'eace League. 
School savings banks, 398. 
School superintendents, 188. 
Schools. 

Abuse by forums and irresponsible use, 170. 

Cleveland survey, results, 388. 

Country, co-operation for, 51. 

Individual instruction (letter and reply), 229. 

Military training in, 313. 

Military training in the New York State, 615. 

New York city children, 597. 

Rural in Oregon, 75. 

Rural teachers' in Washington, 505. 

St. Louis, 318. 

School as a community center, 621. 

Sex education, 564. 

Teaching thrift in, 437. 

Workers and (reviews of books), 543. 
Schrader. Geo. II. F.. 31S. 
Scientific management. 266. 512. 

Letter on the lloxie article, 65. 

See also Efficiency. 
Seager, Henry R., 618. 

Portrait, 017. 
Sears. Amelia. 437. 
Sears, Annie L. Our real supineness (letter), 

317. 
Soars, Roebuck & Co.'S profit sharing plan, 426. 

Segregation in Dallas. Texas, 114. 

Selnrall, Alice I,. Note on Miss Baylor, 0C. 

Self respect < letter), 546. 

Seri, Elmer Willis. Letter on peace. 591. 

Serologlst, 318. 

Settlements. 

Lafferty's speech at Hudson Guild anniver- 
sary , 203. 

National Federation. 130. 

National Fed. ■ration. 6th annual convention, 
proceedings, 276. 

What remains for, 274. 

Nil also Henry Street Settlement. 

Sex education, 92, 318. 

Public school, 504. 
Sexual immorality, a study, 310. 
Seybert Institution. 316. 
Seymour, Flora Warren. 

Fear of "T If (letter), 515. 

Letter on John Martin's articles on woman, 
82. 
Sej ntour. Gertrude. 

Peyote worship, 181. 

Romance of a mosquito campaign, 311. 

Shakespeare i pageants and dramatic perform- 
ances for tercentennial, 88. 

Shakespeare pageant, 343-350. 

Sharks, 1ST. 

Sharpe, Cecil, :'.t 1. 

Sliicis, Albert. 463. 

Shinn, Anne O'Hagan. Reply to John Martin's 

articles cm woman, 79. 
shouts. Theodore P. 488. 531. 624. 

Shop early I cartoon i, 515. 

Shorey, Panl, 329. 330. 
Shreve, Mrs. D. M.. 606. 

Portrait, '''"5. 
Shuey, Paul F., 301. 
Siberia prison camps. 322, "'-':'.. 
Sickness Insurance. See Health insurance. 
Slier, ('has. A . ■■•-- 
Sitnkhovitch. Mrs. V. G., 270, 277. 
Slmonds, Frank II., quoted, 260. 
Slngen garden village, 28. 
Single lax. 332 
Sin- Sing. 876. 

Cell block Interior, frontispiece of April 1 
issue. 

Kirchwev's work for health and trades, i s;i 

Legislation, 313. 

Mental clinic, 144. 

(lid round and new. 1. 
Osborne's return, 405. 
Poem about, mi. 

Sixteen hour olgbl (edit), 82. 

Sketch. 71. 

Sitting pat (cartoon), 401. 
Sixteen-hour nlghl (edit). 32. 

Skinner. Alanson. 181, 1*4 
Sleszj nski. Thaddeus, 609. 
Sllngerland, Wm. II . 521. 639. 

Small debtors' courts. 129. 

Smith. 1'ian.cs A., death. 318 

Smith Theodore Clarke, Letter on B. Clark's 

article-. 509, 
Smoke in Pittsburgh. 123. 
Social agencies. 



Index 



XI 



Brooklyn, 519. 
Waste in cities, 581. 
Social centers in France, 37. 
Social community planning for Ohio, 413. 
Social economy, Missouri School, 341. 
Social hygiene. 

Conev Island exhibit, 630. 
New York Social Hygiene Society, new pro- 
gram, 92. 
New York Society's exhibit, 630. 
Public school, 564. 
Social interpretations in religious literature 

(books reviewed), 589. 
Social justice, Progressive party's work for, 304. 
Social legislation. See Legislation. 
Social problem, alcoholism and the, 451. 
Social progress in Indiana in 10G years, 97, 117. 
Social research in Western Canada, 525. 
Social service. 

Army as, 396, 426. 
Broadening municipal, 632. 
Chicago, 437. 
Field of unity, 45.". 
Ohio, directory, 392. 
Ohio training, 290. 
Pennsylvania scffool for, 438. 
Strong, Josiah, obituary, 175. 
Social Unit Organization, National, 93. 
Social work. 

City planning in, 581. 
Critic of (A. Kepplier), 506. 
District idea, 93. 
Social worker extraordinary (picture of post- 
man), facing p. 133. 
Social workers. 
Epigrams for, 55. 

I, ,ii. is on Arthur Gleason's views, 296, 297. 
War and (views of Arthur Gleason), 185. 
War attitude (reply to Mr. Gleason by Alice 
Hamilton), 307. 
Socialists and Milwaukee's mayor, 69. 
"Socialized Germany" (letter), 126. 
Sociological conference, Sagamore. 341, 421. 
Sociological conference, Star Island, 598. 
Soldiers. 

Employment for discharged, 327. 
Transporting wounded (illustration of methods 

of the warring nations), 464, 473. 
See also War in Europe. 
South America's health problems, 223. 
Southern Mountain w.orkers, fourth annual con- 
ference, 92. 
Southern Sociological Congress, 593. 

Fifth annual session, 196. 
Spain, bull fighting in, 237. 

Spalding, Elizabeth. Letter on Mexican stu- 
dents, 591. 
Sparks, 55. 

Spaulding, Dr. Edith, 444. 
Spencer, Anna Garlin. Forty years of Ethical 

Culture, 199. 
Spirit of revolt (cut of sculpture), cover of 

May 20 issue. 
Spitting in Cincinnati, 321. 
Spokane, prohibition in, 216. 
Spring-Brennan bill, 111. 
Star Island Sociological Conference, 598. 
Starrett, Ruth M. Letter on John Martin's 

articles on woman, 84. 
Statesmanship or battleship, 387. 
Statistics. 

Manufactured. 592. 

Methods recommended for Charity Associa- 
tions, 235. 
Standardization, 575. 
Unemployment, 609. 
Steel works (cuts), 359, 361, 362. 
Stella, Joseph, illustrations from his drawings 

of immigrants, 147-156. 
Stelzle, Chas., 441. 

Stern, Erich C. Ford proposals (letter and re- 
ply), 317. 
Stern, Dr. W. G., 516. 
Stevens, Thos. Wood, 347. 
Stewart, Wm. R., 324. 
Stivers bill, 615. 

Stockholm. Ford neutral congress, 70, 113, 279. 
See also Neutral Conference for Continuous 
Mediation. 
Stone, Dr. N. S. Sweatshops, 499. 
Storey. Thos. ^.., 406. 
Straight, Willard, 93. 
Strange, Joanna Gleed. 

Letter in reply to H. O. Tilton, 512. 
Today? t!one act sketch), 287. 
Straus, Oscar S„ 112. 

Transportation strike, 493, 632. 
Strawson, Arthur J., 128. 
Strayer, Dr. Paul Moore, 441. 
Street, Elwood. Making school facts town 

topics, 388. 
Street Land (book), 209, 591. 
Stretchers for wounded (illusts.), 464, 466, 469. 
Strike, legal definition, 126. 
Strike-breakers. 

Arizona's embargo, 143. 
When strike-breakers strike, 535. 
Strikes. 

Belgium, 558-564. 

Clifton, Arizona, 143. 

Colorado a year after the coal strike, 190. 

Garment workers, 196, 283. 

Garment workers, agreement expected, 406. 

Garment workers fighting on, 321. 

Garment workers, settlement, 443. 

Garment workers return to work, 493. 

Getting tired of it (cartoon), 629. 

Lessons for miners, 178. 

New York city transportation, 493. 

New York city transportation (of Sept. 7), 



595. 

Point of order in Congress resting on the 
lack of legal definition, 56. 

Railroads, street railways in New York (sum- 
mary), 572. 

Shame of it (cartoon on garment industry), 
485. 

Stuff the garment strike is made of, 383. 

Subway workers, 71. 

Sympathetic strikes, 632. 

Village government by gunmen. 630. 

When strike-breakers strike, 535 

See also Railroads. 
Strong, Chas. H., 50, 64, 263. 
Strong, Josiah, social service work (with por- 
trait), 175. 
Structural iron industry (letter), 212. 
Subscriptions (letter), 546. 
Subway. Sec under New York (City). 
Suffrage. See Woman Suffrage. 
Sugar and preparedness, 293. 
Sugar beets. See "Beeters" ; Colorado. 
Summer in the tenements (poem). 326. 
Summer play in spite of an epidemic, 501. 
Superstition up to date (edit.), 31. 
Supreme Court. 

Appointment of J. II. Clarke, 424. 

Brandeis opposition, 191. 

Oregon len-hour ease, 221. 
Survey, The. 

Democracy of spirit of (letter), 297. 

Feminism and John Martin articles (letters), 
229, 230. 

Letters complimenting, 108. 

Letters pro and con, 128, 398. 

Once-a-month edition (edit.), 31. 

Reprinting (letter). 591. 

Working scheme, position, function, etc., as a 
social journal (editorial), 86. 
Survey of New York city in 1675, 123. 
Sweatshop, 499. 
Swift and Company, 610. 
Sydenstricker, Edgar, 228. 
Sylvester, Irene, 618. 

Portrait, 618. 
Synge, John, 139. 
Syphilis. 

Cleveland, 113. 

New drug, 49. 

New York clinics, 206. 

See also Venereal diseases. 



Taft. Wm. II., 176, 102. 
Tainted parents, 245. 
Tallest man, world's (cut), 156. 
Tavenner, Congressman, 266. 
Taxation of buildings, New York city, 332, 643. 
Taylor, Arthur O., 440. 
Taylor, Frederick W., 66, 266. 
Taylor, Graham. 

Chicago politics and women, 34. 

Civil- martyrdom of Dr. Sachs, 105. 

Professional training for the police, 503. 

Shattered ideals — the war's greatest casualty, 
267. 
Taylor, Graham Romevn. 

At your door-step (U. S. Post Office service), 
133 136. 

From plowed land to pavements, 20-26. 

Kith and kin of charity (proceeding of Na- 
tional Conference), 219. 

Signature in Russian, 031. 
Taylor, Katharine. Chicago Municipal Pier in 

action. 520. 
Taylor iff. J.) Contracting Co., 336. 
Teachers. 

Board for rural in Washington, 505. 

Chicago's Board of Education, 384. 

Unions for, 43. 
Telegraphers, railroad, 498. 
Telephone girls, 57. 
Tenements. 

New York city conditions, 62. 

Summer in (poem), 326. 
Tennessee : county care of insane, 578. 
Texas border, 593. 

Reading matter for soldiers on. 52!). 
Texas School of Civics and Philanthropy, 610. 
Thacher, Mrs. Wm. F. .Sec Higgins, Mrs. Mil- 
ton P. 
Theater. See Drama. 
Them asses, 396. 
Thomas. Chas. A. "Save the little brick school 

house" (letter), 127. 
Thompson, A. H. Letter on B. Clark's article, 

509. 
Thompson, Alec Nichol, 207. 
Thompson, F. V., 543. 
Thompson, W. Lair, 221. 
Thompson-Starrett Co., 212. 
Thrift, teaching, 437. 
Tilton, Elizabeth. 

Letter on inadeo.uacy of press reports on 
inebriety meetings at National Conference, 
294. 

Middle West pacifists (letter). 191. 

Prohibition after the war (letter), 609. 
Tilton, H. O. Letter on sketch "Today?" 512. 
Tily, Herbert J.. 391. 
Tincanland, Alice's adventures in, 167. 
Today? (sketch), 287. 

Letters on. 512. 
Toledo City Journal, 122. 
Totem poles and totems (cut), opp. p. 343. 
Town planning. See City planning. 
Toy Theatre. 257. 



Toys, old men making, 71. 
Trachoma. 

Camping on the trail of, 378. 

China, 318. 

Indianapolis, 398. 
Trade unions. 

Actors and teachers, 43. 

Health insurance and, 205. 

Women and (Jane Addams), 364. 
Trinity Church Corporation. 463. 
Trout, W. W. Letter on B. Clark's article and 

The Survey, 509. 
Trube, Jessie Maud. Letter on B. Clark's arti- 
cle, 509. 

School of tuberculosis, 393. 
Trudeau Medical Society, 429. 
Tuberculosis. 

Brown's (L.) book, 610. 

Chicago Sanatorium, 47. 

Cincinnati, 223. 

Cincinnati children, 124. 

consumptive, the, and his neighbors (Bald- 
win), 429. 

Control by federal government, 233. 

Fear of "T B" (letter), 545. 

Federal subsidies, 318. 

Federal subsidies, argument for, 458. 

Interstate traffic in, 458. 

Iowa Association, 610 ; cover of Sept. 16 
issue. 

.Tows, 45. 

Johns Hopkins research, 631. 

.Massachusetts Health in Industry Committee, 
434. 

National Association for the Study and Pre- 
vention of, 12th annual meeting, 233. 

Non-pulmonarv in Massachusetts, 213, 529. 

North Carolina. 298. 

Patient tapping wireless, 301. 

Pittsburgh League, 341. 

Spitting on sidewalks, 321. 

Trudeau School, 393. 
Tufts, Prof. James H., 330. 
'Turkey's war relief policy, 88. 
Tuskegee : Moton's installation address, 215. 
Typhoid a national disgrace, 223. 



U 

Uncle Sam exhibit, 197. 
Unemployment, 231. 

Clean-up work for, 455. 

Levying tribute on seekers after work, 457. 

New York State Bureau of Employment, 432. 

Old men's toy shop, 71. 

St. Louis program, 235. 

Statistics, 609. 
Union Against Militarism, 165, 166, 373, 380. 

Conscription joker, 596. 

Director Hallinan's view of new army law, 
309. 

Platform, etc., 95. 

Wilson's interview with, 198. 
Union of Democratic Control, 425. 
United Mine Workers, 228. 

Anthracite agreement, 178. 
United States. 

Influence in peace, 629. 

Moral effect of the European war, 409. 
United States Steel Corporation, 9, 11, 334, 535. 
University Commission on the Southern Race 

Question, 616. 
University settlement, 596. 
Up and down the liberty pole, 93. 
Upton, Gen. Emory, 309. 
Urban, Joseph, 350. 
Uruguay, Medical Congress, 213. 



Vacarelli, F. P. A., 450. 
Valentine, Robert G., 575. 

Co-operating in industrial research, 586. 
Vandervelde, Emil. Alcoholism and the social 

problem, 451. 
Van Schaick, John. Review of Epler's Life o\ 

Clara Burton, 608. 
Vaughn, Dr. Victor C, quoted on the disease 

known as crime, 53. 
Venereal diseases. 

British Royal Commission report, 224. 

Cleveland Citv Hospital, 91. 

Clinics in New York, brief advance report 
of survey, 206. 

Paroling prisoners, men and women (letter), 
229. 

Payment in full, 261. 

Social hygiene exhibit, 630. 
Vice. 

Baltimore (letter), 229. 

Japan debating segregation, 427. 

Osaka, Japan, crusade, 405. 

Our real supineness (letter), 317. 

Pittsburgh, 215. 

Reports on, 396. 

St. Paul on (letter), 229. 

Sec also Prostitution ; Sexual immorality. 
Vice reports (letter and reply), 127. 
Victor Talking Machine Co., 6. 7. 
Villa vs. Baker (edit.), 33. 
Village government bv gunmen, 630. 
Villard, Oswald G., 176, 177. 
Vindicator, The, 63. 
Virginia, Minn. See under Minnesota. 
Visiting Teachers, Conference of, 341. 
Vitamins. 223. 

Vocational education. See Industrial education. 
Vocational guidance, 391. 



Xll 



Index 



Dean Schneider's appraisal of methods, 330. 
Vollmer, August, 503. 
Voters' Legislative Association, 454. 
Vries, G. E. de, 361. 



W 

Wadsworth, Eliot, 610. 

Wage claims, 129. 

VVagenet, Elizabeth M. Amos, the prophet, in 

California, 335. 
Wages. 

Bone in the bonus (letter), 398. 
Letter from Elizabeth Patten, 230. 
New York subway excavators, 71. 
Uniform, and anti-trust law. 57. 
Youngstown, Ohio, 189. 
Wald, Lillian D.. 95, 272, 592, 593. 
Waldo, Fullerton L., 38. 
Walter, Henriette B.. 610. 
War. 

Atrocity of (letter), 397. 
Benefits of. 317. 

See also Cowards and fools fall in ! 
War-boom towns (Flint, Mich.), 548-557. 
War camp at Ellis Island (with illustration), 

147-156. 
War in Europe. 

America's relief (cartoon), cover of issue of 

Aug. 12. 
Crippled soldiers back from the front, 487. 
England, impression of a visit to, 161. 
English women, 597. 

Englishmen who are "conscientious objec- 
tors," 424. 
German cities planned for cripples, 27. 
Great Britain's educational economy, 303. 
Great Britain's plans for discharged soldiers, 

327. 
Moral effect on the United Sfates, 409. 
Reconstruction of cities and towns in France, 

195 
Relief' Sunday, [193]. 
Social workers in America and (Gleason), 

185. 
Social -workers (letters on Arthur Gleason s 

views), 296, 297. 
Social workers' attitude (reply to Mr. Glea 

son by Alice Hamilton), 307. 
War times challenging woman's traditions, 

475. 
Women workers, 457. 

See also Europe and the countries involved. 
Ward, Edward J., 170. 
Ward, George B., 63, 295. 

Prohibition in Birmingham (letter), 296. 
"Warehouse Act," 629. 
Warren, Prof. F. G., 51. 
Warren, Geo. L.. 128, 129. 
Wartime economy and hours of labor, 638. 
Washington (state) teachers of rural schools, 

505. 
Washington (D. C). 

At work, 20-26, 133-136. 
Post office, 133-136. 
Washington, Capt. Allen, 215. 
Washington Irving High School, 61. 
Washington Municipalities, 122. 
Washington Square Players, 257. 
Waste, saving, 437. 
Water supply, [19.! J. 
Waters, Roger, 336. 
Watson, Blanche. 

Reprinting the Survey (letter), 591. 
Reviewer criticized (letter), 609. 
Watson, Katharine C. Women's civic leagues 
of California, 601. 



Watson (D. T.) Home, 610. 
Weatherford, W. D., 545. 

On lynching in the South, 196. 
Weatherly, Arthur L., 516. 
Ford party (letter), 592. 
Welch, Wm. H., 322. 
West, James E., 211. 
Western Reserve University, 290, 419. 
Whalen, J. A. Post office discontent (letter), 

545. 
White, Alfred T. Biography of Seth Low. 633. 
White, Wm. A. Letter on The Survey and 

social panaceas. 396. 
Whitin, Frederick H., 636. 
Whitnev, Charlotte Anita, 603. 

Portrait, 602. 
Whitnev, Marion M. "Beeters" (letter), 593. 
Whitridge, F. W., 493, 623. 
Widower, The, 142. 
Widows' pensions. 
New York city, 270. 

New York city, first annual report, 595. 
Wilbert, Dr. M." I., 611. 
Wilbur, Cressv L., 88. 
Wildman, J. R., 290. 
Wile, E. J., 406, 493. 
Wilgus, Dr. Sidney D., 578. 
Willcox, Wm. R., 629. 
Williams, Chas. Whiting. Good cast work 

(letter), 126. 
Williams, Hobart W., 518. 
Williams, J. E., 113. 
Williamson, C. C. 

Reply to letter of B. C. Marsh on New 

Y'ork's tax report, 643. 
Shall New York city untax buildings? 332. 
Wilson, Margaret Woodrow. 61. 
Wilson, Warren H., 589, 590. 

Farm co-operation for better business schools 
and churches, 51. 
Wilson, President, 336. 

Address to League to Enforce Peace, 281. 

Eastland promise, 488. 

Interview with Union Against Militarism, 

198. 
Mexican utterances, 380. 

On eight-hour bill and other proposed meas- 
ures, 577. 
On neutral public opinion as a factor in 

peace, 629. 
Quotation from Labor Federation address, 

404. 
Railroad conference, 515. 
Railroad controversy, 531. 
Winans, W. H., 213. 
Wing, Frank E., 497. 
Winslow, Emma A., 598. 
Winslow, Living. War and free trade (letter). 

317. 
Winslow, John B., 320. 
Wireless, tapping bv tuberculous patient (cut), 

301. 
Wirt, Wm., 92, 541. 
Wisconsin : letter on law and order from Arms. 

Man & Co., 295. 
Wisconsin Dramatic Society. 256. 
Woman physician, 435 and cover of July 22 

issue. 
Woman suffrage. 

Call for new partv. 216. 

Colorado opportunity in the case of "beeters, 

372. 
Iowa. 318. 

Letters on The Survey, John Martin, etc., 
127, 128. 
Woman's Medical College, Philadelphia, 43o and 

cover of July 22 issue. 
Woman's Parly, National. 



Call for convention, 216. 

Suffrage plank, 319. 
Woman's Peace Party. 

New York militarist laws, 314. 

Prizes for peace posters, 65. 

Uncle Sam as fighter and as friend, exhibit 
197. 
Women. 

British, conference. 516. 

Chicago politics, 34. 

Civic leagues, 601. 

Division in U. S. Department of Labor. 370, 
377. 

Hours of work, 173. 

Iowa telephone and laundry girls, 57. 

New England, 269. 

Oregon, revised rulings of Industrial Welfare 
Commission, 585. 

Peace Committee, 42. 

Reaction to trade-union propaganda, 304. 

Rest, recreation and labor results by the New 
York Consumers' League (edit.),' 164. 

Rhode Island might work, 47. 

Symposium of rebuttal to J. Martin's articles, 
with letters and rejoinder, 77-85. 

War in Europe and English women, 597. 

War times challenging woman's traditions, 
475. 

War work in Scotland, 457. 

Work never done (canneries), 166, 167. 
Women's clubs : General Federation of Women's 

Clubs, convention, 282. 
Women's Educational and Industrial Union, 543. 
Wood, Arthur E., 36. 
Wood, Eleanor, 516. 
Wood, Francis Carter, 302. 
Woodlock, Thos. F. Letter on social workers 

and the war, 317. 
Woods, Robert A., 401. 

From doorstep to doorstep (letter), 592. 

License in place of licensing, 635. 
Woolston, Florence. Letter on John Martin's 

articles on woman, 84. 
Worcester, Mass., heart disease in, 124. 
Workers in metal (cuts), 358 362. 
Workmen's compensation, 407. 
Farmers, 642. 

Federal bill endorsed by President, 424. 
Horn, John L., quoted, 580. 
New federal law, 617. 
Workmen's Compensation. Laws, digest of, 12:i 
Workshop for the handicapped, 392. 
World, bill of rights for the (Wilson's address i. 

281. 
World Court Congress, second convention, 17,>. 
World federation, 95. 
World's Court League, 175. 
Wounded. See Soldiers. 
Wreckage (drawing bv Joseph Stella), 153 
Wright, Howell, 610. 
Wu Ting Fang, 217. 



Yaqui Indians, 371. 
Yellow fever, 223. 
Y. M. C. A. 

Hotel in Chicago, 303. 

Philadelphia carnival, 405. 
Youngstown, Ohio. 

Indictments against steel companies quashed, 
57. 

Wages, Chamber of Commerce and. 180. 



Zinc miners, 228. 



/ ^ 

THE NEW ONCE-A-MbNTH EDITION 




A JOURNAL OF SOCIAL EXPLORATION 



APRIL I, I916 



Photo copyright 
1916 by Surrey 
Associates, Inc. 




Thomas Mott Osborne 

posed in the head-cage 

he found in a New York 

prison See frontispiece 



Price 
25 cents 




MRS. FIELD AND DAUGHTER 
[This photograph was in Blackie's cell at Sing Sing until he diedl 



Man is greater than the law; he is greater than society. 

THE STORY OF CANADA BLACKIE 

By ANNE P. L. FIELD 

$1.00 net. 
Introduction by THOMAS MOTT OSBORNE 

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^H€ SOPv&W 



CONTENTS >r APRIL i, 1916 

VOL.. XXXVI, NO. I 

FRONTISPIECE - 1 

CONTRIBUTED ARTICLES 

One Day After Another - - winthrop d. lane 2 

The Sudden Spread of the Eight-Hour Day ruth Pickering 5 

From "Bohunks" to Finns c. whit pfeiffer 8 
"Fader-Mens" 

A Story of Americanization as We Americanize It - casper day 15 
Washington at Work — V. From Plowed Land to Pavements 

GRAHAM ROMEYN TAYLOR 20 

German War Monuments of Tomorrow BRUNO i.asker 27 
EDITORIALS 

The Survey: Once-a-Month Edition 31 

Superstition Up to Date - 31 

The Eight-Hour Day 32 

The Sixteen-Hour Night - - 32 

Villa vs. Baker 33 

A New Force in Chicago Politics - graham taylor 34 

THE COMMON WELFARE - 35 

The Month 35 

What Emerson Said About Advertising 36 

The "Idle House'" and the Mad House - 36 

Social Centers as French War Memorials 37 

Bringing Home the Cost of Feeblemindedness 38 

Congress a Laggard Over Social Legislation 38 

An American Renaissance in Twenty Years 40 

The Women of Europe at Work for Peace - 42 

Labor Unions for Actors and Teachers - 43 

Helping "TB" Patients to Help Themselves - - 45 

SURVEY ASSOCIATES Inc. PUBLISHERS 

ROBERT W. [>R FOREST President 

ARTHUR P. KELLOGG Secretary FRANK TUCKER Treasurer 

PUBLICATION OFFICE WESTERN OFFICE 

105 Fast 22d Street New York , 55y Michigan Ave., Chicago 

NATIONAL COUNCIL 

ROBERT W. de FOREST Chairman 



JANE ADDAMS, Chicago 

ERNEST P. BICKNELL, Washington 

ROBERT S. BREWSTER, New York 

RICHARD C. CABOT, Jiosto.i 

J. l.IONBERGER DAVIS, St. Louis 

EDWARD T. DEVINE, New York 

ARTHUR F. ESTA BROOK, Boston 

LIVINGSTON FARRAND, Boulder, Colo. 

SAMUEL S. FFLS, Philadelphia 

LEE K. FRANKF.L, New York 

JOHN M. GLENN, New York 

C. M. GOETHE, Sacramento, Calif. 



WILLIAM E. HARMON, New York 
WM. TEMPLETON JOHNSuN, San Diego 
JOSEPH LEE, Boston 
JULIAN W. MACK, Chicago 
V. EVERIT MACV, New York 
CHARLES D. NORTON, New York 
SIMON N. PAT I EN, Philadelphia 
JULIUS ROSENWALD, Chicago 
GRAHAM TAYLOR, Chicago 
FRANK TUCKER, New York 
LILLIAN D. WALD, New York 
ALFRED T. WHITE, Brooklyn 



Survey Associates, Inc., is an adventure in co-operative journalism; incorporated under the laws of the state of 
New \ ork, November, 1912, as a membership organization without shares or stockholders. Membership is open to 
readers who become contributors of $10 or more a year. It is this widespread, convinced backing and personal interesi 
which has made The Survey a living tiling. 

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Society of the City of New York. The first weekly issue of each month appears as an enlarged magazine number. 
From the start, the magazine and its related activities have been broadly conceived as an educational enterprise, to 
be employed and developed beyond the limits of advertising and commercial receipts, 

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only upon request. Copyright, 1916, by Survey Associates, Inc. Entered as Second Class Matter 
March 25, 1909, at the Post Office at New York, N. I'., under the Act of March 3, 1879. 



The GIST of IT 

WARDEN OSBORNE put the sing in 
Sing Sing. Yesterday in this, and in most, 
prisons, it was not the work or the pun- 
ishment that soured the men, but the hours 
of maddening idleness. Today, in work 
and play and discipline they can choose be- 
tween this and that, and make plans — do the 
kind of thing that builds character. And 
that is a good prescription for men under 
treatment for weak wills. Page 1. 

IN THE BACKWASH of war tne S-ftcur 
day has floated up to the surface— a great 
gain in leisure for 100,000 working men and 
women here in America. Page 5. 

WITH RICH ORES underfoot and virgin 
timber overhead, a land of big-muscled men 
at grips with bountiful nature, the Mesaba 
Range in the Northwest has nevertheless 
all the dreary troubles of a city slum. Page 
8. 

MADREJIEWSKI was Americanized all 
right — citizen papers hung on the wall 
alongside the saints, vote thriftily sold and 
the conviction that "poltix is beyond 
woniens." But when the little girl died 
from a fever, that came in the milk, that 
was not inspected by the health boss, who 
was appointed by the burgess, who was 
voted for by Madrejiewski — well there's 
a real story of the house that politics 
built. Page 15. 

MR. VILLA, of Mexico, hasn't got much 
of anything on Mr. Boll Weevil, also of 
Mexico. But it remains to be seen if the 
War Department can turn an invasion into 
a big conservation movement as the De- 
partment of Agriculture did. Its county 
agents not only double old crops and import 
new ones, but tell Mrs. Farmer where to 
place the kitchen sink and Daughter how 
to be on good terms with the neighbors — 
and the neighbors' sons. Page 20. 

WHEN FRITZ Y comes limping home 
again, the German Garden City Association 
proposes a special village for him and a 
trade suited to his left hand, or whatever 
remains over from his army life. Page 27. 

IN PLACE OF MEDALS for men and 
hero statues for towns, a new league is 
proposing community social centers for all 
France, with a program of civic education, 
to serve as memorials of the war— both 
honor for the dead and richer life for the 
living. Page 37. 

ANNOUNCING The Survey's once-a- 
month edition, contrived for those who lack 
time, inclination or means for the weekly 
issues, giving terse news of the field of 
social, civic industrial advance and the il- 
lustrated articles which mark the progress 
of social exploration. Page 31. 

VARIOUS AND SUNDRY news items of 
the month, including the fact that soothing 
syrup is a high-power stimulant for Baby 
Week committees; that Congress lacks a 
self-starter when it comes to child-labor 
and such-like bills ; that John Masefield 
doesn't grasp what a social poet is; and 
that the actors and teachers are proposing 
to join the American Federation of Labor. 
Pages 36-46. 



I'liuiu (in ItubiiM, Unsining 




[NTERIOR OF THE CELL-BLOCK AT SIXG SIXG 
These cells must go. 



/^LANCE from the cage enclosing I homas Mott Os- 
home's head, on the cover of this magazine, to the 
head pieces shozvn bcloiv. The former, donned by Mr. 
Osborne only zvhile the photographer caught him. was 
first seen by him on a prisoner when as a boy he visited 
Auburn penitentiary; it was actually used for punish 



ment eighteen short years ago. Its dead weight of eight 
pounds was often padlocked on a man's head for days 
at a time, not even being removed at night. 

Mr. Osborne found it again, among the prison relics, 
when two years ago he spent his voluntary week in 
Auburn prison, studying the psychology of prison life. 




'HUE head pieces below here the forerunners of the cage Mr. Osborne wears. 
The one to the left is a "gibbet cap," the one to the right is a "scold's brank," or 

'gossip's bridle.'' Both are of mediaeval origin, though there is record of their use 
gland as late as 1820. The "gossip's bridle" was fixed to the heads of garruiotts 
women and was equipped with a plate of iron extending inward, either 
sharpened or covered with spikes; this was put into the mouth of the 
victim so that it lacerated the tongue if moved — a method of the Middle 
Ages to secure such silence as the cell-block guards maintained at Sing 
Sing under the regime that preceded the Mutual Welfare League 

n^HE cage-like cells above are a product also of an 
ancient epoch and express the same conception of the 
purpose of punishment. The next step in prison reform 
is to get rid of them. . I bill which 'would wipe them 
tint nt Sing Sinn is before the New York Legislature. 



aid html /inns from Bygone Punishments, by William Indrew 




VOLUME XXXVI, No. l 




APRIL 1, 1916 



********* 



&> 







One Day After Another 

The Old Round of the Twenty-four Hours at Sing Sing and 

Auburn and the New 

By JVinthrop D. Lane 



THOMAS MOTT OSBORNE has frequently 
pointed out in his speeches that imbecility 
seems to have been the guiding principle of 
prison administration in this country in the 
past. He has used the word quite literal- 
ly, and has been able to adduce impre- 
sive evidence in support of his statement. 

Of course, Mr. Osborne has not meant 
to suggest that all prison administrators 
have been imbeciles. He knows, as every 
one knows, that institution heads like 
Brockway, Pillsbury, Homer, Wolfer, 
Gilmour, Scott and McClaughry, and 
leaders of reform like Barrows, Wines 
and Henderson, have been both intelli- 
gent and successful in attacking many 
stupidities of the old order. But un- 
fortunately obtuseness has persisted in 
spite of these individuals, and is still a 
widespread characteristic of prison rule. 

If imbecility means a lack of common- 
sense, a want of the power to see the 
most casual relations of cause and effect, 
what could be more imbecile than the 
punishment formerly meted out in Au- 
burn prison to prisoners who talked ? 
In both Sing Sing and Auburn communi- 
cation among inmates was prohibited — 
prohibited twenty-four hours a day and 
seven days a week. 

One would have thought that the rule 
itself was stupid enough, since it sup- 
pressed at a stroke a thousand normal 
impulses in men whom the state was try- 
ing to fit for normal life; yet in Auburn 
a further and almost bizarre stupidity 
was added in the penalty attached to a 
violation of the rule. If a prisoner was 




In this slit in an old, damp 
wall, measuring .? feet .? inches 
wide, 6 feet 7 inches high and 7 
feet long, a man formerly spent 
in of the 168 hours in each 
week. He now spends 73. 



caught talking, he was whisked off to the one place in 
prison where he could talk with perfect impunity and to 
his heart's content — the dark cells. Here no guard kept 
watch and a man's own endurance was the only limit on 
sociability ; by speaking out of the front 
of his cell he could engage in a lively con- 
versation with all of his fellow-sufferers 
Yet over half of the commitments to 
these cells in Auburn were for doing 
elsewhere what he could do here without 
hindrance. 

These same dark cells gave rise to an- 
other imbecility in Auburn, even more 
grotesque than the above. Once a 
prisoner committed suicide in one of 
them by strangling himself with his 
handkerchief. Thereafter the guards in 
their craftiness took away the handker- 
chiefs of all prisoners consigned to these 
haunts of punishment. But they forgot 
that the perfect instrument of strangling 
is an undershirt and this garment they 
left on the back of each dark cell victim. 
But of all its imbecilities, the old prison 
system knew nothing so michievously 
stupid as the routine of its daily life — 
a changeless round that sent men back 
into society with their initiative gone, 
their power of choice in the common acts 
of life paralyzed, their faculty of making 
decisions and of exercising judgment 
dead from disuse. Compared to this, 
Sisyphus led an adventurous life. He at 
least got sufficient exercise. But there 
was neither exercise nor variety in the 
prison routine that determined in ad- 
vance every movement of the day. the 
week, the year, and left no man the hope 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL i, i 9 i6 



that as long as he remained in prison he could ever rise 
from his meager meal at any but the accustomed signal, 
or look at the sun over any but the same familiar shoulder 
of the man who always marched ahead of him in the dull 
gray line. 

Under the old system, still practiced in many of our 
prisons, the day began with the raucous clanging of a 
bell at 6 :30. This meant that the prisoner must rise and 
put on the uniform that for the next ten hours would 
render him undistinguishable from 1,500 other human 
beings. After dressing, he made his bed and swept the 
floor of his cell ; not much inventiveness was required in 
corralling the dirt on a dead stone surface of twenty- 
three square feet. 

Then the prisoner stepped to his cell door, ready for 
the morning count. For this he was required to stand in 
one of two ways — either he must grasp a bar of the gate 
with one hand or show the fingers of the hand thrust 
out between the bars. The purpose of this rule was to 
prevent the erection of a dummy inside the cell as an aid 
to escape. The rap of a stick at the end of the gallery 
announced that an officer was coming to take the count. 
The officer unlocked each door as he passed, and at the 
end of the tier drew the master lever that permitted the 
doors to be opened. Another rap told each prisoner to 
step into the corridor, bucket in hand, and take his place 
in line. Places were assigned on the basis of height — 
the tallest at the head — so that even here regularity was 
carried to its utmost extreme. 

A third rap told the men to begin to march, and closely 
attended by guards they walked in lock-step or military 
formation to the bucket-house. There, without breaking 
line, they emptied the excreta of the night, held their 




buckets for a moment under a running faucet, and placed 
them on a rack for the day. Then they proceeded to the 
mess hall for breakfast. Filing into narrow aisles be- 
tween the long board tables, each man stood at his place 
until a rap of the ever-sounding stick told him to pull out 
his stool. A second rap told him he might sit down and 
a third that he might begin to eat. Seventy-five guards 
stood by during the twenty minutes allowed for breakfast. 
When time was up, a rap told the men to rise, push in 
I heir stools and face to the left; and two short raps, to 
inarch out. 

As the men left the hall each clasped his cap to his 
left shoulder with his right hand, and held his knife, fork 
and spoon in plain sight in the other. Under the close 
scrutiny of guards, he dropped his knife into one compart- 






I >? 




Photo iiii Hi nis; copyright by Survey Associates, Inc. 

NOTHING TO SMILE ABOUT 

Mr. Osborne in head-cage and the stripes he wore at Sing 
Sing, emblems of the dark age of prison discipline. 



Photo by BenU 
STILL ALL IS GLOOM 

/ he head-cage disappeared some ye hut the 

stripes were retained. 

nient of a large box, his fork into another and his spoon 
into a third. Thus was he prevented from carrying away 
any article that he might have put to an illicit use later on. 

If weather permitted, ten minutes was spent in march- 
ing around the yard after breakfast. This was called 
recreation, though the men could neither break line, talk 
nor smoke. From this exercise they marched to the 
shops. So far they had indulged in no act of their own. 
no choice of movement. They had conformed to an iron 
routine that gave them small joy in beginning the day's 
work. 

In the shops there was no relief to this monotony. I 
man was given his stint for the day -so many mat; 
make, so many soles to put on shoes, so many brush-heads 
to complete. Work was not assigned on the basis of the 
worker's aptitude or liking for it ; the men living in one 
cell gallery were put in one shop; those in another gal 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL i, iy,o 



lery, in another, and so on. A slight dexterity might have 
been required here and there, but the tasks were for the 
most part unskilled ; they offered no variety, no new prob- 
lems to solve. The same processes were repeated day 
after day — the same amount turned out. The fixed wage 
of a cent and a half a day comprised the prisoner's total 
earning power and gave no incentive to fast work or to 
the invention of new methods. 

A man could not move from his place of work. If he 
needed to go to the toilet, he secured permission from one 
of the guards by raising his hand. He could ask questions 
of the guard concerning his work, but he could not talk 
to his neighbor. From the moment he entered the shop 
until the whistle blew at 11:50, he was engaged in an 
empty, fruitless task, in a slavery of the body that soon 








■n 



Photo by Beals 

NOW THINGS ARE GETTING BRIGHTEN 

The stripes have gone, and Mr. Osborne wears the badge 
of the Mutual Welfare League. 

developed into a slavery of the very processes of his mind. 

When the whistle blew for dinner, the men washed at 
a trough that served eight at a time. They then fell into 
line by size and marched to the mess hall. The same repe- 
tition of raps permitted them to begin to eat, the same 
display of caps on shoulders, knives, forks and spoons in 
air, accompanied their departure. No recreation was 
allowed in the middle of the day ; the men marched directly 
back to their places of work. Here they remained until 
3 :30. In one or two shops those who finished early could 
sit at their places, or pace back and forth within a space 
of four feet, two feet on each side of their machines or 
benches. Men who had been in prison five years and 
whose records were good, could read expurgated copies 
of newspapers, but if they were caught passing these to a 
neighbor they were punished. 

To most people the end of the day's work brings a mod- 
erate sense of satisfaction. To the men in prison it 




1 




Flwtu bu Beats 
A REAL SMILE AT LAM 

This is the look- that men wear now when, in citizens' clothes, 
they issue from Sing Sing and Auburn. 

brought only greater wretchedness. It meant a return to 
the horrors of the cells. Xo afternoon recreation was 
allowed; after washing their faces and hands, the men 
marched to the bucket ground, took their buckets from the 
racks and without breaking line continued to the cell- 
house. At the entrance to the cells stood tables contain- 
ing bread piled in thick slices. As the line passed these 
tables each man helped himself to his evening meal — 
three or four sliecs of bread, according to the state of his 
appetite. Whether he took one more or one less was one 
of his few opportunities in the day to make a choice. 

As each man entered the cell block he was expected 
to salute the empty air as a recognition to "the keys." 

Reaching his cell, he found his cup filled with a weak 
solution known as prison tea. unless he had previously 
requested water. (The privilege of having tea or water was 
another notable choice enjoyed under the old system.) He 
could not turn to his supper at once, however. After 
entering the cell and closing the door, he had to stand for 
the evening count. When a gong announced that this 
had been taken and found correct, he could eat his bread 
and drink his tea or water. The tea was usually cold by 
the time he was ready for it. After supper, he could enjoy 
his first smoke of the day. Only pipes were allowed, though 
many a man ruined his health with cigarettes made from 
newspapers. 

By 4 :30 the men were usually locked in their cells and 
counted. From this time until seven o'clock next morn- 
ing — a stretch of fourteen hours and a half — they re- 
mained there. They could go to bed any time they wanted, 
but lights had to remain on until 9 o'clock. Then all were 
compelled to let down their cots and retire. 

Such was the man-killing routine of a Sing Sing inmate 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL i, iqi6 



six days in every seven. The week-end was a still more 
barren stretch. From 4 :30 Saturday afternoon to 7 o'clock 
Monday morning — thirty-eight hours and a half — the men 
did no work, remaining continuously in their cells except 
for two hours Sunday morning spent at breakfast and in 
the chapel. After chapel they took into their cells the 
food that was to last them until Monday morning. 

A Day Under the New Order 

This empty life could be broken into once a month by 
the writing of a letter ; once every two months, by a visitor 
from the world outside. The only other way of varying 
the monotony was by some infraction of the rules that 
brought a punishment, and many men were driven to 
such infractions by sheer desperation. The regime was, 
of course, the worst possible preparation for a return to 
society. To most of us the thought of a day of such ex- 
istence is unbearable; a month is more than the mind can 
contemplate. Imagine, if you can, what five years of it 
would mean, five years in which every normal relationship, 
every rational exercise of one's powers, every freedom of 
motion and of thought is utterly foregone. To many a 
man in prison who suffered it — and men are suffering it 
today in many states of the union — it has meant the degen- 
eration of all useful faculties, the death of every impulse 
that enables men to adjust themselves to other men. 

What relief has been brought by the new order of 
things? Some measure of regularity is. of course, neces- 
sary where 1,500 men live under one roof and where the 
first object of administration is to see that they remain 
there. But life at Sing Sing today is no longer a juiceless 
monotony. It abounds with opportunities for men to act 
on their own impulses, to exercise initiative, to make their 
own decisions, to choose their own ways of spending time, 
and to keep alive and fresh the invaluable power to adjust 
themselves to new conditions, to control their own lives 
with the freedom of their own wills. 

At the very outset of the day the change begins. Talk- 
ing is allowed from the time the men leave their cells in 
the morning until they return to them at night ; they may 
talk unreservedly and upon any topic. The effect of this 
has been revolutionary. Whereas men went about before 
with sullen faces and hearts of hate, today they are cheer- 
ful, alert, spontaneous. Dogged countenances have given 
way to clear eyes and frank expressions ; moodiness has 
been invaded by companionship. Prisoners accost each 
other in the morning and throughout the day with affec- 
tion and banter, and the leavening power of friendship has 
turned many a grim recluse into a sympathetic and jovial 
comrade. Like other people, the men behind the bars have 
been found to be sociable animals. 

Another change is apparent as the day dawns. No uni- 
formed guards keep watch at every corner, lining the 
men up, taking the count, accompanying them on the 
march, overseeing their work in the shops, standing by 
while they eat, and generally superintending every move- 
ment they make. Such guards as there are, except those 
at the entrance to the prison and in a few other places 
where the men rarely see them, are prisoners themselves, 
delegates of the Mutual Welfare League, elected by the 
body of the inmates and holding office by virtue of the 
respect the men place in them. They are more efficient 
than the old guards of the state. The Survey has already 
shown the amazing reduction that has taken place, under 
this administration and the rule of the prisoners' court, in 



infractions of prison discipline. (See The Survey for 
January 22, 191(j, page 496.) 

The men arise, as before, at G :30 and march to the 
bucket grounds by galleries — not in lines formed on the 
basis of height. They now have the unusual satisfaction 
of knowing that their buckets, still necessary because of 
the absence of sewerage, are disinfected daily and scrubbed 
several times a week. In the past an occasional sprinkling 
of lime was the sum total of their disinfection. A further 
hygienic innovation consists in keeping the buckets of the 
"venereal squad" separate from the others. 

From the bucket yard the men march to the shops and 
wash, a privilege not previously accorded them before 
breakfast. Those who do not want to eat the breakfast 
set by the prison kitchen may prepare their own break- 
fasts. With the hot water on tap in some of the shops 
they make tea and many are adept at cooking eggs by this 
means also. They are allowed to buy other articles of 
food from the outside through the prison authorities 
paying for them with money of their own. Food may also 
be sent in to them once a week. Before February 1 a 
fourth of the men were in the habit of foregoing the prison 
breakfast and preparing their own, but since that time the 
dietary has been so improved under Warden Kirchwey that 
now nearly everyone partakes of the meals provided by 
the state. For these the men pay in the token coinage given 
them for their labor. Persons of spartan taste, who eat 
no breakfast, may remain in the shops or walk about the 
yard. 

Breakfast is over in twenty minutes. Then comes a 
recreation period of a quarter of an hour. This does 
not consist, as under the old system, of a stolid march 
about the yard. The men are allowed to stroll where they 
will and to smoke. At 7 :55 the whistle blows and they 
go — they do not march — to the shops. 

Work in the Shops 

Here no daily stint is exacted. The delegates of tht 
league supervise the work and see that each man performs 
a reasonable amount. Soldierers are haled to court and 
punished if incorrigible. New York state has still a long 
way to go before the prison industries are put on a basis 
that will develop the labor power of its incarcerated men 
and women — for themselves, their families and the com- 
munity. But a beginning has been made. Each man is 
paid a dollar a day in token money. With this he buys 
his meals, lodging, clothing and whatever else the suite 
formerly gave him free. A prisoner who has no outside 
source of income can, after paying for all necessaries 
within the prison, save about thirty-five cents a week. 

In little ways, also, the feeling and atmosphere of slavery 
is removed. A man may go to the toilet without first 
asking permission. He may leave his place for material. 
instead of having the material brought to him. And 
always, he may talk. 

Work stops at 11 :-15 and dinner is served at 12. Again, 
those who do not want to eat the prison meal may prepare 
their own or stroll about the yard. Thirty minutes are 
allowed for dinner, after which comes another fifteen- 
minute recreation period during which the men may walk 
in the yard and smoke. 

In the afternoon those who finish early may read, play 
checkers «in the shops, or help a slower friend. Work 
stops at four in the winter, at 3 :30 in the summer. Under 
the old system the end of work meant a return to the cells. 
L'nder the new it means the beginning of an inspiriting 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL i, iqi6 



social and recreational life. For an hour in winter, two 
hours in summer, the men may come and go as they please. 
In the prison yard they play baseball, tennis, quoits, foot- 
ball, bocci (an Italian game not unlike duck-on-rock), they 
run and jump or engage in any activity which the size of 
the yard makes possible. They may read, play checkers, 
or swim in the swimming-pool. They are even allowed to 
fish in the waters of the Hudson through the bars of the 
iron stockade. Many of them spend this time in attend- 
ance on the sessions of the prisoners' court, which in a 
busy season sits four or five afternoons a week ; recently 
the necessity for discipline has so fallen off that court has 
been held not oftener than once a week. In the summer 
the prison band frequently holds a concert in the yard. 

At the end of the recreation period, the men go to their 
cells for the evening count. At this time, also, the day's 
mail is distributed, unlimited letters and weekly visits 
being now allowed. After the mail is distributed, it is 
supper-time, and those who desire to eat the state's meal 
go to the mess hall. Prior to February 1 many were in 
the habit of preparing supper in their cells, using news- 
papers for fuel or employing small "sterno" stoves bought 
from the outside. This practice is not looked upon with 
favor and may be abolished. 

After supper come the varied activities of the evening. 
There are classes in a dozen subjects — stenography, teleg- 
raphy, book-keeping, Italian, Spanish, automobile repair- 
ing, debating, choral singing and others. The men choose 
the classes they prefer to attend. Some of them have 
organized, of their own volition, a knitting class for war 



sufferers, at which 200 were at one time in attendance. 
Twice a week there are lectures in the chapel, movie shows 
are given twice a week, and a musical concert once a week. 
The men must be back in their cells at ten o'clock and 
lights are extinguished at 10:15 or 10:30. 

This is the typical week-day. The end of the week is 
no longer the maddening confinement it once was. On 
Saturday, the men stop work at noon in the summer, at 
three o'clock in the winter. A baseball game usually takes 
place on Saturday in the summer, and the men have the 
run of the recreation yard. 

Sunday is a day of relaxation and pleasure, the pris- 
oner's "big day." In the morning religious services are 
held and the afternoon is given over to outdoor sport and 
recreation. In the evening there are classes and enter- 
tainments, as on week-day nights. 

Such is a bare outline of the measurably interesting life 
of a Sing Sing prisoner today. This life is substantially 
duplicated at Auburn. It is not a pampering or luxurious 
existence. It is a life that builds up the human and social 
forces of those who are compelled to live it. By putting 
responsibility upon men whether they will or no, by accus- 
toming them to freedom of choice and the exercise of 
judgment, it develops the very faculties that they will 
most need if they are to go straight after their release. 
Compared with the empty and enervating routine of other 
days, and of other prisons today, it is a life of hope and 
promise, regarding its temporary charges as men who are 
coming back into society to affect once more, for good or 
ill, the bit of world that will be their sphere of action. 



Sudden Spread of the Eight- Hour Day 

Within the Past Ten Months 100,000 Wage-earners 
Have Won a New Leisure 



By Ruth Pickering 



TWENTY-FIVE years ago in England, the 
skilled mechanic was building his Utopia out of 
"eight hours for work, eight hours for play, 
eight hours for sleep and eight bobs a day." In 
America this movement has lagged among the machinists. 
At the outset of the war, the skilled men, though they had 
their two dollars a day or more, had not reduced their 
working day to eight hours. In the last twenty months, 
however, they have done more to effect that standard than 
in the twenty-five years preceding the war. 

On January 1, 1915, only 7.000 members of the Interna- 
tional Association of Machinists were working the eight- 
hour day; on January 1, 1916, 60,000 men were working 
eight hours. Membership in the union is today 90,000 
and their hope is not only to win the shorter work-day 
for this whole membership, but to seize the opportunity 
of spreading among the 500,000 men employed in ma- 
chine trades in the United States, and to create a labor 
organization that shall be able to withstand whatever re- 
adjustments follow the cessation of the war. 

For years past the union movement in the machine 
trades has been carried on under difficulties. With the 



increasing use of machinery and the adoption of efficiency 
systems in the machine and automobile shops, work has 
been so subdivided into small tasks that the market for 
skilled labor would have slumped had it not been for the 
expansion of these industries ; while the demand for un- 
skilled or semi-skilled labor that may be trained within a 
few weeks or months has known no bounds. Xow that the 
supply of immigrants has been suddenly cut off by the war, 
and at the same time the need for men in the machine 
shops has risen enormously, a new day for the American 
mechanic has come. 

This deeper significance of the eight-hour strikes as 
part of a slow-gathering economic movement is to be re- 
membered at a time when the newspapers are given up to 
discussions whether or not the agitation shall be attributed 
to German agents. 

The awakening of the machinists seems to have come 
first to public notice in March, 1915, when there was a 
slight stir in Worcester, Mass., and scores of machinists 
were reported as joining the local union. In August, the 
movement was well on its way. In September, even the 
corset manufacturers in Bridgeport. Conn., and that neigh- 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL i, 1916 



borhood, beginning to feel the pressure from the demand 
for labor in the munitions plants, shortened the working- 
day of the girls to eight hours. In the last six months, 
the movement has swept not only through munitions plants 
and corset factories, but through automobile and motor- 
cycle works and paper mills, through the garment trades 
and shops making skates and musical instruments. 

Centers where sudden and wholesale changes have oc- 
curred which are easily traceable through newspaper ac- 
counts, are. Bridgeport, Conn., where more than fifteen 
firms reduced hours ; Perth Amboy, N. J., from which 
came the nonchalant report that after strikes in twenty-one 
shops, thirteen shops conceded immediately ; Springfield, 
Mass., Plainfield and Bayonne, N. J. In Wilmington, Del., 
the shorter work-day was granted to the employes of the 
du Pont powder factory, and the Gulf Refining Company 
in Port Arthur, Texas, gave it to 2,125 men. Fourteen 
or more small firms followed the movement in New York. 
In Toledo, Ohio, the three largest firms to fall into line 
were the Willys-Overland Automobile Company, the Bunt- 
ing Brass and Bronze Company, and the Toledo Machine 
and Tool Company. 

Aside from a few scattered changes in the South and 
Middle West, the war demand has made itself felt most 
widely in the seaboard states. In these states official re- 
turns as to the extent of the movement are obtainable. 
The Department of Labor of New Jersey reported that 
25,395 persons in twenty-four various plants of that state 
had for the first time benefited during the past year by the 
eight-hour day. Out of all these, only one firm, the Vic- 
tor Talking Machine Company, employing 7,500 men and 
women, is not "engaged in the production of one or an- 
other kind of war material for the European belligerents." 
The New York Department of Labor reported gains by 
850 metal workers and 850 magneto workers. The Con- 
necticut Bureau of Labor estimated that 30,0(10 machin- 
ists, in munitions plants alone, were affected 

Against the Change 

To interpret the attitude of employers toward this ac- 
tivity, letters were sent by The Survey to 125 firms re- 
ported by the American Federation of Labor News Let- 
ter and by the Federal Bureau of Labor Statistics as hav- 
ing recently adopted the eight-hour day. About one-half 
replied and some of the answers are illuminating. 

Only one firm, the Brown and Sharpe Manufacturing 
Company, of Providence, R. I., was belligerent in its op- 
position to the eight-hour day and attributed the agitation 
not to war demand but to German influences. The Amer- 
ican Federation of Labor reported last September a bit- 
ter strike of three weeks' duration. It said 500 men 
were out ; the company said 2,500. The Brown and 
Sharpe Company not only refused to grant the demands, 
but issued a statement to the Providence evening press 
entitled The Bankruptcy of the Machinists' Union, and 
a manifesto "to the present and former employes of the 
Brown and Sharpe Company" which said : 

"What does the Brown and Sharpe strike mean? Everyone 
should understand the real inwardness of the movement in 
which he may be a factor. 

"In the first place, the carefully prepared agitation and the 
strike itself is an incident in the prosecution of the Dumba 
campaign to embarrass the manufacturers of ammunition 
and ammunition machinery intended to assist the cause of the 
Allies. When this strike campaign started some weeks ago, 
it was widely rumored that somebody or some men had re- 
ceived large sums of money, but authentic information on this 
point has never been divulged. All of the strikers, in so far 



as their action goes, contribute to delay the delivery of ma- 
chines needed by industries serving the cause of the Allies 
and thereby assist a scheme such as was proposed and advo- 
cated by Dumba himself. 

"The strike means that at a time when brisk business would, 
if anything, demand an increase of hours with consequent 
increased remuneration to workmen in order to secure a 
greater output, the hours of work shall be curtailed and there- 
by ensure a less output. Because the makers of firearms and 
ammunition are willing to run their plants on an eight-hour 
schedule, this is no reason why the makers of machine tools 
should do the same. The former is a boom business which 
will in time flatten out, doubtless as suddenly as it has come, 
and will leave its shops deserted." 

Half a dozen other firms expressed themselves against 
the change on economic grounds. A Massachusetts firm 
manufacturing motors which reduced the daily hours of 
work of 315 men at the request of a committee of em- 
ployes contended that 

"the ultimate effect in our opinion will be increased cost to 
consumer and a disadvantage in competition with foreign 
producers for the world market." 

' hie or two other companies wrote in similar vein that the 
ultimate effect they look for is "decreased efficiency, and 
increased cost to producer and consumer." Two or three 
plants reported decreased output because of the reduction 
in the working hours, but accepted it as a permanent con- 
dition since "the eight-hour day was shortly coming into 
general use in this country." 

A printing-press manufacturing company replied that it 
thought there might be increased efficiency "by resorting 
to driving"; that "all shops will run the eight hours," and 
the "management must wake up to ways and means of in- 
creasing production." Another wrote that one effect of 
the change would be that the "unions will ask for further 
reductions in hours." On the contrary, a Cleveland maker 
of automobiles 

"found that the majority of the men prefer the longer hours. 
. . . We feel sure that if we were to take a vote in our 
shop today, the men would ask to go back to the fifty-four 
hour a week basis." 

"But of course they would expect no cut in pay," he 
adds. It was in ( )ctober that this firm granted a reduc- 
tion of seven hours a week to its employes, with the 
same pay, and time and one-half for overtime. 

Employers for the Eight-hour Day 

These were the negative or near-negative replies. They 
were exceeded in number by the employers who, in an 
swering the questions, "What was the result of the change 
from the longer work-day, increased efficiency or de 
creased output?" and "What in your opinion will be the 
ultimate effect?" were positively and explicitly favorable 
to the change. In all these plants, the change is. of course, 
too recent for the evidence to be accepted as final, one 
way or the other; the thing is in progress but the testi 
mony is fresh, and elicited at a time when both managers 
and men arc alert to the contrasts between old and new 
schedules. 

A western manufacturer who gave the eight-hour da) 
lo 1,700 men and women, writes: 

"While the time that has elapsed has been quite short, we 
feel that increased effort has resulted, partly due to appre- 
ciation on the part of the employes of the fact that they now 
receive 54 hours' pay for 48 hours' work, and partly through 
the fact that the higher rate of wages has improved the 
quality of workers; that is, numerous high-grade mechanics 
who have been earning less money elsewhere, have come to us. 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL i, iqi6 



. . . Immediately after the change went into effect, there 
was naturally a considerable decrease in output, but this has 
partly been made up since that time through the increased 
effort mentioned above." 

"Less discontent and greater relative efficiency, with 
practically the same production in forty-eight hours as 
formerly," was reported by the Sperry Gyroscope Com- 
pany, of Brooklyn, which granted the eight-hour day last 
September to 480 employes. 

Another Brooklyn corporation wrote that the change 
"has resulted in increasing both the quality and the quan- 
tity of the work of the men per hour." The voluntary re- 



On January 15, 1916, 6,500 more men were granted the 
shorter working hours. To quote : 

"The company could foresee that the eight-hour day would 
sooner or later be universal. They believed that it was fair 
in principle and they wished to show their willingness to 
concede to a popular sentiment which they considered just 
and so they instituted the eight-hour day at their works. This 
action, however, was entirely voluntary, as no demand had 
been made upon them. 

"As the output previous to the adoption of the eight-hour 
day was very small the exact difference is difficult to deter- 
mine, but experience has since led the company to believe 
that the output has been increased by the change. . . . 
They believe that the eight-hour day provides increased effi- 



Why the Victor Talking Machine Company Changed to the Eight-hour Day 



"The Victor Talking Machine Company has changed from 
the standard working hours to the eight-hour basis, without 
reduction in wages, for the reason that, after a thorough in- 
vestigation into the conditions in our manufacturing depart- 
ments, the directors have concluded it was the right thing 
to do and the right time to do it. 

"The change will reduce the company's profits on the pres- 
ent volume of business about $1,000,000 for the first year. 
The company expects that it can, by certain adjustments and 
improvements, gradually restore its profits to normal, but the 
changes necessary to accomplish this result are expected to 
consume about three years. 

"The equipment of special automatic machinery and the 
unusually efficient organization in the Victor plant requires 



an intensity of application on the part of a certain propor- 
tion of skilled operators that cannot be maintained with sat- 
isfactory results under the old schedule of hours. 

"The company believes that the new schedule of shorter 
hours will result in the production of goods of a higher grade 
than was possible under the old schedule. The company be- 
lieves that the shortening of hours will greatly reduce the 
nervous strain of modern industrial organizations. 

"The company must receive fair and standard prices for 
its goods or it cannot pay satisfactory wages for eight-hour 
work. The company must also receive a fair day's work if 
the eight-hour day is to be a success. Nothing but honest 
co-operation between labor and capital can replace drudgery 
and dissatisfaction." 



[From the slip folded in every pay envelope Oct. I, 1015.] 



ducton of the hours of work of its employes to forty- 
eight a week by the Universal Machine Company in Balti- 
more, has already resulted in increased efficiency, accord- 
ing to the management ; and they believe that in the end, 
too, there will be "finer work, increased output per hour, 
on account of the men being happy and contented." 

The Vitaphone Company of Plainfield, N. J., on Sep- 
tember 29, 1915 went on the eight-hour basis. 

"We had contemplated for some time adopting the eight- 
hour day, as we felt that it would only be a question of time 
before it would be demanded by the union. Our results were 
at first decreased output and a slight increase in efficiency, 
but we feel that it will be only a question of time before we 
get both increased efficiency as well as increased output." 

"Satisfactory" results prevail in the Studebaker Com- 
pany's plant in Detroit, where between 
6,000 and 7,000 men have recently been 
given the eight-hour day. Of two 
smaller firms making a change one said : 

"The men seem very well contented and we 
seem to be getting work out just as rapidly 
as with the ten-hour day." 

The other said : 

"We believe it possible to get a better class 
of mechanics and at the same time improve 
the efficiency of the workmen." 

More extended testimony came from the 
Victor Talking Machine Company, at 
Camden, N. J., and from the Remington 
Arms and Ammunition Plant in Bridge- 
port. The former folded the announce- 
ment printed on this page in the pay 
envelope of each of its employes, on Oc- 
tober 1. 

The Remington Arms Company adopted 
the eight-hour day on August 1, 1915, 
and 1,000 men were then affected. 




This stamp is being used by 
organized labor as the Red 
Cross Christmas seals are used 
— on the back of envelopes, to 
carry broadcast the propaganda 
of the shorter work-day. The 
machinists' union has ordered 
50,000 of them, and the Brother- 
hoods of Railway Trainmen and 
of Locomotive Engineers 50,000 
each. 



ciency in the quality of the work performed and adds to 
rather than diminishes the quantity of the out-turn." 

Another very large firm, employing 11,500 men and 
women, felt that they could not yet report on the success 
or failure of the change to a forty-eight hour week for 
their employes ; but their concession, the company said, 
was due to the fact that the demand and public discussion 
of the subject seemed so general. 

Running through most of this testimony from these em- 
ployers is this suggestion that they were but anticipating 
the inevitable adoption of the shorter working-day. 
"Sooner or later," they forecast, despite the fact that the 
issue as they faced it was an emergency one, "the eight- 
hour day will be universal." Twenty months have gone 
by since large orders began to be filled for France and 
England by munitions and automobile 
factories and a growing restlessness on the 
part of the machinists became apparent 
War-time prosperity has worked its way 
over the country and labor has found it- 
self able to organize and demand better 
terms of work in industries where former- 
ly it had no bargaining advantage what 
soever. 

In the last ten months nearly 100,000 
men and women have won the eight-hour 
day. When the cloud of war broke over 
Europe, its silver lining fell upon us in 
America. The war contractors hav, 
wrapped much of the silver cloth about 
themselves, but labor has torn a few 
shreds from it, and exchanged them for 
fresh hours of leisure. Their gains have 
given such impetus to the issue that among 
175,000 anthracite miners and 350,000 
members of the railroad brotherhoods, the 
employes of two basic industries, it has 
been made the keynote of this spring's 
demands. 




Mid-winter Scene in the Scanlon Location, Virginia, Minn. 
There are six streets with double rows of lumber company houses like these, ail exactly alike. In this picture, the snow 
gives a glamour to the deadly monotony, and throws a kindly blanket over the unkempt ground. 

From "Bohunks" to Finns 

The Scale of Life among the Ore Strippings of the Northwest 

By C. Whit Pfeiffer 



SEVENTY-FIVE miles north of Duluth, Minn., 
lies a group of low hills extending about fifty 
miles east and west, known as the Mesaba Range. 
Along the southern slopes of these hills there is 
clustered a group of villages and cities which are in the 
heart of the greatest iron ore deposits in the United States. 
Of this country as it really is, most people know but little. 
Even in Minnesota the residents of the older part of the 
state have vague and variant ideas of what the ranges are. 

That there exists a group of cities and villages so closely 
connected that they form one big community of 60,000 
people, is just beginning to become apparent. Much is 
being heard of the wonderful municipal improvements, of 
the miles of "white ways," paved streets and alleys, and 
of public buildings and schools of unparalleled excellence. 
Much has been said in the Minnesota Legislature of "ex- 
travagance" and profligate use of money, and the news- 
papers have had many columns about "controversies" be- 
tween the mining companies and city officials. Beyond this 
little is known. 

What is actually the case is that almost within a decade 
a great group of mining locations have suddenly been 
transformed, externally at least, into cities. Virginia and 
Hibbing, the two largest of these, with populations esti- 
mated in the neighborhood of 15,000 apiece, were only 
villages of two or three thousand in 1900. With this 
growth has come a strong rivalry between the different 
municipalities, each to outdo the other ; and there have de- 
veloped side by side with splendid municipal achievements, 
many of the social evils familiar to the older cities of the 
East. 

The seasonal employment of the mining industry, the 
low wages of the lumbering industry, and the cosmopol- 

8 



itan character of the people with widely varying stand- 
ards of living, all give rise to many economic and social 
conditions which tend somewhat to dim the artificial 
brightness shed by municipal white ways. 

Here the problem of the cost of living is a most pressing 
one. Get into a conversation with any resident about con- 
ditions on the Mesaba Range and he will soon be telling 
that it costs much to live. An examination of the facts 
will corroborate his statement. In the first place, rents, 
especially in Virginia, are excessively high. A good, thor- 
oughly modern six-room cottage well located will rent 
for $40 or $50 a month, as compared with $25 to $30 in 
most other places. Even in the Twin Cities such a house 
rarely brings more than $35 or $10. Houses which can- 
not be duplicated for wretchedness outside the slums of 
great cities will demand $8, $10 or $15 a month. 

The mining companies build fair little cottages with 
adequate lots, which they rent to their employes for $8 
a month. But these do not take care of half the work- 
men. There is a "location" built by a lumber mill, of about 
;i hundred houses, all exactly alike, of the cheapest con- 
struction — all painted, until recently, a barn red — with six 
rooms, 12 by 12 feet, no basements, located in an unde- 
sirable part of the city where the houses, with water sup- 
plied, bring $14 a month rent. 

Foodstuffs, many of them, are equally high. Truck 
gardening as an industry in the outlying rural districts is 
still in the initial stages of development. The unfavorably 
short growing season, 100 days on the average as compared 
to 132 days, the average for the entire state, 1 has had a 
discouraging influence. Much of the land which was once 

'See Robinson's Economic History of Agriculture in Minnesota 
Page 19. Bulletin of the University of Minnesota. 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL i, 1916 



all covered with great pine forests is either swampy or 
full of large bowlders, and everywhere the pine stumps 
are thick. To clear and develop this land is a slow and ex- 
pensive process. As a result little produce is raised and 
the local merchants must buy a large part of their spring 
and summer vegetables and fruits from Duluth or Min- 
neapolis and St. Paul and sell them at prices 50 per cent 
or 100 per cent higher than those prevailing in southern 
Minnesota, Iowa or Wisconsin. 

This point was emphasized by the answers to a ques- 
tionnaire sent early in October, 1915, to a few typical 
cities of Minnesota, inquiring the prevailing prices of a 
few of the necessaries of life. Meats were from two to 
four cents higher a pound than in southern Minnesota 
cities. Porterhouse was 35 cents at that time in the best 
markets in Virginia, Minn., compared with 25 cents in most 
cities. Fresh country eggs were 7 or 8 cents more per 
dozen, in the north. Potatoes were from 20 per cent to 
4.0 per cent higher. Apples cost almost twice as much on 
the Range as in Winona, Northfield and other cities. 
Shipped-in citrous fruits and bananas were higher. In 
fact, I found bananas selling in Minneapolis and St. Paul, 
last, summer, for from 5 cents to 15 cents a dozen when 
they were from 20 cents to 30 cents on the Mesaba Range. 

Finally, the severity of the winters with their two to 
four weeks of 30 or 40 degrees below zero weather — 47 
below, on January 13, this winter — makes the cost of fuel 
high and demands much warm clothing. It has been esti- 
mated that $800 a year is the very lowest income upon 



which a man can support a family of five in any kind of 
an American standard of living, even then without making 
any provision for the future. 

To meet this cost of living a workman anywhere has of 
course only his wages. It is quite widely believed that 
wages generally are not keeping pace with the advancing 
cost of living. As Mr. Rubinow concludes, after a most 
,'Iluminating examination of wage and price statistics: 
"From four-fifths to nine-tenths of the wage workers [of 
the United States] receive wages which are insufficient to 
meet the cost of a normal standard of health and efficiency 
for a family, and about one-half receive very much less 
than that.'" 

Is this condition true of the Minnesota Iron Ranges? It 
is a hard question to answer with absolute certainty be- 
cause of the lack of statistical information. Aside from 
the reports of the Bureau of Labor on the mining industry, 
the writer has been unable to find any wage statistics for 
this state since the federal census of 1910. The census 
figures show that the average wage for all workmen em- 
ployed in manufacturing industries in Minnesota in 1900, 
was about $450 a year or $8.64 a week. By 1910 this had 
increased to about $5G0 a year or $10.75 a week, an in- 
crease of 24 per cent. These figures are obtained by divid- 
ing the total sum paid for wages by the average number 
of men employed in the industries investigated. (See Thir- 
teenth Census Abstract, Minnesota Supplement, page 677.) 

'Social Insurance, page 44. 




The Coming in of New Standards 
Settlement around the Monroe mine in the Chisholm district—one of the locations of the Oliver Iron Mining Company. 
There is monotonous sameness of houses and rigid streets; but a modern roadway, good yards and a regular collection of 
garbage and refuse. On the far hills are some remnants of the old forests which afford a tragic contrast to this treeless 
dwelling-place where the ideas of beauty are coming in with efficiency, but belatedly. 

Below are public school gardens at Coleraine and Bovey, Minn. These gardens furnish a further promising illustration 
of the social work being developed by all subsidiary companies under the Bureau of Safety, Sanitation and Welfare of the 
United States Steel Corporation. 



\ 






/rUK 



n.iik 



\f*:\ 






10 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL i, 1916 





OUSING at Loose Ends 



At the top is shown a square block of a house built 
in the rear of a street dwelling. This lot overcrowding. 
which has been the curse of Chicago, is cropping out 
pretty heavily in the unregulated mining settlements. 

At the bottom is a typical street scene, such as will 
be found in every town on the Range, showing the 
crowding of buildings, cheek by jowl — sometimes so 
close that water from the eaves of one building drops 
over onto another. 

hi the center is a glimpse of a miner's household, that 
of an "Austrian" with nine children and a dug. 

But at the same time the value of butter per pound rose 
47 per cent, of flour per barrel, 57 per cent, of grain per 
bushel, 53 per cent and of farm land per acre 73 per cent. 
The average value of land per acre increased in the decade 
from $21.31 to $36.82. an increase of 72.8 per cent, ac- 
cording to the Thirteenth Census Abstract, page 634. 

Iron miners on the Range have been better paid than 
ordinary unskilled workmen. In 1910, according to the 
census, they received $100 more a year than workmen in 
manufacturing. Since then their wages have continued 
lo improve. The average wage of men engaged in mining 



has risen from $2.10 a day in 1910 to $2.90 in 1915. But 
this is the average paid to all workmen including clerks, 
engineers, machinists and skilled workmen of all types. 
(See Fourteenth Biennial Report of the Minnesota De- 
partment of Labor, page 145.) General labor, which is 
in the majority, has been getting a minimum of $2.25 a 
day. The increase in wages, announced by the United 
States Steel Corporation the first of the year, which ap- 
plies to 10,000 miners in Minnesota, has raised this mini- 
mum to $2.40 a day. To what extent this figure is offset by 
unemployment, we shall see later. 

The lumber mill employes and the men in the woods are 
not as well paid. Two dollars a day for ten hours work 
is supposed to be the standard wage which upwards of a 
thousand unskilled lumber mill employes receive. Their 
wages, however, are regularly cut 20 per cent during the 
winter months. In the summer of 1914, their wages were 
not restored to $2 but left at $1.80 and in the fall they 
were further reduced to $1.75 a day, where they remained 
till late in the summer of 1915. The more skilled men 
received proportionate reductions. In the woods around 
Lake Vermillion, 3,000 men were employed that same 
winter for from less than $15 to $25 a month and board, 
compared with the customary scale of from $26 to $45. 
It is claimed by people not connected with the logging 
companies that most of the lumber jacks were paid $13 a 
month and board, out of which $1 was deducted for hos- 
pital and medical fees ; and that many men received as 
low as $8 a month and board. 

When we remember that $800 a year is really the low- 
est wage a man can receive and support his family in the 
American standard, it becomes apparent that the majority 
of workmen on the Mesaba Range are not earning suffi- 
cient to maintain a desirable family standard of living. 

The Seasonal On and Off 

The problems arising from the high cost of living and 
the payment of an inadequate wage are augmented by the 
amount of unemployment. No satisfactory statistical in- 
formation on unemployment in Minnesota is available. The 
Census of 1910 (p. 682) shows that at that time manu- 
facturing concerns, including logging companies, employed 
1.0,702 less men in January than in October. If we count 
the number engaged in the month of October as 100 per 
cent, it gives us a percentage of 11.8 of unemployment in 
January in the manufacturing industries. Of course, it 
is possible that many such unemployed men might be en- 
gaged in other pursuits. Yet this is very unlikely, because 
January is generally a slow month in the Northwest. 

This is especially true of the industries of northern 
Minnesota. When navigation on the Great Lakes closes, 
the shipping of iron ore ceases : several hundred railroad 
employes and dock laborers are then out of work. With 
the opening of the new steel plant in Duluth, two or three 
of the mines have begun winter shipping. But this does 
not materially affect the general situation. Open-pit min- 
ing and loading from accumulated stockpiles must all stop 
with the coming of winter, releasing in St. Louis county 
more than 3,000 men. Frequently part of the 3.000 may 
be employed in stripping new ore bodies. This past win- 
ter, with conditions exceptionally favorable, practically all 
the regular men have been continuously employed. But a 
year ago when underground properties shut down and very 
little stripping was done, conditions were bad. 

Business and industrial activities on the Range are 
closely dependent upon the steel industry. When the steel 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL i, 1016 



11 



market is dull, eastern furnaces will not purchase the ore 
and mining companies close up. On the other hand, when 
prices of ore advance and steel is "prince," operations are 
carried on with feverish activity. The "big season" which 
is expected this summer in mining is the reason that so 
many men are engaged in stripping this winter. The Oliver 
Iron Mining Company, which is the United States Steel 
Corporation's subsidiary, is always steadier in its employ- 
ment than the so-called independents, because with its large 
property holdings it can continue operations and stockpile 
the ore for future use. But even this great company makes 
serious curtailments nearly every year, and, of course, must 
entirely cease open-pit work during the winter months. 

The mining industries are not alone in their curtailment 
of the number of men employed. In the winter of 1914- 
1915, the Duluth, Winnipeg and Pacific Railroad, a Can- 
adian Northern subsidiary which hauls no ore, laid off 175 
men in Virginia. One lumber mill closes every winter, 
making 125 men idle. Another mill, which is the largest 
individual employer of labor on the Range outside of the 
mining companies, regularly reduces its help from about 
1,250 to 900 during the November to April period. A year 
ago it shut down its smaller mill entirely, and all the mills 
at Cloquet and International Falls ceased operations. The 
various municipalities do their best to keep good men em- 
ployed, but paving and municipal work is done more ex- 
tensively in June than in January. 

In 1914-1915, when everything was at low ebb, and 
very few underground mining properties were operating, 
the problem was really alarming. The head time-keeper 
of the Virginia and Rainy Lake Lumber Company says 
they could have hired 5,000 men at a dollar a day. In the 
lumber camps men offered to work for their board. The 
"bosses" were literally besieged with unemployed men 
seeking work on any terms. The public efforts to keep 
men employed barely scratched the surface of the problem. 

Back Sets in Social Life 

All this economic maladjustment results in certain well 
defined social evils. There is much of dire poverty and 
extreme suffering. One of the most utterly discouraging 
things in a man's life is complete inability to find work. 
As one woman, whose husband had found no work from 
December to May, said, "My husband is like a caged 
beast. He's got the strength but he can't do anything." 
Yet almost every winter there are hundreds of such men 
unable to buy meat for their families, or if they can find 
a way of getting food and fuel are still unable to buy cloth- 
ing, as the wretched appearance of many of our grade 
school children eloquently testifies. The extent of the 
poverty on the Range is not known. Well organized char- 
ity work is just beginning, and so there is no really en- 
lightening information made public. But the evidences of 
it are on every hand, and teachers come in contact with it 
continually. In many families the standard of living is 
very low. 

Miserable housing conditions naturally follow. The 
lumber company's "location" has already been mentioned. 
A more monotonous and dreary outlook for a family to 
face than existence in one of these houses cannot be im- 
agined. The mining locations are more attractive, much 
less expensive and on the whole quite satisfactory. But 
in spite of these the majority of the workingmen in all 
the Range cities live in ugly-looking houses, with dilapi- 
dated fences and outbuildings, and a general appearance 
of wretchedness that is comparable only to the slums of 



our great cities. As a result of high rents, nowadays, and of 
the low standards of our immigrants, formerly, and of the 
desire to increase profits from renting, the houses are now 
packed in so that almost everywhere they are built nearly 
touching each other. Twenty-five foot lots are the rule. 
On these it is common to find a single dwelling house with 
from two to four families living in it and a small dwelling 
in the rear of the lot facing either the dismal back yard 
of the house in front, or the array of garbage cans in the 
alley. The congestion of population, as a result, is very 
great. 

We naturally think of our larger cities as being the 
places of dense population. But in Virginia there are 66 
inhabitants per acre for the actually inhabited area and 




Courtesy Oliver Iron Mining Company 

Double-deck Man Cage 

Ready for a drop into the ore-bearing strata. This 
picture shows steel doors to protect the men going 
in and out of the mine; one of the safety innovations 
exhibited at San Francisco by the Bureau of Safety, 
Sanitation and Welfare of the United States Steel Cor- 
poration. 




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THE SURYE) FOR APRIL i, igio 



'3 



&'& for the entire platted area. 3 in Minneapolis there are 
9 per acre, and in cities like Mankato or Winona there 
are even fewer. This congestion, added to the poverty 
within many of the homes and the wretched way in which 
many of them are kept up, makes a housing problem which 
is described by a widely traveled physician of the range 
as being worse than anything he has seen. 

Let us now consider what has caused these conditions. 
I have already spoken of the seasonal nature of iron min- 
ing and ore shipping. Mining operations on the Mesaba 
Range are coming to be more extensively of the open- 
pit variety. Most of the ore bodies on this Range lie 
near the surface of the earth. This is "stripped" off so 
that the steam shovels may get at the ore and scoop it up 
by the ton. This method of mining is much cheaper than 
the underground operations and hence is becoming in- 
creasingly more important. It is expected that some of 
the present underground properties will in a few years be 
stripped and converted into open-pit mines. I Jut this 
means seasonable labor. And the communities must take 
measures to offset it. Stripping new ore bodies does this 
to a certain extent, but only in part. Other provisions 
should be made. The number of men to be laid off can 
be exactly determined weeks and even months beforehand. 
With this advance information as a guide some arrange- 
ment ought to be possible. 

Another cause of the unemployment appears to be the 
great number of immigrants who live on the Ranges. Halt 
of the residents of these mining towns have come from 
Europe and 40 per cent are the sons and daughters of 
immigrants. According to the Minnesota Abstract of the 
Thirteenth Census, pages 625-6, native born of native 
stock form but 10 per cent of the population. Of these 
immigrants only 35 per cent are from Scandinavia, Ger- 
many or Great Britain. The remaining 65 per cent come 
from Russia, Italy, Austria or the Balkan countries 

The Finns and Their Farms 
Of all the people on the Range the Finns are numerically 
the strongest, and their political influence, especially, is a 
real power. Their standards of life, however, are widely 
variable, depending largely upon what use they have made 
of the educational advantages offered to them. On the 
one hand we find some of the most progressive business 
houses on the Range in the hands of live Finnish merchants, 
thoroughly Americanized, while three blocks distant from 
such a store we may enter a home where the sanitary 
and moral standards are unspeakably bad. The Finns 
enter with zest into the American contest of money- 
making. 

This zest develops a great deal of independence on the 
part of their workingmen that is objectionable to many 
employers ; it leads them early to purchase their own 
homes, but it also leads them to overcrowd these homes 
with roomers and boarders, accommodating day shifts 
and night shifts in the same beds. It has also caused them 
to pack their homes in closely together, frequently with two 
dwellings on a twenty-five foot lot. Mine bosses claim 
that they will not work as well as the "Austrians" — a 
term applied not only to the various races from Austria- 
Hungary but to men from the Balkan countries, including 
many Montenegrins — and their strong Socialistic tenden- 
cies cause much friction. They played a prominent part 
in the strike of 1907, which was waged on the Mesaba 

"These figures were furnished by L. H. Weir, field secretary of 
the National Playground Association, who made a survey of the 
recreation needs of Virginia. 



I run Range of Minnesota over the question of an eight- 
hour day and a straight day-scale of wages in place of the 
prevailing contract scale. The strikers lost out and since 
then certain mining companies will not employ Finns if 
it can be avoided. 

Yet with all this, these people have come to America to 
found homes. They study the English language assidu- 
ously, for it is difficult for a native Finn to acquire fluency 
in our language. They are not clannish politically. In a 
tecent election for municipal judge two strongly Finnish 
wards cast many more votes for an American-born candi- 
date than for a Finnish candidate, though the latter, a 
practicing attorney, was technically better qualified than 
the former, who was not an attorney. 

Their children are hard workers in school, obstinate and 
sullen at times, it is true, but very anxious to make prog- 
ress. They are cleaner, and their standards of morality 
are much higher than those of the men without families 
from southeastern Europe. But most important of all, the 
Finns do not all remain in the cities, but may be found 
all over St. Louis county laboriously cleaning out the 
stumps and boulders of the cut-over forest lands, redeem- 
ing the country for agriculture. 

The So-called Austrians 

there are, in contrast, however, many people from 
southern and southeastern Europe. Men come alone ; 
so that in 1!)1(), there were nearly two men to every woman 
in the mining cities. Those who came from the region of 
the Balkan states live very much like cattle. The typical 
privately owned boarding camp has a long table in a room 
downstairs with a stove near one end. The food seasoned 
liberally with garlic, is placed on the table and the men 
bring out their eating utensils, like as not, from under the 
bed clothing, and devour the food. The walls may be lined 
with bunks, one over the other. All the beds are always 
kept warmed, the day and night shifts alternating with 
each other. 

These men spend much of their money for liquor. Its 
sale is prohibited generally on the property of the mining 
companies, but saloons abound in the Range towns and 
it is alleged that blind pigging is widespread. The recent 
enforcement of the Chippewa Indian treaty of 1855 has 
closed the saloons of Chisholm, Hibbing and some locations 
Arrests for the illegal introduction of liquor into these 
cities are now frequent. It is worth observation that the 
liquor business is not so flourishing as a few years ago. 

These people send most of their surplus money home, 
and when they have accumulated enough they expect to 
return. They are mostly illiterate, and may never learn 
the English language. They do not and will not enter 
agriculture. The inadequate scale of wages which pre- 
vails is riches to them, and they can afford to loaf through 
the winter months for the prospects of summer work. 
Sunday is no different from any other day, and they pre- 
fer seven days' work to six. Of such matters as sanita- 
tion or the proper respect for women, and other factors of 
American progress which we deem vital, they know noth- 
ing. 

With such people acting as a dead weight pulling down 
the wage-scale, is it any wonder that labor receives an 
insufficient return to support an American standard of 
living? With this rough labor over-abundant, employers 
cannot be expected to keep wages high. When a repre- 
sentative of a lumber company was asked how much they 
paid their lumber jacks in the camps, he replied. "That 



»4 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL i, iq,6 



depends upon the supply of labor." When these immi- 
grants are pouring in, in a never-ending stream, the avail- 
able supply will be large, and wages correspondingly low. 

Moreover, this ever-ready supply of labor is an invita- 
tion to make industry more seasonal than it needs to be, 
and thus to aggravate unemployment. Employers have 
not needed to look to the morrow. It has been taken for 
granted by everyone that when labor is wanted it will be 
on hand. Why then bother about keeping men employed 
the year around, especially when many of them are men 
without family and only the despised "Bohunks," any- 
how? If nine-tenths of all workmen of marriageable age 
on the Range had families, the companies would have done 
much more than they have to relieve this situation ; else 
they would have soon found themselves short-handed when 
the rush season came on. The men would have left or 
gone into farming as the Finns are now doing. 

There is much evidence at hand just now to substan- 
tiate this point. Immigration has practically come to a 
standstill since the war broke out, and with a busy winter 
behind and the prospect ahead of a boom year in mining 
this spring as a result of the great activity of the steel 
trade, brought on by the war, there is much talk of an 
expected labor shortage. The lumber companies have paid 
practically 100 per cent more for men in the woods this 
past winter than the year before, and have had difficulty 
in securing sufficient numbers. Miners' wages have ad- 
vanced, and yet the mining concerns are wondering if they 
will be able to get the labor they need this summer. 

Of course, the steel "boom" is partially responsible for 
this. But another explanation clearly is that the hundreds 
of men left idle winter after winter, and practically desti- 
tute in the winter of 1914-1915, have been gradually drift- 
ing out ; and now with immigration cut off. there is not 
the customary influx to take their place. 

When the unemployment problem is keen, as it was 
two years ago, there is everywhere much discussion of 
sending all the surplus Jabor supply of our cities to the 
tarms. And there are hundreds of thousands of acres 
in northern Minnesota that still are to be cleared. But 
the truth is, many of these foreign people do not and will 
not enter farming. The employers of labor, the landed 
men, contractors and a few others profit by the arrival of 
these rough laborers from Europe and can always be ex- 
pected to preach that America, as the land of opportu- 
nity, should not close, its door to its brothers from Europe. 
And others, secure from the deteriorating influences, may 
regard the immigration movement with tolerance. 

But unless we wish to see workmen suffer, and our 
standards of living pulled down, we must stem or con- 
trol this tide of immigration. For the present, at least. 



the European war is doing this. Partly as a result 
there have been no wage reductions in the lumber mills, 
lumber jacks have been well paid, the workingmen have 
for the most part been engaged throughout the winter, and 
miners' wages have advanced. 

Yet restricting our immigration will carry us but a short 
way toward our solution. One is apt to grow sick at 
heart when he gets a glimpse of the wretchedness around 
him, and sees how hopelessly some of the immigrants 
seem bound to such habits of life. True, much is being 
done to improve conditions. t Night schools on the Range 
are teaching hundreds of newcomers to speak the Eng- 
lish language and respect the American government. The 
mining companies have this year begun a new campaign 
to encourage their employes to attend night schools and 
to become naturalized citizens. Such education will work 
wonders if new illiterate and uneducated foreigners do 
not crowd in too rapidly. 

But fundamental reform, the changing of social and 
moral ideals, cannot ever come until the American people 
are brought by a slow process of education to realize actual- 
ly that man has responsibilities to his brother man. 

In Virginia today, one of the biggest causes of the 
abnormally high rents is a perfect fever of land specula- 
tion, an inordinate desire to gobble up the increment of 
land values. The lumber companies leave the land barren 
and desolate and unreforested. The mining companies, 
many of them, are hurrying to get the ore out as rapidly 
as possible. People see on every hand the country being 
stripped of the great wealth of natural resources. So 
there comes the spirit of "grab what you can and the 
devil take the hindmost." The idea that labor is digni- 
fied, or intelligent, or that it should share in the manage- 
ment of industry would be scoffed at. 

So the final solution must be found in the slow develop- 
ment of the ideals of industrial democracy. We must 
strive for better housing, it is true, for better wages, for 
a universal eight-hour day, for twelve months a year em- 
ployment. But we must go further. We must recognize 
that proper social adjustment will never come until the 
factor of labor has the right of determining many of those 
things for itself. We do not want industrial paternalism 
no matter how good it may be. Eventually we must have 
industrial democracy. 

And that is a doctrine which must be learned, slowly and 
laboriously by "Bohunk," and Austrian, and Finn, and 
American ; by lumber jack and miner ; by laborer and 
boss and superintendent ; in bunk-houses and schools and 
stoppings and polling-places; in the company towns of 
the American iron industry no less than in the cleared 
stump-lands of the immigrant settler. 




"FADERMENS" 



A Story of Americanization 
as We Americanize It 

By Caspar Day 



POVEL MADREJIEWSKI untied the small flat 
package he had brought in, fumbling at the 
string by the light of the kitchen lamp. It caught 
persistently on the button of his ulster ; he jerked 
at the cord with scarred, farm-stiffened fingejs which were 
far from steady. 

Nantzi, his wife, watched him from her chair by the 
stove. She sniffed and scowled. But she was young and 
comely. The left half of her was nursing mother, cud- 
dling Povel's first-born son, while the right half of her 
was cook, stirring gravy on the stove and doing other ser- 
vices towards Povel's supper, and so, her sniff and her 
scowl cXd not count for much. The master smiled rather 
foolishly, and out of the torn - wrappings extracted a small 
picture-frame. 

"I smell whiskey ! Again! Again, thou ! Oh! 

'Smell," permitted Povel. 

"You promised to save the money. Oh, these men !" 

"This was an extra occasion, see." 

"They all say that. You come out a drunkard, though, 
with no bank book. Just like all the stupid old-country 
men." 

"I cease being an old-country man today. So it doesn't 
hold good." 

"You can't. You are it." 

"I did it, I and the court judge." 

"Shame to you — getting so drunk in your seventeen- 
dollar overcoat, marked of plaids ! You don't know what 
you are saying, even." 

"Today I am become American citizen." 

"Fool! Then you begin to pay taxes — two, three, dol- 
lars, even four-fifty." 

"Sure I do," Povel admitted, grinning at her. Evi- 
dently the liability was no new thought ; and Nantzi, who 
as controller of the family currency always originated 
Povel's financial policy for him, knew that alien meddlers 
had got at his simple mind. Before now, she had had to 
weed out of him one or two Americanisms as to the value 
of money, heresies that he picked up evenings in Salowitz's 
Pennsylvania Polski Saloon. 

"Paying taxes," she expounded firmly, stirring the spoon 
in the gravy with long scraping strokes, "is pure waste of 
money. You get nothing for those dollars, ox!" 

"I know. All the Americans say so, too." 

"And this also costs?" She pointed at the little frame. 
The lamplight showed no chromo in it, but a certificate 
of citizenship. Eh? Much money?" 

"Some." 

"Sheep!" 




Drawing by 
Joseph Stella 



"I will eat my supper," her lord remarked, taking off 
his overcoat and tossing it upon a chair. 

Nantzi opened her mouth, but no words came. She 
stood up, put the baby in its soap-box cradle, and ladled 
out upon the rummage-sale assortment of dishes the hearty 
supper she had cooked. 

Povel's Sunday clothes were of 1902, and the year was 
now 1904, so that with his overcoat off she did not find 
his appearance so crushingly American and fashionable. 
It was winter, too, and he had got that gray suit to be 
married in the springtime. 

But the gesture with which he had thrown off the ulster 
— ah, that, now ! 

The coat fell in a heap and he never looked behind him 
to see, but ducked his head and began eating soup with 
his hat on, — never looked, understand, — behaved as if he 
been been used to seventeen-dollar plaid overcoats all his 
life, and his grandparents and his great-great-grand- 
parents before him; behaved as if he owned a clothing 
store, and could wear up-to-the-minute toggery out of 
stock, as his fancy led, and put it back and choose again 
regardless; behaved, in short, as if he made his clothes 
American, instead of their making him American! 

It was not the whiskey, either. Something had hap- 
pened to the peasant of Grodno Province. 

She set her lips, fighting down her admiration. A good 
wife, she knew, cultivated a man's thrift and reduced his 
conceit. 

"All right soup," vouchsafed Povel in English. "Gimme 
twice." He sucked in the last spoonful and sighed. "This 
here papers go up on wall. Get one nail and string. They 
will look something swell." 

"But we have the Holy Ones on our wall !" 

"Oh, the saints are all right. Everybody has them for 
religion and for funerals and for luck. But I am going 
to hang my American citizen papers as high as any saint 
there is." 

15 



i6 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL /, cgid 



He glanced around at the gallery of sacred pictures 
Nantzi had installed, and counted on his fingers to assist 
mental arithmetic. "Three-fifty of American money the 
saints have cost you, mother. And you hang them up 
for me to look at, and you say I waste money. Now 
here is a new picture costs me five-fifty in all. Call it my 
saint. Maybe it will bring me in some money, if I treat 
it right. Oh, up it goes ! You know they say in America, 
Money talks!" 

'Your money only talks one word, — 'Goodbye.' ' 

"You don't verstand poltix," Povel returned, amiably 
mysterious. He bent to the second dish of soup with 
guzzling sounds of enjoyment. "Mebbe I learn my money 
to shake hands to me an' say, 'Good day, Madrejiewski ! 
Glad see you out vote.' " 

"Beer — schnapps — vodka — polinli — sherrawine — 
schnapps — more schnapps — beer — porter — schnapps 
again!" accused the girl. "Povel, that is what ails you 
now. You see stars in the air, and flying elephants. But 
tomorrow, as my grandmother says, the men wake up 
and remember life is an affair of turnips and flax after 
all. Ah, well, anyway, if you waste your money paying 
taxes that much you can't waste down your throat." 

"Why, fool, I vote!" Povel elucidated. "Every Novem- 
ber, so comes this they call election day. Every year, 
now I am become American citizen, there grows on me 
without trouble to myself a vote. It is just like being a 
walnut tree, that without pain bears walnuts, see. Some 
men, even, grow more votes than one, where there is need 
tor an extra large crop. But even with one only it is much 
free beer and sure money." 

"Christ guard us!" Nantzi cried incredulously. "Why, 
if it is as easy as that, would any man buy the vote that 
grows on you? Wouldn't he grow all his own, and save 
the money ? Ei ?" 

"You'll see. Poltix is beyond womens, but you'll see. 
Now gimme some fried meat." 

II 

SIX years passed over the Madrejiewski household 
equably and normally. Nantzi bore six annual crops 
of American children, boys and girls assorted. Povel bore 
six annual American votes, state, county, borough, or 
presidential as the case might be, and sold them thriftily 
for the upkeep of his house. 

Nantzi at twenty-five was fattish, hardly good-looking 
any more, resolute, quick, competent ; spoke English flu- 
ently or vowed she had not learned a word of it, as 
practical emergencies might dictate ; still adored money- 
in-the-bank but could no longer put any there out of the 
pay-envelopes, because seven children do eat so ; ancr still 
above all human creatures she admired Povel. 

And Madrejiewski fulfilled a wife's American expecta- 
tions not so badly. As a miner he had been lucky. Not 
once had the top-coal got him, nor a slow fuse tricked him 
to a retarded blast, nor fire-damp burned him. He was 
never sick. He had no particle of reverence for bosses 
and coal companies, unions and labor leaders, lumping 
them generally as mere men working for money at mere 
jobs ; but no hatreds troubled his sleep or his digestion, 
and easy common-sense and good humor steered him in 
the middle course of peace. Thus he was rarely out of 
work. 

Furthermore, placid years of effort had done him good. 
It is prosperity that teaches such natures the trick of think- 
ing. He now lived in a better house. He had English 



and independence and experience of many things, acquaint- 
ance with many men. Read and write he could not ; but 
of an evening he heard the newspapers read aloud in 
Salowitz's saloon. World-tidings interested him; he 
planned to take a daily paper at his house as soon as Ignatz, 
his first-born, reached the third grade in the public school 

"I want to hear the poltix," Povel would say to his boy. 
"an' I can't till you gets a move on with yer learning. 1 
want to know am I Republican or Demicrat." 

For he had had a humiliating experience at a party 
primary under a new Pennsylvania law ; he actually could 
not tell which party's nomination ballot he was entitled to 
handle. The hour was late and he had been turned out of 
the room in favor of other men in a hurry to vote before 
the clock struck. The incident was financially disastrous, 
but worse, it stamped him as inferior., 

"I guess, kid," he would say to the boy. "I oughta have 
a party to belong to. They all do." 

Such was the precise stage of Povel's Americanizing, 
when the presidential campaign of 1912 waxed hot and 
hotter. As parties stood in the state, the foreign-born 
workmen of the industrial counties constituted the indis- 
pensable tail to the victor's kite; a leader held or lost 
Pennsylvania by grace of their votes. Thus the activities 
of that autumn gave much heed to men like Povel, and 
enlightened him freely. 

"You want to be a Progressive an' shout for Teddy," 
the mine boss told him on the cage as they were being 
lowered in the shaft. "Everybody's doin' it. Goin' to 
sweep the country. He went through this here very town 
in a automobile." 

"Stand by the full dinner-pail and Taft," his grocer 
advised him, meanwhile charging Madrejiewski twenty- 
five cents for three pounds of sugar. "It's the Republican 
party keeps the mills and mines open, an' you'd all be out 
of your jobs if the Democrats monkey with the tariff. An' 
say, Paul," he lowered his voice confidentially, "you're 
a good fella, an' popular with the Polander men. so I'll 
let you in on something good. I can sell you three hundred 
of flour, Pfitzer and Stone's best grade, at a dollar a hun- 
dredweight, if you or your brother-in-law or any of youi 
boarders feels like bein' a Pfitzer and Taft Republican, 
on the county ticket. How about it? Judge Pfitzer's the 
people's friend, and we can't spare him off the bench." 

"I'll see if we want some more flour yet awhile," smiled 
Povel. But no blandishments made him commit himself 
in advance. Hoh ! Was he a greenhorn, not to know 
what a man ought to get for voting a judge into a fai 
job? He had seen seven elections now, and knew whal 
one vote might sell for, with November darkness in the 
streets and angry men scuffling around a lighted doorway 
of the polling place and back doors and windows myste- 
riously slamming! The freeman who held back from the 
booths till half an hour before closing time was the voter 
who got top price. 

Ah, Povel knew ! Did he not live in the county where a 
man spends fifteen thousand dollars to be elected to the 
bench, with four or five rival aspirants campaigning 
against him, each expending nearly as many thousand 
more? Stone & Pfitzer's flour, indeed! 

"Be a Socialist, brother!" said an affectionate little dark 
man who stood next him in a bar one day. He was of a 
Mediterranean cast of countenance, and badly fuddled with 
gin. 

"I ain't a wop," Madrejiewski had responded. "You 
mistake me for vour famblv" And thereafter, by the 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL /. 1916 



•7 



curious force of race antagonisms working in him, Povel 
would not have voted the Socialist ticket for a fifty-dollar 
bill. 

"You want to come into the Washington party, Mr. 
What's Name," parroted the jeweller — burgess of the town, 
canvassing with a brewery collector up and down the 
alleys of the densely populated wards to find his voters 
at home. "Washington was the Father of his Country, 
and I see you've a fine little family here of your own! 
Ought to stand by the Father of his Country, you know. 
Fathers stand by fathers, teehee." 

"If he wasn't dead," the father of seven answered with- 
out the flicker of a smile. 

"But his principles remain 1" 

"You keep 'em?" queried the voter, staring at the peo- 
ple's sworn servant. 

"Not very. I'm afraid not very perfectly, always, — 
but of course " 

"My gosh!" said loutish Povel, hitching up his belt. 

"I'll stop in again some evening, Mr. What's Name," 
murmured the flurried burgess. He wanted to escape from 
that unwinking greenhorn stare. "Good night. Good night. 
Glad t' 've seen you. Must hurry on." 

Nantzi opened the door. The burgess and his escort 
fled. 

"He is a fool !" quoth she boldly in their own tongue 
ere the visitors were off the porch. 

"He didn't know my name," said Povel. "He ought. 
In poltix, it is expected. Yes, he ought to have that 
learned before he came here. That looks as if he thought 
( don't matter much. Maybe he cares nothing and says I 
am just a Polander." 

Nantzi's face was red because she had been frying 
crullers over a red stove. In its expanse her sharp small 
tower teeth flashed white as she bared them, and her gray 
eyes shone green in the lamplight. She set thick hands 
on her hips. 

"That man — did you vote for him for burgess? Last 
time? Time before?" 

"I was just trying to think," confessed Povel wistfully 

'Did you vote for that man?" 

"I wish I knew. I am afraid so. Nantzi, I must learn 
to read. Then I can see the names on the printed ticket. 
You know, when I go in the camera, I have to take in a 
Jim Sickles man or a Donovan man or a Pfitzer man to 
mark for me. The fellow that I get paid for voting for 
on the ticket will be marked sure, — or maybe I get paid 
for two men and I know those two will be marked. They 
are certainties. But I don't notice about all the other 
offices. They are too many. What are those men to me? 
No, no, I let the marker choose among those to suit him- 
self, and he does." 

"Did you vote for that fool with no chin?" 

"All I remember last time is two county commission- 
aries. The money came off them. I wasn't noways in- 
terested in no burgess, 'cause I don't drink much no more, 
and don't never get arrested : so a burgess could be any 
person, for all I'd care." 

"You guess you did?" cross-examined Nantzi. "He did 
not pay you for it? But you guess you voted for him?" 

"I wouldn't be surprised. Si Jenks marked for me that 
day, — he's a Donovan Republican, — an' I kinda think I 
heard this here burgess is, too. So most likely I partly gave 
him his job, by accident. 

Nantzi turned and went back to the crullers. "No won- 
der." 



"What?" 

"If he goes away, — that with no chin, see, the wax doll, 
— and says you are just a Polander. You deserve so. That 
is all you are, father, — just a Polander! And if you box 
my ears, that will only prove you more so." 

"True," Madrejiewski admitted, lowering his hand. 

"Why do you vote for anybody that does not pay you 
cash ?" 

"Oh, I dunno. It stands to reason all them candidates 
couldn't each buy every vote. There wouldn't be no 
money left in the United States for nothing else but pol- 
tix, if folks begun buying every vote. There has to be a 
lot cast just accidental, I guess, to put a man in." 

"Then why do some few officials always pay money?" 

"I dunno," sighed baffled Povel, sitting down and clutch- 
ing his head to think the harder. "I dunno why. It is a 
queer idea, when you ask so. But some always do." 

"Is it good to sell your vote?" proceeded Nantzi. 

"Why not ? And I need the money. It more than buys 
the shoes and the hats of our children." 

"But does everybody sell? The Americans who were 
born here, too ?" 

"How do I know ? Maybe." 

"But if they all sell, they all have to be bought. And 
you said yourself there was never enough money to afford 
buying all people." 

"Then they are not bought No, no. I see.' 

"But you are bought." 

"Yes, always." 

"And except your buyer's name, you don't know whom 
your marking man votes for?" 

"No. No." 

Nantzi stamped her foot and flung down her cruller- 
fork with a clatter. She bla/fd upon him. 

"Fool ! foci ! Do you become American and acquire 
respect? That way? That way? No! You sell one 
man your vote, you give away to maybe twenty other men 
the same just-as-good vote. Which side has a cause to 
love you? Who is cheated, ei? Ah, no wonder they do 
not trouble to know your name before they enter inside 
your house!" 

"Anyway, I got no use for that burgess!" Povel grunted, 
brought back again to his original grievance. 

"Ei! What does he care? You will vote for him again 
by accident, very likely. He knows you are a cheap green- 
horn Polander!" 

"Damn!" observed the enfranchised one. "Nantzi, I 
got two weeks to election, yet. I learn to read !" 

"You can't." (There are women who know how and 
when to oppose a man.) "You can't, Mr. What's Name 
Even if you are not too stupid, you are too old!" 

Ill 

CCT TE is the health boarder's brother-in-law, so maybe 
A* they keep the little girl shut carefully enough that 
ihey do not have a card on the house and ruin his business. 
She wasn't but a little sick. Johnny Raadi, their hired man, 
told Mary Glaub it was the scarlet fever or nobody would 
ever have heard, for the child grew well in six days. It 
happened three weeks ago. We have bought their milk 
every day since." 

"If we have bought my children the scarlet fever in 
that milk " 

"Nothing has happened yet." 

"From now on, use the milk in tins from the store But 
if it is too late " 



i8 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL i, 1916 



Povel's placid blond face, all unseamed with worry, 
drew itself painfully into the lines of torturing fear. "My 
children!" he groaned in Polish. Then in English, "We 
never lost one, Nantzi, nor had a sickly baby. They're 
grand kids. And — they're my kids!" 

"Well, they all have to eat a peck of dirt before they 
die," his wife told him with peasant optimism. "There 
ain't no reason to expect they'll take the fever." 

Povel thought differently. He believed in the new- 
fangled ideas about diseases. 

It was a Saturday evening in mid-December. Six of 
the seven little Madrejiewskis were in the bright kitchen, 
busied about their own concerns ; the youngest slept in an 
inner room. Ignatz had left a schoolbook open on the 
table by the lamp. Povel looked around him slowly on 
the clustered flaxen heads ; he shook his shoulders to drive 
down again the intolerable welling pain he felt. 

"I am scared," he said brokenly. "Nantzi, thou mother, 
I — I am scared. My kids, — God gives me a feeling that 
some are to die." 

Nantzi crossed and blessed herself. 

"And it burst my heart open! I cannot let two go, or 
even one. I love each of them, and I love the seven. They 
are everything, aren't they, the children? They are what 
I work for. They are the reason behind everything. 
What else is the world and all the houses and streets and 
schools for? And the buying and selling and the work?" 

The woman came to him, and touched his sleeve. 

"There, there, poor Povel," she soothed. "Call your 
senses together. You are talking like a man in an old- 
country love-song, that went mad and jumped off a high 
tower. Call your senses together. Nothing has happened 
yet." 

"If they die, I will cut the heart out of the man that is 
to blame!" 

"That will be right." 

"The man to blame " 

"Who is he? Go downtown and find out. Ask the health 
boarder to his face if he is the one. Ask the health 
boarder's boss, or the " 

But he had snatched his hat and was away into the 
streets at the word. 

When he came back two hours later, he was more calm. 

"I went to my doctor that teaches us of the mine team 
first aid for the contests. And he told me there is great 
danger yet for nine days to all my children. And the 
man to blame for it is " 

"The milkman ! His brother-in-law, that is the health 
board doctor!" 

"Is that burgess you do not like, who put a bad fellow in 
for health-boss. And likewise also another man, — me, me! 
I voted for such a one, without thinking whether he was 
for right or wrong, and so made him over me and my 
children as the government !" 

They stood, fear-haunted man and woman, aghast at the 
complexity of human business, the force of multiple un- 
wisdom. 

"Well, Elitje is sick, Povel," the mother confessed after 
a moment. "She began to cry and vomit after you went 
out, and her throat is like raw meat. Also Jan-jan says 
(hat his neck aches." 

"I knew it. There are nine other houses down the street 
have put up cards today ; all buy of that milkman. I was 
sure our children were to be next." 

"What shall we do?" 

"As we can. I will send for my honest doctor to see 



them, for one thing. But the more I think of it, the more 
I know I am partly to blame." 

IV 

THAT was a winter of repentance for the town that 
had sinned in its masters. The scarlet fever outbreak 
in November was hardly out of the local paper as first-page 
news when a sewer contract scandal came to light. To 
finish off the Donovan Republicans with as black a name 
as ever party earned came that least forgivable of all 
things, a mid- winter typhoid infection in the municipally 
owned water supply. Appropriately, the chinless burgess 
was the first man stricken. 

Of Povel Madrejiewski's children, little Elena alone 
died. But there was sickness in the house the spring long. 
Many a time, Povel, that father of tenacious passions and 
inarticulate groping thoughts, sat between couch and 
cradle all night long, tending the sick babies whose lives 
he would not give up. His wife planned and struggled, 
the money in the bank was used and debts began to grow : 
but the parents saved their little brood. 

By autumn, health and peace had come again. Also. 
Povel had made him a creed. 

V 

' I S HERE is a bleak sandstone hill to the south of town . 

A and here, race by race and church by church, the 
foreign work-people of the mines have their cemeteries. A 
long road winds out to it from the borough line. Mourners 
come often here afoot to these six cemeteries, bringing 
gifts of remembrance, each nation after a taste of its own 
— tin wreaths, potted geraniums, flags, paper bouquets, 
dyed immortelles, old-world nosegays sprigged with rue. 
wormwood, mint and rosemary. 

Povel Madrejiewski took the hill road in the late golden 
sun of Labor Day. He was going to his baby's grave. He 
carried marigolds and zinnias tied to a stiff cone and frilled 
with rue, the sort of posy his grandmother still bears on 
holy days to another graveyard, a very lonely one, back in 
Grodno Province. 

Other men were on the road. Fathers they were, by the 
look of them. Yonder upon the hill front, neighborly 
enough in spite of the parallel lines of fencing that stood 
for lifetime differences of church or race or language, were 
many little graves of last year's making: the grass was thin 
and sunburnt on them, and some were newly sunken in. 
and many showed bunches of fresh flowers. 

Almost without knowing it, Povel and another man were 
walking together. The second had blue cornflowers. 

"It was in the water." the stranger was saying. "My 
t'ree boys, my woman. Got one boy, one girl lef — we 
gotta 'ave better water t'is town, yes?" 

"I just lost one," said Povel thickly, "a girl." All sud- 
denly, tears welled to his eyes and poured over his cheeks. 
"Seems as if I — as if — I miss her more'n I would any 
other, though! She was — too little to help herself, kinda. 
And we done the best we could, an' we might as well 'a' 
done nothin'. Seems " 

"Typhoid fever?" 

"That there scarlet that they sent us in the milk. Oh. 
if I could get my hands on " 

"Sure, I say t'at. All mens what loses child'en say t'at. 
Here is 'nodder fella was fadair, too. Eyetalian off of 
Cypruss, him. I talk to him las' week." 

A squat dark man in Sunday clothes too warm for the 
weather was waiting for them three steps ahead. His 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL i, 1916 



19 



brown eyes appealed wistfully for comradeship in sorrow. 

"Ai taka dees up today," he said with a slight lisp, ex- 
tending a bunch of green and purple pinwheels fashioned 
upon long pointed rods. "Nize, eh? I give my keeds da 
sama t'ing, las' year Laboro Day." 

"How many?" Madrejiewski asked him, with a gesture 
toward the hill. 

"My alls," the Italian told him. "Seven." 

"I guess t'ose wheeis look nice, Julia, in ground standen," 
spoke the second man kindly. 

The wayfarers went on together all abreast toward that 
hill of pitiful waste, toward the graves of their children 
whom the commonwealth had murdered. 

The Slovak cemetery was first. The man with the corn- 
flowers halted there. "My place," said he. But he did not 
turn from the chance companions of his sorrow. When 
Povel held out a hand, he caught it instantly and shook it. 

"Say we come with you. Then the both of you come 
up in my cemetery with me till I get done ; and then we'll 
go along to this fella's language. How'll that be ?" 

The Slovak nodded. 

"You bet," assented the man of Cyprus, brandishing his 
seven pinwheels. Then, reflectively, "All child'en is verra 
mooch a-same I guess, to any lang'age. Da most so to da 
faders, an' when dead. Si?" 

In the gateway the man with the cornflowers turned and 
looked back at the roofs and chimneys in the valley. "I 
curse them men, I curse that town ! Policemans, burgess- 
mens, doctors, all — not to us ain't faults for children die !" 

"It's us, too. I can see it's me anyhow, partly. Why, I 
voted for them men ! Lots of us did. That's how they 
come to be boss over us. We let 'em. And we knew they 
wasn't fit to be boss over a mine-mule." 

"Voted?" cried the Slovak, puzzled at the turn of the 
talk. 

"Yes. Don't you vote? Didn't you vote for that bur- 
gess yourself?" 

The other shrugged, spreading his arms, a gesture of in- 
describable indifference to a mystery. "Oh! a man marks 
for me." 

"Yes, I have done so, too. No names mattered to me, 
only the fellow that paid me ten dollars, twenty dollars, 
whom I was careful to remember. So my marker, he voted 
the ticket for me to any old thief's name. I let him. Do 
you see? Am I not then to blame?" 

"Jus' so bad me !" cried the Italian. "Ai unnerstan'. 
Maybe Ai vote him burgess same as you, Mister. Ai 
donno." 

"T'ree dollar be t' most money ever I get one vote,'" 
confessed the Slovak. He flushed and kicked at a stone 
in the path. "Mebbe I done damn bad job, last time elec- 
tion, t'ough. You say so? You guess I voted to them 
mens?" 

"We'll never know," said Madrejiewski with quiet bit- 
terness. "None of us three'll ever know how we have 
voted, up to now. Come ahead, let's fix the graves." 

It was a poor place. The bare hill had no grace but 
sunshine and free clean air. And the chance-met com- 
panions, mourners in a common grief, citizens in a com- 
mon shame, tended the Slovak's mounds together. By the 
last, Povel knelt and muttered an Ave. 

"She is my littlest girl," the father told him as they 
turned to leave. "How did you know which one?" 

Thoughtfully they came toward the entrance gate again. 



Before them down in the valley lay the city of the living 
A west wind blew from it into their faces. The breeze 
set the Italian's pinwheels all a-turning, and their shadows 
fell on alien graves beside the path, and the flutter of their 
spinning was a noise like doves' wings. 

"Us, what we do?" demanded the squat dark man, 
flinging out his free hand toward the city. "What to do ? 
Ai notta say, too late." 

"Among us three," Povel said, including with his glance 
the father who had lost all and the father who had two left, 
"we got eight children now. We live in that place, 'cause 
of our work." 

"You say never no more vote, heh?" 

"No, sir! But we don't vote for nobody without 
knowin'. Don't sell to nobody. And learn ourselves to 
read." 

The Italian nodded. Purpose blazed in his eyes. 

"Me no good!" shrugged the melancholy Slovak. "No 
can read, no can learn! Anyhow, what good? My dead 
children is dead." 

"Sure you can. I just learnt it myself, I tell you. You 
ain't so old as me." 

"Ai guess you don' verstan' w'at 'e iss saying, Mister," 
reproved the Italian. "Me, Ai los' alls ; but today Ai been 
fader jus' a-samc. Us fader-mens, we got eight kiddo 
'live, t'at we gotta beeziness look out for, maka safe t'ings 
for, maka safe town. Ha! Faders cannot be fools, dis 
countree. Me, Ai gort' learn. Mister, you gotta beezi- 
ness learn readin' too, before vote: Ah, you see, you 
see?" 

The Slovak groaned. Shepherds, village dreamers, 
mountain folk he came of ; no heritor he of an aptitude for 
administration, for the concrete and the practical. Book- 
learning would be a penance, a nightmare. And maybe 
his fellow-mourners were all wrong in this hitching of poli- 
tics to graveyards. How should a simple fellow know? 
This America ! 

"It's for the kids' sake," Povel urged again. 

"Aw, then." The man's back straightened. Through 
temperamental mists and dull waverings of ignorance he 
had caught a watchword that lies in the polity of every 
clan or nation in the world. If that was it, well and good r 
One acted. 

"Us fadair-mens goes butties, if you say so. Mister* 
what your name?" 

"He learn us," spoke the Italian, smiling up at big 
blond Povel, his chance-chosen captain in the new politics. 
"He learn-a me, me learn o'tair Italiano mens, eh? Mister, 
you do?" 

"Why, sure" said Povel in his throat. His eyes smarted 
and a queer tingling ran down his spine. The dead in their 
graves, it seemed to him, all the hillside full of them — men 
slain in the mines, men crushed in the iron mills, men. 
women and children who had drunk fevers with their daily 
food, — were but biding their time, waiting for a leader, 
watching him, listening to hear whether he would exact 
justice for their innocent blood. Down yonder in the 
hollow of the valley, its roofs and windows gay in the 
sun. lay the living city, waiting to be conquered. 

THE dreamy Slovak was shaking his right hand witT? 
fervor ; but Povel wrenched it free. In a passion of 
purpose he raised it toward the cloudless sky. 

"It's going to stop!" he cried. "It's going to stop! Us 
fellas — I swear to God I'm goin' to change things !" 



FROM PLO 
TO PA VI 

The Government's H; 
Dweller by He 

By Graham 






WASHI 

AT "I 



I h, Ft 
Series or\ 
Activities I 
t>ral Depai 

The nc. 
will deal vi 
(ispects o 
service an l 
local WaA 
office has I 
into an 
laboratory 

Lf/^E speak of there being so many s 

States: from the bird's-eye view of 

We speak of the cities of the United State\ 

eye view of the open fields they are so m 

Hut miles, meals, souls or stomachs 
human beings and it is these that the Def 
for crop efficiency and farm comfort. 

LEFT PAGE: MEETING THE FARMER 
ON ITIS OWN GROUND 

Uncle Sam's agents are not far-arm \ in. 
orists behind roll-top desks, but rural socio- 
workers who bring directly to the farm thf 
practical help -which the Dc fart mem of tan 
culture affords. 

(Top) A boys com club field meeting, 

(Middle) A government agent discussing 
,rop methods with a Negro farmer 

(Bottom) Conducting a canning contest be 
tween teams of ai'ls from t-wo neighborly 
tckonls 



^ED LAND 

:ments 

d in Helping the City 
ng the Farmer 

rnieyn Taylor 




3TON 
)RK 



. m the 
te Social 

the Fed 
?nts. 

nstalment 
the social 
he postal 
11 how the 
gton post 
m turned 
erimental 




re miles o) farming lands in the United 
tenements they are so many square meals, 
ntaining so many souls; from the worm's- 
stomachs. 

merely after all so many expressions for 
nent of Agriculture is helping in its work 



RIGHT PAGE: GETTING FARM PRO- 
DUCE TO THE CONSUMER 

With the work of helping the farmer in crop 
raising well started, the government is now 
extending its efforts toward the problem of 
•oarketing. 

(Top) A public market place in a middle 
> astern city. 

(Middle) Congestion in the South Water 
street produce district in Chicago. 

(Bottom) Buyers come to the St. Louis 
county producers' market, some in rags and 
tome in velvet limousines 




2J 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL t, 1916 




DEMONSTRATING HOUSEHOLD ECONOMY BEFORE A GATHERING OF FARM WOMEN 

A woman representative from the Department of Agriculture is explaining such household conveniences as the fireless 
cooker, the iceless refrigerator and a fly-trap which a fourteen-year-old boy could construct. 



THERE once was a Mexican trouble which 
turned out to be, one might almost say, a 
blessing in disguise. Only incredulous scorn 
would greet this statement put to any south- 
ern iarmer who remembers the invasion of the Mexican 
boll weevil a dozen years ago. The "critter" was un- 
doubtedly as bad as any prize profanity of the Southwest 
declared it to be. But the campaign to oust it saw the 
start of a new agricultural economy in the United States. 

One of the men who went to the firing line against this 
invasion was Dr. S. A. Knapp — "old Knapp," as he was 
affectionately called by those who knew him in the service 
of the Department of Agriculture. Part of the funds 
appropriated by Congress to counteract the ravages of the 
boll weevil were made available for Dr. Knapp to try out 
his method of teaching by demonstrations. The famous 
university which consisted of a log with Mark Hopkins 
on one end and a student on the other was paralleled in 
the case of a southwestern farm with Dr. Knapp and the 
farmer playing the roles. The doctor wanted the farmer 
to try his way of growing cotton. But the farmer was 
dubious, until the doctor, sure of his methods, persuaded a 
local banker to put up a thousand dollars to guarantee the 
farmer against loss. 

The scheme worked, and out of it grew the farmers' co- 
operative demonstration work whereby the information, 
resources and discoveries of the Department of Agricul- 
ture are brought to the individual farmer through the visits 
of county agents. There are now more than a thousand 
of them, distributed through practically every state, en- 
rolled in this "itinerant brotherhood of lay preachers of 
the new agriculture." 

Personality is the connecting link in this movement. The 



farmer who would pay little attention to an imposing 
document from far-away theorists, or who would be 
afraid to talk to a man behind a roll-top desk, gets 
along famously with that same man when they meet out 
on Mother Earth with the farmer's own barn and acres 
as business office. 

The farmer's every-day job is the chief concern of the 
men now at the head of the Department of Agriculture 
Secretary Houston and Assistant Secretary Carl Vrooman, 
according to the latter, are not so much scientists as econo- 
mists, and Mr. Vrooman describes himself also as a busi- 
ness farmer, who farms "not to demonstrate theories of 
agronomy but to make a living, as all the other real farm- 
ers of the country do." 

These leaders are trying to bring the new point of view 
into the conduct of the department. Their emphasis is 
upon translating the results of scientific research into the 
ordinary affairs of the farm. This, according to Mr. 
Vrooman, means showing the farmer not only how to 
fight the chinch-bug, the army worm and other insect pests. 
but also "how to protect himself from the costly toll 
levied upon the fruit of his toil by such human pests as 
the usurer, commercial pirates posing as legitimate elevator 
and commission men and all the other horde of economic 
parasites." 

Much departmental reorganization has already been 
made to carry out this policy. Perhaps the most impor- 
tant factor, however, is the operation of the Smith-Lever 
act with its supply of large funds contributed by the fed- 
eral and state governments. It provides channels through 
which knowledge of practical value to the farmer and his 
wife and children can be conveyed directly to them. 
Through it. the work of the county agents can be made 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL i, 1916 



^3 



much more extensive and effective. Their activities first 
gained large success in the South, but the movement has 
spread to northern states as well. Its scope, moreover, 
has already widened so as to embrace not merely the 
methods of crop raising, breeding, better roads and mar- 
keting, but also ways to improve the living conditions of 
farmers' families — from kitchen arrangement to neighborly 
relations. 

No less than 400 women county agents are now helping 
tn this work. To the extent of their knowledge and train- 
ing these county agents are able to draw upon the entire 
range of the government's work. 

A score of articles might be written on the many activ- 
ities of the Department of Agriculture. There are, of 
course, the Bureaus of Chemistry and of Animal Industry 
— the whole nation knows their work for pure and stand- 
ardized food and for proper development and inspection 
of the meat supply. The gospel of good roads, too, has 
been preached from one end of the country to the other. 
It has been shown to bear not only on material prosperity 
through facilitating the crop movement, but also a better 
social life for the rural population — enabling children to 
go to school, stimulating church attendance, promoting 
the recreation and social good times of the whole neigh- 
borhood. 

Efforts to reduce waste would furnish material for an- 
other interesting story. The recently established wood 
waste exchange, for example, put a Michigan furniture 
maker who had been selling small maple blocks merely as 
fuel, in touch with a brush-maker who needed maple 
blocks of precisely the same sort for brush-backs. 

The demand for pulp wood is making such inroads upon 
the forests that paper fiber must soon be grown as a crop, 
according to the estimates of the Department of Agri- 
culture. Experiments have already been made to ascer- 
tain whether corn-stalks and rice straw might be used. 
More than a hundred million tons of corn-stalks are 
grown each year, and certainly not more than one-third 
of this quantity is put to paying uses. As the prices of 
spruce and poplar advance and the supplies diminish it is 
not unlikely that the use of paper made from farm by- 
products will be on a commercial basis. The department's 
pamphlet on the subject is printed upon different kinds of 
paper made from corn-stalks, rice straws, etc. 

Assisted Immigration 

A fascinating part of the department's activity has to 
do with the encouraging of plant immigrants. Largely 
through the activity of the office of seed and plant intro- 
duction, many thousands of different kinds of foreign 
plants have been brought in. Date palms from Bagdad 
have been "introduced" and are thriving in Arizona. The 
commercial uses of bamboo, which has also been success- 
fully grown in some parts of the country, are vastly more 
varied than the average man imagines. Not only for light 
furniture, but for planting on canal banks and steep hill- 
sides to prevent erosion, and even for food, its use is 
expected to increase greatly. Like giant asparagus stems, 
some of the young bamboo shoots grow at the rate of a 
foot a day. They are so fresh and tender that they can 
be snapped off with the hand and when cooked they form, 
we are assured, one of the great vegetable delicacies of 
the world. 

You may imagine that the boiled potato you eat today 
is just like the ones which have been appearing upon your 
ancestors' tables for generations. But even the "strains" 



of potatoes which your grandfather grew are with few 
exceptions different from those used today, and it may 
be that in a few years you will have to acknowledge your 
debt not only to the Irish "spud" but to the original wild 
South American species of potato if the Agricultural De- 
partment's immigration experiments prove the latter to be 
worthy. 

War Against Pests 

It may not be an adequate substitute for war but a fight 
to the finish is continually being waged by the department 
on every sort of undesirable bug. Your enthusiasm may 
be greatest over the efforts to combat the mosquito. But 
the line of attack includes every pestiferous farm insect 
from the rather mild sounding common squash-bug to the 
striped cucumber beetle and other monsters of the vege- 
table garden. In this connection, you may not know that 
the reputation of the skunk has been greatly rehabilitated. 
A departmental bulletin will tell you that he has a most 
versatile appetite for many of the farmers' enemies. He 
feasts on hop-grub, cut-worms, sphinx moths, sweet po- 
tato beetles, two kinds of tobacco worms — which also 
attack tomato and potato plants — May beetles, June bugs 
and even field mice and rats ; and during a pest of grass- 
hoppers in Kansas, he adapted his dinner menu as well as 
he could to meet the situation. 

Diseases of vegetation have also occupied the attention 
of the department, and the day of the specialist has 
dawned even in the field of plant pathology. For exam- 
ple, at the invitation of the department, last summer, a 
plant doctor from Denmark made a trip through the West 
to give advice concerning the "leaf disease" of barley 
and other maladies from which cereals suffer. 

These references to widely varied activities of the de- 
partment have not been so much of a digression from 
the work of the county agent as they may seem. For 
it is part of the agent's job to know what experts are 
doing and to make their services count in helping farmers 
to deal with practical problems. Down in one Kentucky 
county the farmers lost hogs to the value of $225,000 in 

1912 from hog cholera. The most up-to-date methods 
developed by the department were immediately applied to 
the situation. The county agent arranged for serum to 
be kept in stock by one of the local drug stores as a 
branch distributing station of the state serum plant. 
Presidents of farmers' clubs agreed to have all sick hogs 
reported immediately by their veterinarians, and county 
agents agreed to respond promptly to vaccinate hogs. In 

1913 the loss was reduced to $150,000, and in 1914 to a 
bare thousand dollars. In North Dakota a campaign in- 
creased the acreage devoted to alfalfa from five thousand 
to nearly one hundred thousand acres in three years. 

Whether it concerns the raising of crops, the feeding 
and breeding of animals, the introduction of labor-saving 
devices, the promotion of new and better adapted crops, 
the care of orchards, the standardization of products, the 
prevention of cattle diseases, co-operative marketing or 
purchasing of supplies, installation of a water-supply sys- 
tem, proper disposal of sewage, painting of houses, im- 
provement of lawns, rallying neighborhood effort to im- 
prove roads and stimulating interest in the country school, 
the work of the county agent is based not on the mere 
giving of advice but upon the cardinal principle of the 
power of example. 

The start is made through a demonstrator — a farmer 
who is willing to carry out suggestions. Neighboring 



THE SURl'EY FOR APRIL i, 1916 



fanners are enlisted as "co-operators" who come to the 
demonstration farm when the county agent visits it, see 
what is taking place, discuss their problems in the light of 
this example, and go back to apply on their own farms 
whatever they have learned. 

This very gathering of farmers at such field meetings 
has proved a natural means of organizing farmers' com- 
munity clubs, now recognized as an important adjunct of 
every county agent's work. But effort is made to enlist 
the co-operation of all existing farmers' organizations such 
as the Grange, the Farmers' Educational Co-operative 
Union, the Gleaners and the American Society of Equity 
— each of which is particularly strong in some part of the 
country. Such associated effort not only transforms some- 
limes the entire life of a rural community but has a far- 
reaching effect throughout an entire state. 

The story may be told concretely. Look, for example, 
at Christian county, Kentucky. A county agent began by 
getting the confidence of one farmer through doing some 
simple thing as well as or better than the farmer himself 
knew how to do it. The farmer's friends were asked to 




HOME-MADE FIRELESS COOKER AND OTHER LABOR-SAVING DEVICES 
FOR THE FARMERS' WIFE 

come around and talk over the methods. Nothing was said 
about a club but soon the club just happened. A similar 
start was made at other points in the county, and before 
long there were seventeen community clubs, each with 
delegates to a central committee, all actively putting the 
entire life of the county on the upgrade. 

The roads had been mainly a succession of mudholes, 
but co-operation soon developed a hundred miles of 
dragged roads and business men gave a hundred dollars 
to the community club which showed the best and largest 
result. Scarcely a house in the county was painted, and 
not a real lawn was to be seen. The agent got one man 
to develop a lawn. That put the house in such sorry con- 
trast that the farmer very quickly painted it. Within a 
year every farmer along the road had a lawn and a painted 
house. After six years scarcely an unpainted house was 
to be found in the county. 

The agent interested bankers in lending money at a 
lower rate and on a longer term to enable farmers to 
purchase dairy cattle and other live stock. This brought 
such prosperity that bank deposits jumped from $1G,000 
to $166,000. The farmers were encouraged to install tele- 
phones. For thirty-five years one family had been carrying 
water up a hundred-and-fifty-foot hill. The agent sug- 
gested a hydraulic ram. The farmer was skeptical, but 



finally bought one. A few nights afterward an angry 
tone of voice on the telephone conveyed, even more vividly 
than the message, the fact that the new-fangled contrap- 
tion would not work. The agent responded to the emer- 
gency, fixed a valve, and the pump was such a success 
that other families saved themselves the lugging of water 

Enthusiastic over their good roads and other improve- 
ments, the farmers' clubs of Christian county — parts of 
which had been the laughing-stock of the state — invited 
the farmers from one of the proud Blue Grass counties 
to come and see the transformation. To reveal a secret, 
the state agent of the farmers' demonstration work had 
noticed that the accomplishments of the Christian county 
farmers contained lessons for those in the Blue Grass sec- 
tion, who were complacent in a prestige due in large part 
to the natural richness of their soil. But the agent knew 
that no amount of advice would be worth so much as an 
actual demonstration. And he engineered the invitation 

A special train of Pullmans brought the Blue Grass 
delegation. The Christian county farmers and business 
men had co-operated in plans to "show them." No Cook's 
tour was ever more carefully arranged. Ninety-nine auto- 
mobiles, one of them especially equipped for quick repair- 
ing, covered a hundred miles of fine, dragged roads. There 
was a barbecue, a feast of strawberries and cream, a supply 
of Kentucky mint juleps — and grape juice for the Bryan- 
ites was not forgotten. The Blue Grass crowd had thought 
theirs was the best farming section of the state. They 
saw what other farmers could do on poorer soil by using 
up-to-date methods and co-operating ; and they went home 
with a new appreciation of the larger use they could make 
of their opportunities. 

Pocket-books as Farm Products 
Material prosperity is a necessary basis for improve 
ment of living conditions on farms. As one county agent 
put it, "Before you can touch home life to any great ex 
tent, you must make it possible for the farmer to get the 
money to buy the things that make for better living." But 
there is growing recognition of the fact that one way to 
secure material prosperity is through the greater efficiency 
which better living conditions make possible. While the 
farmers' demonstration work thus started as an effort to 
improve the methods of crop-raising, it has broadened in 
recent years to include the whole range of farm conditions 
from crops to family comfort. 

Farming more than any other occupation links business 
and life together. Prof. T. N. Carver of Harvard, who 
was enlisted in the service of the agricultural department 
to study and advise as to rural organization, makes this 
plain. In practically every other occupation, he points 
out. the worker's home life is separate from his work- 
shop. In studying the business of the banker or of the 
railroad man, no one thinks of finding out about his home 
life. But you cannot touch the problem of the farmer's 
business without including his home as an essential part 
of it. With him there is no such divorce of business and 
life as is to be found in the case of the city worker. 

It was this point of view that led to an effort, two years 
or more ago, on the part of the Department of Agriculture 
to find out what the farmer's wife thinks about the rural 
problem. The inquiry was prompted by a letter from 
Clarence Poe, broad-minded editor of a farm publication, 
suggesting that the farm woman has been neglected and 
that the department should publish more bulletins for her 
Secretary Houston sent to the housewives of the depart- 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL i, i 9 ,6 



*5 



merit's 55,000 volunteer crop correspondents, a general 
letter asking for their views and suggestions. In all, 2,241 
replies were received and many of these transmitted the 
opinions of women's clubs or church organizations which 
had held meetings to discuss the matter. Some letters 
were received from men, nearly all of whom seemed to 
recognize that improvements are needed to free farm 
women from unnecessary drudgery and make their lives 
less lonely, more comfortable, and happier. 

Extracts from these replies were published in the spring 
of 1915 in four departmental bulletins — numbers 103, 104, 
105 and 106. Many letters told of loneliness and isola- 
tion, often with hard and unremitting work, as the reason 
neighborly relations could not be cultivated. One Arkan- 
sas wife wrote that 

"We would rather have free telephones and moving- 
pictures than free seed." 

Another in Pennsylvania said that there was "no time 
for anything, only milk and churn ... all we can 
see is hills." From Ohio came this response: 

"I have never had a vacation, never belonged to a 
club or any organization and never went to church or to 
an entertainment ; had n6 time to visit a neighbor — just 
worked early and late with a snatch for reading between. 
Do you wonder we get lonely and discouraged and are 
ignorant and uncultured for our city cousins to make 
fun over, and how we long to get away from the farm 
for good !" 

Telephones, rural free delivery, phonographs and auto- 
mobiles, however, caused many farm women to write of 
growing contentment with country life. In fact, one letter 
told of too much relief from isolation, due to over-burden- 
ing summer visits from a swarm of friends and relatives 
who failed to realize that farmers' wives are "not ma- 
chines of perpetual motion" to "make life lovely for them 
during the long hot days." 

More recreation was the plea in many letters, and one 
California correspondent declared that 

"If the department could put social workers in the field 
who have the country view of good times with the city 
experience of making good and providing amusements, 
it would keep many girls away from city life who arc 
now headed that way." 

Other housewives pointed out the neighborliness as well 
as convenience of village rest-rooms as gathering places 
when farmers' wives come into town for shopping. 

Long hours — with the pointed comment that the farm- 
er's wife must begin breakfast preparations an hour be- 
fore her husband's work-day starts, and is still washing 
dishes an hour after his quitting time — were frequently 
complained of. One woman declared that during such 
a long day there was no respite because the farmer's wife 
is expected not only to attend to household duties but to 
care for the chicken-yard as well. 

"I protest against the hens. ... In any fair di- 
vision of labor between the farmer and his wife the man 
would take the outdoors and the woman the indoors. 
That would drop the chickens on the man's side with the 
probable result that on some farms there would be no 
chickens and on some there would be big flocks. . . . 
Most of us want flowers. How can we have flowers when 
our garden destroyers stand waiting to undo our efforts 
when our sunbonnets disappear? Yours for reasonable 
hours and no hens." 

Another letter complained that the Department of Agri- 
culture simply made the work of the farmer's wife heavier 









"SSL"**** • 



>mm tl 



ONE BOY'S EXHIBIT — HIS RECORD FOR 1915 WAS 1730 CANS 

by sending pamphlets on how to "help" them make more 
butter, raise more vegetables, etc. It went on to plead 
for help in getting some of the "good things" — "water 
right in the house, sinks and a really truly bathtub." The 
convenience most frequently mentioned was running water 
in the kitchen. 

One of the special troubles complained of was the 
boarding of farm hands. The extent to which this not 
only increased the household drudgery but invaded family 
privacy and even constituted a moral danger was fre- 
quently pointed out. At the same time, help for the house- 
work was reported as scarce. Neighbors' daughters, the 
most available helpers, usually preferred to go to the city. 

Many suggestions and some reports of actual experience 
indicated co-operative effort as the solution for some of 
these problems. One correspondent, for instance, thought 
that a number of farms could co-operate in boarding their 
farm hands, making it both pleasanter for them and easier 
for their employers. Another declared that "a central 
laundry where the weekly wash could be carried would be 
a wonderful labor lightener." A Wisconsin housewife 
pointed out that co-operative laundries and bakeries could 
be operated in connection with co-operative creameries 

Group Activities 

The departmental bulletins publishing these replies con- 
tain also many references to the suggestions of the depart- 
ment to meet the difficulties indicated — pamphlets having 
been issued on such subjects as co-operative laundries, the 
farm kitchen as a work-shop, modern conveniences for the 
tarm home, water supply, plumbing and sewage disposal 
for country homes, and what the Department of Agricul- 
ture is doing for housekeepers. 

The power of example was sufficiently demonstrated by 
the county agents who improved crop methods by bring- 
ing all the resources and bulletins of the department in a 
personal way to the farmer. Similarly the county women 
agents are bringing the department personally into the 
farmer's home. The start came through the girl's canning 
club work which quickly began to rival the boys' corn clubs 
in popular attention. In 1914, the number of girls enrolled 
in fifteen southern states alone was 33,173. Of these club 
members 7,793 put up 6,091,237 pounds of tomatoes and 
other vegetables from their tenth acre gardens. These 
products were estimated to be worth about $285,000 of 
which nearly $200,000 was profit. 

The home demonstration agents, however, are now car- 
rying to farmers' families a message which deals not 
merely with fruit and vegetable canning, but with prepara- 
tion of food, house ventilation, improved household equip- 
ment and management, labor-saving devices and machin- 



26 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL i, i 9 i6 



ery, and children's welfare. They are assisted by special- 
ists in many of these lines. And they are expected to prove 
instrumental in awakening rural neighborhoods to avail 
themselves of such service as that which the American Red 
Cross is developing — to provide country nursing, with in- 
struction on the prevention of tuberculosis and other dis- 
eases, on rural sanitation, and on first aid to the injured. 

The success which this rural extension movement of the 
Department of Agriculture has already achieved is mainly 
responsible for the passage of a law which is expected, 
during the next ten years, to accomplish large results 
through yet wider application of county demonstration ac- 
tivities. The Smith-Lever act, passed by Congress in May, 
1914, provides for co-operative effort by the federal De- 
partment of Agriculture and the state agricultural colleges. 
In the year 1914-15, each state under this law received 
$10,000 from the federal government. This sum of $480,- 
000 is supplemented in the year 1915-16 by $600,000 to be 
distributed among the several states, according to the pro- 
portion that the rural population bears to the total popu- 
lation of the state, provided a similar amount is appro- 
propriated by the state legislature or furnished by state, 
county, college, local or individual contributions from with-, 
in the state. Each year this federal appropriation under 
the same conditions is to be increased by $500,000 until 
1922-23, and the arrangement for that year is to obtain 
during each year thereafter. This means that beginning in 
1922-23 there will be annually available $4,580,000 of fed- 
eral funds, supplemented by $4,100,000 of state funds. 

All this extension work is conducted through a co-oper- 
ative arrangement entered into between the secretary of 
agriculture and the various state colleges of agriculture. 
The Smith-Lever law is inaugurating, according to one of 
the departmental officials, one of the largest and most far- 
reaching systems of agricultural instruction ever attempted 
by any nation. Its purpose is to "create in America a rural 
civilization which will be permanent, enlightened and sat- 
isfying, which will maintain the fertility of the soil, which 
will give the family on the farm not only a happy home 
but the farmer a reasonable income, a useful life, a moral 
and economic standard of marketing." 

Farmers and Marketmen 

To carry out the policies suggested by Professor Carver 
and included in the rural extension movement, a recently 
organized activity of the Department of Agriculture is the 
office of markets and rural organization. Part of its pur- 
pose is to develop a more direct connection between the 
producer and the consumer. The daily telegraphic reports 
from twenty of the principal markets are communicated to 
the producing areas so that by looking at a local bulletin 
board every farmer can tell where and when he ought to 
ship his first strawberries or his early vegetables. 

It is hoped, furthermore that a standardization of prod- 
ucts may result, so that there may be a better understand- 
ing between shipper and consumer. A study has been 
made, for example, of consumers' prejudices — how to 
counteract the tendency of Chicago and New York mar- 
kets to pay a few cents a dozen more for white eggs, and 
the tendency in Boston markets to give a few cents prefer- 
ence to brown eggs ; how to educate people to the fact that 
the kind of a basket apples come in is not indicative of the 
quality of the fruit itself. 

The co-operation of the weather bureau has been en- 
listed to inform fruit-growers when killing frosts are like- 
ly; the transportation and storage problem is being studied 



in the hope that one factor of cost between shipper and con- 
sumer may be reduced ; public marketing methods in cities, 
both retail and wholesale, are being surveyed with a view 
to dividing the middleman's profit between the farmer and 
the housewife. 

Co-operation Among Farmers 

Perhaps the most important inquiry by the office of mar- 
kets and rural organization, however, has to do with co- 
operation among farmers. Bulletins have been issued de- 
tailing the experience of co-operative associations such as 
those among fruit-growers, suggesting a constitution and 
systems of accounting for such organizations, etc. The 
men who have accomplished results in co-operative effort 
are enlisted to put their experience at the disposal of those 
who want to gain the same advantages. For instance, the 
secretary of the California Fruit Growers' Exchange was 
invited to explain the ways whereby both shippers and 
consumers of oranges and lemons were benefited through 
the service of that organization. A few years ago the an- 
nual decay of such fruits in transit often amounted to a 
million and a half dollars. The cause of the trouble was 
believed to be due to lack of icing, to side-tracking cars in 
the desert and other abuses in the transportation service. 
But the Department of Agriculture found that it was due 
mainly to improper physical handling in preparing the fruit 
for shipment. Standardization of packing, on the plane of 
the most enlightened methods, wiped out nearly all this 
loss. Formerly, when the buyer packed the fruit for the 
grower the cost per box used to be sixty to seventy cents 
in orange packing and a dollar or more in lemon packing. 
Through co-operative buying of paper, nails and other 
supplies, fruit-growers' associations have cut the cost to 
an average of thirty-three cents for orange boxes and sixty 
cents for lemon boxes, including labor, packages and other 
materials, loading the fruit on cars and all expenses con- 
nected with the maintenance and support of the associa- 
tions, exclusive of the picking. 

The California Fruit Growers' Exchange with a paid- 
up capital of $1,700, office fixtures and supplies, handles 
from sixteen to twenty million dollars worth of fruit an- 
nually, or G5 per cent of the California crop. It is able to 
enlist for its members credit from the bankers of California 
which any member by himself would find much difficulty 
in obtaining. Thus has been developed a rural credit sys- 
tem of sound type, the federated moral security of 7,000 
growers and a history of careful management being its 
only collateral. 

The office of markets and rural organization is study- 
ing the laws under which co-operative enterprises must 
work. Maine statutes, for instance, are so strict that 
methods recognized by the California law as very desir- 
able cannot be used. It is hoped that uniform state legis- 
lation may be secured to greatly facilitate co-operative 
activities of farmers. 

Co-operation is thus the keynote of the new agricultural 
economy. In the very first "demonstration" conducted 
by "old Knapp," a farmer came to understand how the 
co-operation of his government could be brought home to 
him and made to count. From that day to this, with the 
extension of government activity into the service of the 
farmer's work and business, his home life and community 
affairs, the department of agriculture has shown at every 
step how much that widening co-operation promises for a 
rural life of larger efficiency and happiness. 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL i, 1916 



±7 



GERMAN WAR 
MONUMENTS 
OF TOMORROW 

GARDEN CITIES PLANNED FOR 
THE CRIPPLED MEN FROM 
THE EUROPEAN BATTLEFIELDS 

By Bruno Lasker 

AUTHOR OF IMPERISHABLE BELGIUM, THE SURVF.V 
FOR DECEMBER 5, 1914 



NOT long ago, a distinguished architect devel- 
oped in the German press a proposal for a 
new city, to be built somewhere on the boun- 
dary between Austria and Germany to com- 
memorate for all times the fraternal bonds created between 
these two nations by the present war. Planned on a mag- 
nificent scale, it was to house institutions, of every kind — 
scientific, artistic, professional, historical, agricultural — 
museums, libraries, colleges, athletic arenas, meeting- 
houses for conferences, offices of interstate organizations 
already in existence or yet to be formed. 

It was to become, in fact, an abode of Teutonic culture 
and a center for the diffusion of its humanizing influences. 
Another proposal for the commemoration of the war 
by monuments of practical as well as symbolical value, 
different and much more likely to be realized, comes from 
the German Garden City Association. This propagandist 
body has brought out a volume, well edited and beau- 
tifully printed, advocating with much convincing argument 
and detailed illustration, the creation of new settlements 




bird's eve view of the proposed group-dwelling at gronau 
The main entrance through the tower shown at the top of 
the page leads into an inner garden space upon -which the 
single-family houses open. The illustration, page 30, shows 
some of the two-family houses designed for invalid settlers. 
These and their garden plots for small fruits and vegetables 
will be located, if the plan goes through, in the fertile Ler- 
bach vallev. 




for the homes of men incapacitated in the war.' It sug- 
gests that the commemoration of what its authors pa- 
triotically conceive as a great and inspiring epoch in the 
history of their country can most fittingly be combined 
with a constructive provision for the care of those who 
have served the stale at the cost of their health and their 
fitness for the ordinary competitive occupations. 

In a series of introductory chapters, this report or me- 
morial analyzes the industrial and social problem of this 
great army of men. Already, there are several hundred 
thousand. They are of every social type and of every 
profession : artisans, clerks, farm laborers, professors, 
longshoremen, artists, merchants, civil servants, teachers, 
sailors. Some of them will be so injured that no medicine, 
no surgical operation or appliance can make them self- 
supporting; some will always suffer from a shattered ner- 
vous system ; some will return from the battlefield with 
heart or lungs forever incapacitated for normal function- 
ing; some will creep out of the trenches with rheumatic 
ailments, bent of stature and with walk lame and halting. 

But no less serious than the physical handicaps will be 
for many of them the moral dangers to which they will 
be exposed, the dangers associated with an excess of pub- 
lic pity and liberality, with loss of self-reliance, with pau- 
perization. How equitably and adequately to discharge 
the debt of national gratitude to men so different in their 
social standing, their physical and spiritual needs, their 
family responsibilities, their moral stamina — how so to 
help them as to give as many of them as possible the oppor- 
tunity of a life of security, yet of happy, persevering toil — 
these are questions which now and for long must occupy 
the attention of social workers in each of the belligerent 
nations. 

The authors of the present volume, while naturally they 
cannot solve the problem, at least give some excellent 



"'Unseren Kriegsinvaliden Heim und Werkstatt in Gartensied- 
lungen" — Denkschrift dcr Deutschen Gartenstadt-Gesellschaft. 
Renaissance- Verlag. R Federn, Leipzig. 1915. M. 1. 50. 



^8 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL i, 1916 









H „ /^ 






i 



GEM£iMNl£TZ/GE BRUC(ENOS8FJVSCfmFT SiNq£N*«. BUCK VQlVltW/nxP '■ 



IN THE GARDEN VILLAGE OF SINGEN 

View of the proposed co-operative homes and workshops 
for war-invalids. 

leading directions. Vocational guidance and training, thcv 
say, must be organized on a scale hitherto unknown among 
adults. The big industries must deliberately let go those 
processes of production which can be carried on, with 
equal economy, in smaller workshops and with greater 
regard than usual for the workers' individual capacities.- 
Such workshops must be so fitted with modern equip- 
ment, motive power, etc., as not only to put on a com- 
mercial basis the manufacture of many articles but, if pos- 
sible, to improve on the previous methods of production in 
quality and cheapness of product. No human energy, no 
kind of skill, no ability must be allowed to go to waste ; 





JND PLAN OF THE GROUP BUILDING AT GRONAV 

(See pictures on pages 27 and jo). 



VILLAGE PLAN AT FALKENBERG 

This garden settlement, when completed, will provide for 
7500 persons in one-family houses. Black spaces indicate the 
houses erected in 191.1-1914. A bird's-eye view of the new por- 
tion for semi-invalids (at the top of the picture) is shown 
opposite. 

all must be utilized to the fullest extent of their potential 
value. 

The nation, instead of dismissing its heroes with a money 
pension and the well-meant but often impracticable coun- 
sel to "return to their old home and work." must find out 
whether they really have a suitable home and a suitable 
occupation to return to. If necessary, instead of granting 
a money pension payable monthly or quarterly, it must 
capitalize these men's right on the treasury and invest it 
for them in new homes and new opportunities for renin 
nerative labor. 

These, in a few words, are the main contentions. The 
minds of other social thinkers, not only in Germany but 
also in the allied countries, run on similar lines So much 





THE GARDEN SETTLEMENT AT FALKENBERG IS APT ILLUS- 
TRATION OF GERMAN "PREPAREDNESS FOR PEACE." THE MAIN 
APPROACH LEADS PAST AN APARTMENT HOUSE OF THE THREE- 
DECKER TYPE, WITH A SEPARATE GARDEN FOR EACH FAMILY. 
BEYOND THE DOUBLE ROW OF ONE-FAMILY COTTAGES IS THE 
WORKSHOP BUILDING, AND ADJOINING IT, AROUND THE COURT, 
ARE TWO C-SHAPED TWO-STORY BLOCKS, SINGLE ROOM APART- 
MENTS FOR UNMARRIED MEN. A CENTRAL RESTAURANT AND 
RECREATION ROOMS ARE PROVIDED AT THE FARTHER END. 



30 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL i, 1916 



is known today of the evils of the older military pension 
systems that there is no excuse for their repetition. There 
is no need for peopling Europe for a generation with a 
large, new population of semi-invalids untrained for suit- 
able work, unfitted mentally and morally for serious or 
continuous endeavor, of beggars and drink-sodden "pen- 
sioners." 

There are the possibilities of a better way. 

The idea of the co-operative garden city, the report sub- 
mits, offers a starting point for a sane solution of the 
problem. With it, it is possible, first of all, to prevent the 
crowding together of an impoverished, physically and 



families as a separate social group, and that for the chil- 
dren there would be good schools and for the adults the 
normal facilities of social intercourse. 

These ideas the report develops at some length. It also 
shows the possibility of reviving many smaller artistic 
trades in such communities and of fostering the love of 
gardens and gardening — creating thereby an excellent 
means of adding to the income of the home. The state 
would capitalize these undertakings not as a public char- 
ity but as a trust investment on first mortgages. The sec- 
ond mortgages, it is suggested, should be the thanks offer- 
ing of private capital. 



* . . . 



5SL3! 

■ :4 




A WAR MONUMENT OF TOMORROW 

A German artist's drawing of the proposed group-dwelling at Gronau as it w >uld look from the Lerbacli J'alley 



morally enfeebled war proletariat in the huge, congested 
tenements of the large cities. It is possible, with appre- 
ciably less ultimate cost to the state, to provide incapac- 
itated ex-soldiers with decent homes in the semi-rural, 
wholesome and invigorating environment of a garden 
village. Here it is possible to provide those who are 
married with one-family houses sufficient for the re- 
quirements of family life, and those who are single in 
bachelor homes of a suitable character. 

Close to these homes, there would be the new work- 
shops, home-industries free from the scandals of the old 
sweating system, yet paying economic returns on the cap- 
ital invested in them. The homes would have gardens ; 
and, though the new settlements would be compact, they 
would be joined on to other garden villages of the estab- 
lished type, so that there would be no isolation of these 



It is pointed out how much further a given amount of 
money would go in alleviating distress if invested in this 
way rather than paid over to a public relief fund in a lump 
sum. A great national trust fund would be created for 
these investments, with power to receive and administer 
both mortgage capital and gifts of land. 

How to deal with the particular architectural problems 
of such new communities, the report, with characteristic 
thoroughness, indicates by giving a wealth of suggestive 
designs from the studios of renowned landscape archi- 
tects. These plans, so far as can be judged, are practi- 
cal and at the same time far more inspiring monuments 
of genuine patriotism than the purely symbolical sculp- 
ture, unrelated to utilities, which the gratitude of na- 
tions has produced in the past with such absurd prodi- 
gality. 




Editorials 



EDWARD T. DEVINE 

JANE ADDAMS 
GRAHAM TAYLOR 

Associate Editors 



PAUL U. KELLOGG 
Editor 



THE SURVEY: ONCE-A-MOMTH EDITION 

WITH this issue, The Survey opens a new 
volume, with new type, new column widths, 
a new arrangement. And with something 
more than these surface changes — a new 
plan to get a wider hearing for the things we interpret 
in the common life. 

For this is the first of twelve once-a-month editions of 
The Survey, the first of what we have high hopes will 
prove a permanent and workable factor in carrying by 
further stage of growth this adventure of ours in co- 
operative journalism. 

The Survey itself is something new to about 90,000,000 
Americans — more or less. (This, by the way, is a more 
bumptious circulation or non-circulation figure than any 
ever employed by a swash-buckling publication office.) 

But The Survey itself is, of course, something old and 
tried — a genuine part of their experience and everyday 
life and labor — to well toward 20,000 Americans — social 
investigators, settlement folk, visiting nurses, charity 
workers, public health inspectors, probation officers, 
judges, efficiency experts, play leaders, educators — people 
with a punch and a public element in their day-to-day 
affairs. 

Nearly all of them have their own technical journals 
Through The Survey (once a week at $3) they keep 
abreast of the big currents in each other's streams of in- 
terest. Once a month the most kindling human experi- 
ence, the most promising social inventions, the most search- 
ing investigations that The Survey can get hold of, drawn 
from all these streams, are brought out in enlarged, illu- 
strated, graphic magazine numbers, of which this is one. 

It is these magazine numbers which we shall try to lift 
to a new estate in this "once-a-month" edition. 

TURN to the newspaper field for purposes of com- 
parison and take the issue-scheme of the morning 
dailies. They come to our breakfast tables every day in 
the week ; but on Sunday, they are larger, more varied, with 
the news element complemented by what the men at the 
copy-desks call "features" — more leisured, inclusive ar- 
ticles, with wider range and a less hurried technique. These 
Sunday editions are separately subscribed for by out-of- 
town people who do not follow the day-to-day happenings 
of the city, but are able thus to keep in touch with the 
larger phases of its life. 

In much the same way we shall endeavor to enlist 
once-a-month subscribers at $2 a year, among the people 
outside that growing community of men and women who 
call for a week-to-week chronicle in the field of social ad- 
vance. The plan is one that we have had in mind for 
several years, an experiment which we thought we could 



venture upon when Survey Associates had reached a sure 
footing and perhaps had a current surplus to invest in it. 
We are not launching it, at this time, under such favor- 
able circumstances ; rather, the reverse, with the war cut- 
ting down our commercial income and our contributed 
funds. But it is a time when we must call into play every 
potential resource of the undertaking, and from the print- 
ing office standpoint these magazine numbers are the 
heaviest drain on our revenue. 

Can we turn them from a drain into an asset? 

We think we can with the active co-operation of every 
reader and writer and believer in The Survey ; and there 
has been no year in which we have had a more tingling 
sense of the presence and good will of a mustering com- 
pany of them all. 

From the standpoint of the membership of Survey 
Associates as an educational undertaking, the experiment 
is worth making, if we can but get The Survey and its 
contents before this wider audience. For our belief is 
that for every reader who is ready for a once-a-week 
journal in this field, there are three readers who are ready 
for a once-a-month magazine. To help this readiness 
along and meet them more than half way, we have put 
the introduction price of the new "once-a-months" this 
spring, at eight months for one dollar. 

From the standpoint of present readers of The Sur- 
vey, the experiment is worth making, for if it suc- 
ceeds, our once-a-month issues will in make-up and matter 
more nearly approach the publication standards toward 
which we are working. If it succeeds, moreover, it should 
release more of our income for building up the service 
of the other weekly issues in interpreting consecutively 
those great spheres of social concern to which they are 
committed. 

In any way, then, that you who read this page can 
give the experiment a bit of your personality and help 
— by sending in names, by calling the new edition to the 
attention of your friends, by suggesting ways in which it 
can be made at once more serviceable and claim fresh in- 
terest in quarters old and new, we are counting on your 
co-operation. Yours. 

SUPERSTITION UP TO DATE 

ALLOWANCES may be made for the newspaper cor- 
respondent in Saloniki whose agitated senses led him 
to "smell typhus," and to see its immediate source in an- 
cient oysters in wayside shops. But what of every-day 
Americans who, without the newspaper man's excuse for 
hectic imaginings, still rub gold rings (they must be gold) 
on their eyes to cure a stye? or soak horse-hairs in water 
to see them turn into snakes? or attribute lunacy to the 
moon? or think that red flannel (it must be red) will cure 



32 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL i, i 9 i6 



sore throats? or hold that if medicine is food for sick 
people it must be still better for well ones? that children 
ought to have "children's diseases," and the younger the 
better? or who contend that vaccination is worse than 
smallpox and that cold weather is "healthy" since it kills 
germs ? 

These instances are actual and might be multiplied. 
They are among the current beliefs cited by Dr. H. W. 
Hill, director of the Minneapolis Institute of Public 
Health, whose book, The New Public Health, is a record 
of changed conceptions of health, public and private, 
and of conceptions that ought to be changed. 

But perhaps the most remarkable instance of fairly 
modern folk-lore was one which The Survey received 
with respect to a recent article on quarantine. Dr. Richard 
Green Moulton of the University of Chicago, writes: 

''Your account of prevention and its theory in the early 
stages recalls to me an incident which I must have remembered 
for about 60 years ! I was a small child living in the island of 
Guernsey ; there had been an epidemic of cholera some time 
before, and I remember listening open-mouthed to a story of 
how a ship was approaching the island when a yellow cloud 
descended in the sky without quite touching the ship. It was 
strongly suspected to be the 'Cholera Cloud,' and, to test it, the 
captain had a leg of mutton hoisted up to the top of the mast. 
It came down full of maggots!" 

THE EIGHT-HOUR DAY 

THE results of The Survey's canvass of plants which 
have gone into the eight-hour day since the outbreak 
of the war [see page 5] is not in itself, of course, conclu- 
sive. The fact that a majority of the employers who ex- 
pressed themselves — some of them large employers of 
labor — declared that the shorter work-day has meant 
greater efficiency and better relations between employer and 
employe is, however, fresh testimony in line with a body 
mi experience stretching back for many years. 

The success of the Ford Motor Company, where output 
leaped the moment an eight-hour day was adopted ; the 
proven efficiency of the short work-day at the open-hearth 
furnaces of the Commonwealth Steel Company ; the re- 
markable experience in the granite-cutting industry where 
in thirty years the hours have changed progressively from 
ten, to nine, to eight and even to seven with increased out- 
put every time; the growth of eight hours in the British 



steel industry with satisfaction both to employer and em- 
ploye — all this and much more is to be taken into account. 

When all of the available evidence is considered the con- 
clusion seems inescapable that for all occupations requir- 
ing great muscular effort, the eight-hour day is more effi- 
cient than any of longer duration. For work consisting 
principally of machine-tending, a similar conclusion is not 
perhaps quite so clearly indicated, but the preponderance of 
the evidence seems to be on that side. 

But the case for the eight-hour day does not rest on 
these output tests alone. Indeed, if this evidence were on 
the other side the case would still be a strong one. No one 
favors a f ourteen-hour day any longer ; very few have a 
word of defense for the disgraceful twelve-hour day of the 
steel industry. The eleven-hour day has no friends, and 
the ten-hour day is hardly respectable. Why? Not be- 
cause everybody believes that working people can make 
more goods in a shorter time but because it is coming to be 
generally recognized that there must be, as the Mississippi 
Supreme Court put it, an "inalienable right to rest," if 
there is to be opportunity for the development of those 
efficiencies of mind and soul that are essential to a toler- 
able social order or a decently intelligent citizenship. 
Industry is not making shoes and cars and battleships 
alone. It is making men and society at the same time. 

THE SIXTEEN-HOUR NIGHT 

THE "little tent of blue which prisoners call the sky" 
is not visible to a man in the Sing Sing cell-block. 
Elsewhere in this issue Mr. Lane outlines the routine of 
daily life under the old system of management that made 
mere automatons of prisoners, that sent them back into 
society with their initiative gone and their energies sucked 
dry. Not the least item in this routine were the continuous 
hours spent in the cramped cells. 

Below is a diagram through which the Westchester 
County Research Bureau shows the same facts in another 
way. Black was well chosen to stand for the time passed 
in the cells. The black portion is to be compared not with 
the whole diagram but only with the part embraced by 
the outside dotted line. Thus, in 1911, two-thirds of every 
twenty-four hours was spent in cells; in 1915 only one- 
third. 

And turning from statistics to a transcript of life, there 



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THE SURVEY FOR APRIL i, 1916 



33 



is no more compelling testimony than Mrs. Field inter- 
prets in her Story of Canada Blackie. In describing the 
effect of the dark cells at Dannemora Blackie said: 

"No one who has not been through a similar experience can 
imagine the horror, and to me with my high-strung nature it 
was hell ! I had to work hard to keep my mind. 

"I used to call back every bit of stray verse I had ever 
learned, and would spend days piecing together some long- 
forgotten stanza. I remember the great difficulty I had in re- 
calling a line in 'Casabianca'. It was two weeks before I got 
it, but it finally came. I got back every line of 'Locksley Hall', 
and a good deal of 'Childe Harold', as well as a lot of hymns 
that my mother taught me when I was a little boy. I always 
was an enthusiast over poetry. 

"I tore off the buttons from my undershirt and tossed them 
into the darkness, and then would spend hours groping for 
them. It took me three days once to find one button, for it 
had rolled into a crack between the doors, but I got it one 
morning when they swept out the cell. 

"Getting that button was an achievement. It was like finish- 
ing the Pyramids or completing a long and hazardous journey." 

VILLA VS. BAKER 

AT FIRST blush, the raid on Columbus may have 
seemed calculated to shut off further protestation 
against even the extremer forms of the "prepared- 
ness" agitation. But subsequent events at Washington, 
on the border, and in Mexico have singularly enough 
had another and more clarifying result. They have had 
the effect of sharply distinguishing between schemes for 
wholesale armament and efficiency in the army and navy 
that we have. They have had the effect of revealing that 
there is less in common between the most rampageous 
militarists among us and the people who have believed in 
a reasonable scheme of defense, than between these last and 
such groups as the Anti-" Preparedness" Committee, whose 
first plank has been the investigating and overhauling of 
the military establishment so that we shall get the maxi- 
mum of efficiency out of every dollar we spend on it. 

They have added less volume to the cry for compulsory 
service the country over than to the demand that our 
border patrol should be as much on its job as the men of a 
traffic squad. They have given less momentum to the agi- 
tation for a five-year building program for the navy, with 
dreadnaughts capable of plowing through a waterless 
Mexican desert, than to drive home the recent exposures 
of graft and inefficiency in the aeronautic arm of the fed- 
eral service. They have taken some of the wind out of 
our most ambitious big army spokesmen to afford them 
breath to explain why a bunch of 800 Mexicans — or double 
that number — made child's play with the military camp set 
to guard a border town. They have thrown less public sus- 
picion on those disloyal trouble-makers, the peace advo- 
cates, than on patriots who, to use President Wilson's 
phrase, have been "trafficking in falsehood" — if not in 
cahoots with Villa — "for the purpose of bringing on in- 
tervention in the interests of certain American owners of 
American properties." 

We are not faced as at Vera Cruz with the accidental 
but obstinate commitment of those higher-up to back the 
demand of a naval officer for a flag salute, but with a raid 
by flesh and blood guerrillas who took flesh and blood 
lives at a time and place definite enough to meet the re- 
quirements of Lincoln's famous "spot revolution" in the 
forties. Once started, the administration's handling of the 



expeditionary force to prevent the recurrence of such a 
raid has given less comfort to the jingoes, hot for inter- 
vention and bent on a south-bound imperialism, than to 
those whose policy is toward co-operating with and 
strengthening the forces of republican government in 
Latin America. 

The events of the past month should indeed give a new 
hearing to such reasonable and constructive statecraft as 
Walter Fisher put before the House Military Affairs Com- 
mittee. The situation as he analyzed it seems not alto- 
gether different from that faced by a municipal 
administration with respect to crime, arson and vi- 
olence in our city life. Nobody denies that these 
things exist. Few are for relying solely upon the good in 
human nature to keep them down. But we do not thereupon 
rear our whole scheme of municipal administration 
around our police force and build a lockup for a city hall. 
Community life is something broader, something with 
greater reserves of leadership and self-control. We make 
slogans of such words as health, education, opportunity, 
neighborliness, not only to promote the general welfare, 
but incidentally in the confidence that these things will do 
more to maintain order than doubling the blue-coats 
And we exact efficient execution alike of the police arm 
and the health authority ; alike of court, school and recrea- 
tion center. 

Given human nature in the world at large no less than 
in life as we find it in the next block and around the corner, 
an equipped force for self -protection for the larger com- 
munity we call the nation becomes an integral factor in 
government, but a factor seen in just perspective against 
a rounded program, on the one hand, of foreign relations 
in which the spreading of good will, the elimination of 
privilege, friction and exploitation, the modern organiza- 
tion of international relations, are other and larger fac- 
tors ; and against a rounded program, on the other hand, of 
social conservation for upbuilding the strength of the peo- 
ple, such as Mr. Devine outlined in a recent issue of The 
Survey. These are some of the newer ideals of peace, 
for country at large as for city. In the process of their 
fulfilment, they may draw upon the fighting instinct and 
transmute it ; but they cannot well be engineered behind the 
banners of panic or called into being by the war cries of 
an incipient militarism. 

Public opinion has a new basis for confidence in the ap- 
pointment as secretary of war of a man whose experience 
and quickening social sympathy have been hard won in the 
city struggle of one of the great, aggressive, democratic 
communities of the Middle West. Mr. Baker would be 
the last to claim that he is the discoverer of the social bear- 
ings of the War Department's work. But the reality and 
breadth of his view are indicated in the following excerpt 
from a letter to one of The Survey's editors : 

"I hope none of my old friends in social work will feel 
that my being in this department, either because of the name 
of the department or its exacting demands upon my time, in 
any way obstructs my interest, or that I want to be left out in 
the future planning and doing. As a matter of fact, I think 
the War Department has, as its primary ideal, making America 
a strong and virile people. The accidental use of a part of 
that strength for war, when it is unavoidable, is an important 
aspect from the point of view of this department, but the 
primary thing is that we should be strong for the arts of 
peace, strong industrially, socially and morally." 



34 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL i, 1916 



A NEW FORCE IN CHICAGO POLITICS 

THE women citizens of Chicago have disavowed 
very effectually their responsibility for the mis- 
rule of the city administration and vindicated 
their right to take a hand of their own in the local gov- 
ernment. The occasion for their big mass meeting, re- 
ported in The Survey last week, was very directly stated 
both by Louise de Koven Bowen on taking the chair, and 
in the preamble to the platform unanimously adopted by 
the 3,000 citizens present. 

Mrs. Bowen declared the situation in Chicago to be of 
more than local interest, because "the attention of suf- 
fragists and anti-suffragists alike is centered upon the 
women of Chicago to see how they use the franchise and 
what the results may be." She frankly admitted that the 
public was aware "how the Department of Public Wel- 
fare has been doomed through the participation of women," 
but she showed how far this had been traced to the political 
spoils system, against the protest of the women's organiza- 
tions and contrary to their suggestions to the mayor re- 
garding qualifications of the men or women to be consid- 
ered by him for appointment. She might have added that 
if men voters had voted as intelligently and patriotically at 
the mayoralty primary as women voters did, William Hale 
Thompson would have been defeated easily and Chief Jus- 
tice Harry Olson, who fell only 2,300 votes short on the 
nominating ballots, might have been mayor of Chicago. 

Though at every point the women's platform, as well as 
the speeches endorsing it, was a declaration of war against 
the opposite policies and practices of Mayor Thompson's 
administration, yet the attitude assumed was far from be- 
ing a mere protest. The constructive program which the 
women submit to the citizens is very directly aimed at 
maintaining and advancing Chicago's purpose to be a coun- 
cil-governed city, with officials appointed only for merit 
under the civil service law. It thus supports the alder- 
men and Municipal Voters' League in their fight against 
this spoils administration and its under-world allies. 

Although alluring opportunities were open to give telling 
expression to popular indignation against certain officials 
and their outrageous violations or evasions of law, yet in 
their speeches and their platform, these women citizens 
advisedly dealt with fundamental principles and construc- 
tive policies instead of dealing in personalities and invec- 
tive. They thereby best demonstrated their virile grasp of 
the civic issues at stake and their right to be credited by an 
influential newspaper with having given "an impressive 
demonstration of the new force in Chicago politics." 

WHILE Chicago's women voters were thus rallying 
the citizenship to the defense and promotion of the 
city's higher ideals, its mayor and some of his administra- 
tive chiefs were industriously waging their spoilsman's 
war upon the city's well-established policies for good gov- 
ernment. The Civil Service Commission discharged the 
efficient morals inspector, thus making place for one more 
"sixty-day" appointee of their own choosing, in addition to 
the 9,163 similar appointments or reappointments which 
this administration has made within less than a year, in 
contravention of the spirit of the civil service law. The 
chief of police also announced his intention to prefer 
charges against the civilian second deputy superintendent 
of police, for demonstrating privately and "contrary to 
orders" to some city fathers and others interested, the need 
for regulating "movie" films. This intention is in fulfil- 
ment of the avowed determination of the mayor to have 



no inspection of the police other than that by the regular 
force itself. 

Thus the Vice Commission's most effective measure for 
the inspection of moral conditions and the discovery and 
suppression of vice resorts, which has been enforced as a 
city ordinance, would be administratively set aside. 

Under cover of the order closing the saloons on Sun- 
day, restaurants and cabarets have been allowed to run 
"wide open" all night and Sundays, while hundreds of 
favored saloons are reported by aldermen and reform or- 
ganizations to be openly selling liquor on Sundays with- 
out police interference. The discharged morals inspector 
publishes the locations of numerous vicious resorts which 
he reported to the chief of police scores of times without 
securing any action. These reports are now cited as giv- 
ing basis for his discharge, because they imply that com- 
manding officers failed to do their duty. With the "wet" 
votes in the City Council swinging back to the administra- 
tion on this account, the mayor secured the adoption of an 
annual budget largely in excess of the revenue, and in- 
cluding $10,000 for "field work" by a commission to in- 
vestigate the liquor traffic in Chicago, composed entirely 
of men engaged in or affiliated with that traffic. Against 
the recommendation of the council finance committee, the 
mayor signed the budget including this and other chal- 
lenged items, and the chairman of his "investigating" com- 
missioners explained that the "field" requiring to be worked 
at this cost was a "visitation of every saloon in Chicago." 

The Chicago Tribune issued "a veracious although 
anticipatory report from the survey of the commission," 
containing these bits of satire : 

"Mike's Place; free lunch poor; three bartenders interested 
in tulips; whiskey bad, beer fairly good; bartenders do not 
know how to mix drinks ; recommend that the proprietor im- 
prove the quality of his free lunch." 

"Buffet; proprietor reasonably complains that police bother 
him too much on Sunday and disturb his family trade; hus- 
band and wife thus made to do work that is not beyond a 
child's tender strength ; recommend a change of the law in 
this particular." 

A dramatic sequence to the women's mass meeting has 
come in the sphere of public health administration, in the 
resignation of Dr. Sachs, the efficient head of the Muni- 
cipal Tuberculosis Sanatorium. In a statement Dr. Sachs 
said : 

"The mayor has said mine was his worst appointment. I 
plead guilty to the charge. From the standpoint of spoils 
politics I believe it was the worst appointment. 'The institu- 
tion is being made a political football by the administration. 
The entire dispensary department and the sanatorium are in 
a state of terror. ... I have passed through ten months 
of a continuous nightmare in trying to avert the politicaliza- 
tion of a great institution." 

THAT this whole deplorable set-back of forward- 
facing Chicago is due to partisanship in mayoralt> 
politics, is strikingly in evidence. For at this same city 
election when such an indiscriminate and unintelligent 
partisan vote was cast for mayor, the non-partisan inde- 
pendent vote for aldermen elected some of the ablest and 
best councilmen the city ever had. Those of them who 
secured their renomination at the recent primaries won 
by large majorities against the mayor's official influence 
and personal efforts to defeat them. This indicates that 
Chicago is righting up again, but her hope is in the ability 
of the City Council to withstand or bring into line the 
mayor's administration through three more years of 
struggle. Graham Taylor. 




ianMiH 




omkboh 



mm 



THE MONTH 

STRADDLING winter and spring, 
March brought forth a varied 
crop of measures and men. 

Health insurance has passed the stage 
of learned discussion and become a live 
issue in the United States, for bills em- 
bodying the best experience in Europe 
have been introduced in three state legis- 
latures. With the state treasury, the 
employer and the employe whacking up 
on the premiums, it proposes to make 
possible for every working man and 
woman a policy against sickness such as 
the better-to-do among us can now afford 
to take out with an insurance company. 

Such insurance is expected not only 
to pay sick benefits but to prevent sick- 
ness, just as the workmen's compensation 
laws have cut down accidents — an ex- 
pectation echoed in the very names of the 
bills which are to provide not sickness 
insurance but health insurance. The plan 
looks forward to the day when the doc- 
tor will not be called in by the sick but 
by the well — to keep them well; while 
the sick will send for the insurance agent 
— to pay the benefits. 

Baby week swept over the country al- 
most like the sane Fourth — a truly 
nation-wide campaign for better babies 
and better chances for babies. 

Less spectacular was the beginning of 
a children's rights movement — the or- 
ganizing of the Committee for Standard- 
izing Children's Laws through which the 
child-helping agencies will gradually es- 
tablish uniform levels of treatment and 
protection for the children of all states. 

The first important study of agricul- 
tural child labor has been brought out by 
the National Child Labor Committee — 
a sorry spectacle of Colorado youngsters 
kept from school to do heavy work in 
harvesting the beet crop that sweetens 
the candy they may not eat. 

The man who organized the National 
Board of Censorship of Motion Pictures 
has another constructive idea in his plan 
for a library of educational films for 
schools and churches and other places 
that want to have some say about what 
movies are shown their youngsters. 



Congress is being urged to pass a bill 
making of the Juvenile Court of the Dis- 
trict of Columbia a real children's cour' 
in place of the present criminal court for 
children, and removing the "criminal" 
records which stand against 4,000 Wash- 
ington youngsters who have been con- 
victed of breaking a window or some 
similarly heinous offense. 

CITY planning won a large and prac- 
tical victory in the decision of the 
United States Supreme Court that the 
regulation of building in cities by zones 
or districts is constitutional. This means 
that certain districts may be set aside for 
purely residence purpose without demo- 
cratic neighborliness on the part of fish- 
markets and boiler-shops. 

On the heels of the decision New York 
announced such a districting plan. Every 
block in the whole Greater City has been 
gone over and slated for this, that or the 
other use, like a giant picture puzzle. 
Sacramento has adopted a city plan 
which pays immediate profits in saving 
for park purposes a desirable tract that 
was about to become the home of an 
asphalt plant. And two other California 
cities, Oakland and Berkeley, have 
under consideration a plan that would 
steer their growth away from tenements 
and towards "square miles of garden 
homes." 

Among the most interesting notes ever 
filed in Washington was that in which 
representatives of 600 manufacturers and 
100,000 employes joined in urging the 
Senate to confirm Louis D. Brandeis to 
the Supreme Court. They were the men 
who had worked under the industrial 
court, devised by Mr. Brandeis, which 
had brought six years of peace in one 
of the most troubled labor camps — the 
needle trades of New York city. In the 
cloak, suit and skirt division of this 
trade, the protocol has since been abro- 
gated by the employers. 

The labor pot has boiled over again 
in Colorado and out of it something 
brand new for America — a threat by the 
governor to prosecute working men for 
striking without serving notice on their 
employers. A law requiring such polite 



notice was passed by the last legislature. 
Four, miners tried on the charge of mur- 
der in the bloody times following Ludlow 
have been acquitted. Seventy other in- 
dictments based on the same evidence 
and several hundred cases in all grow- 
ing out of the Colorado troubles may 
never be tried. 

Out of the riot in which half of East 
Youngstown. ().. was burned, has come 
an indictment by the grand jury of the 
United States Steel Corporation, Judge 
< iary, its president, and five other steel 
companies on a charge of making an un- 
lawful agreement to maintain uniform 
wage rates for common labor. The Wis- 
consin Supreme Court has ruled that a 
man who took typhoid from the bad 
drinking water of his employer can col- 
lect damages under the compensation law 
just as if it were an accident. 

WOMEN voters of Chicago held a 
great meeting to protest at the 
mayor's reversion to the old partisan 
control of the City Council and his at- 
tempts to push the spoils system back in- 
to the health, education and other vital 
departments of city government. And 
while they were at it they adopted a 
woman's municipal platform that is de- 
scribed as the best program ever drafted 
for independent voters. 

Uncle Sam's billion dollar budgets are 
likely to be in for a grilling when the 
new Institute for Government Research 
gets under way, for it is to do for the 
nation what the Bureaus of Municipal 
Research do for the cities in corking the 
leaks and promoting efficiency. 

St. Louis' first use of its brand new 
municipal referendum was to vote a black 
gnetto. About half the voters voted, in- 
cluding some Negroes who were tangled 
up, very likely, in the complicated dis- 
cussion of what would happen to real 
estate values in this or that block as a 
result of the change. A strong citizens' 
committee, the Socialist Party and the 
foreign-language press were the con- 
spicuous opponents. The only white 
wards which voted no were two which 
are inhabited by citizens of foreign birth. 

Every time he crosses the ferry or 



35 



36 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL i, igi6 



meets a dreadnaught nowadays, Newton 
D. Baker is entitled to a salute of nine- 
teen guns as the outward and audible 
sign that he, the most democratic of men, 
is secretary of war. Tom L. Johnson's 
lineal civic descendant, twice mayor of 
Cleveland, "the best-governed city in the 
United States," president of the National 
Consumers' League, pacifist and suffra- 
gist, city planner and promoter of "the 
city of good will," his friends have no 
bad dreams of gold lace sprouting from 
his shoulders even in the hot climate of 
the Potomac Valley. 

Chicago lost an invaluable citizen in 
the death of Dr. Henry B. Favill, former 
president of the City Club, a hard worker 
in the Municipal Voters' League and 
other civic agencies and a ranking phy- 
sician. Frederick P. Cabot, the man who 
tried the famous murder case on the 
bark, Herbert Fuller, has been appointed 
judge of the Boston Juvenile Court. 
Warden Osborne has been acquitted on 
the charge of perjury and is pressing the 
state to hasten his trial on the two re- 
maining indictments against him. Am- 
bassador and Mrs. Morgenthau are 
home from Constantinople where the re- 
lief of suffering, the nursing of the 
wounded and the protection of harried 
men and women of eleven nationalities 
all centered in their hands. 

WHAT EMERSON SAID ABOUT 
ADVERTISING 

EMERSON, soothing syrup, and the 
elevating influences of Lent all be- 
came involved with the celebration of 
baby week in Philadelphia. 

Arthur E. Wood was in charge of the 
headquarters of the Baby Week Commit- 
tee one day when in walked the adver- 
tising man who reveals to an expectant 
public the wares offered by the chain of 
Druco drug stores doing business in that 
city. He asked Mr. Wood for permis- 
sion to use in an advertisement a cut of 
the baby week poster used by the com- 
mittee. After consultation, the request 
was refused. 

It was with some astonishment, there- 
fore, that on March 7 Mr. Wood found 
in his morning paper a large ad of the 
Druco stores with the baby week poster 
at the top. It was all explained, how- 
ever, when in the morning mail came this 
letter: 

"Dear Sir: 

"After informing you that I would not 
run the baby week heading in our ad this 
week, the matter was taken up with my 
superiors who thought the ad too good 
to change and als ) that it was a splen- 
did bit of publicity for you. 

"So you will find it in this morning's 
Record, the Druco Magazine and in 
smaller space in the North American on 
Friday of this week. Was it Emerson 
who said, 'A foolish consistency is the 
bane of small minds?' 

"I regret that objection was raised to 
our running this copy for you as I had 



intended asking you for 300 copies of 
the programs and the poster for distribu- 
tion to and use by the Druco Drug 
Stores. Perhaps we can get together in 
better shape next year. 

"Very sincerely yours, 

"Harry R. Mulvey, 
"The Druco Ad Man." 

Mr. Wood waited a few days to cool 
off and then he wrote as follows to the 
representative of the stores where, to 
quote the advertisement, "every week is 
baby saving week" : 

"Dear Sir: 

"I have your letter of March 7 relat- 
ing to publicity for baby week which I 
asked you to exclude from your news- 
paper advertisement of Druco drugs. 
Inasmuch as one of your bottles adver- 
tised under the heading, 'Don't Dope 
Your Baby' contained chloroform, ac- 
cording to the printed analysis, and an- 
other one contained 7 per cent alcohol, 
also according to the printed analysis, I 
cannot refrain from saying that in a so- 
ciety with higher ethical standards than 
we now have, your business would be 
outlawed, as indeed it now is in the 
minds of all thinking people. 

"You were courteously received by me, 
though the very first day you appeared 
I told you that the advertisement would 
not be sanctioned if displaying harmful 
drugs ; and it was finallv at the urgent 
request of one of our committee that you 
were told not to advertise baby week in 
connection with your drugs. Since you 
have the temerity to misquote Emerson, 
I will inform you that Emerson really 
did say that 'Manners are the contriv- 
ance of the wise to keep fools at a dis- 
tance.' Apparently the contrivance broke 
down in this case. 

"If your conscience is clear, realizing 
at the close of each day that you have 
been instrumental in feeding infants on 
chloroform and alcohol, then 1 have noth- 
ing further to say. Hut if, as you ap- 




THE POSTER THAT PRODUCED AN EMULSION 
OF EMERSON, ADVERTISING ETHICS, BABV WEEK, 
LENT \N1) ALCOHOL. 



peared to be, you are too decent a man 
to be peddling such stuff, I should take 
Lent as a favorable time to consider the 
kind of business you are in. Moreover, 
if, as you say, it was your 'superiors' who 
bade you keep the 'ad' intact, I should 
consider whom I recognized as my 'su- 
periors.' You may rest assured that, if 1 
can find proper channels for publicity of 
this whole affair, you shall yet hear more 
of it. 

"Yours for the babies, 

"Arthur E. Wood." 
Perhaps they can get together next 
year. It's all a question of the efficacy 
of self-examination during Lent. 

THE "IDLE HOUSE" AND THE 
MAD-HOUSE 

COLUMBUS, OHIO, is the latest 
community to be stirred by the 
voluntary incarceration of one of her 
citizens for the purpose of finding out 
what life behind prison bars really 
means. C. C. Lyon, a reporter for the 
Scripps-McRae newspapers in Ohio, im- 
personated a pickpocket who had broken 
his parole, and spent nine days in the 
Columbus State Penitentiary without his 
real identity becoming known. 

In this prison housing 1,700 or 1,800 
men there is not enough work for all of 
the inmates so that 400 or 500 are idle 
most of the time. They sit on benches 
in the "idle-house," says Lyon, "rolling 
their thumbs, grumbling, and finding 
fault." It isn't always the same 500 that 
are kept idle, but many are idle so con- 
tinuously, Lyon declares, that "the 
thought that they will go crazy and be 
taken to the new state hospital for the 
criminal insane at Lima haunts them 
constantly." Nearly 80 of them have al- 
ready gone insane, from one cause or 
another. 

The prisoners plead for work and plot 
secretly to get jobs of any kind. "I had 
a job until a few days ago," one prison- 
er told Lyon, "but a snitch who wanted 
my place reported me for carrying a lit- 
tle pen-knife." 

"And did he get your place?" Lyon 
asked. 

"No. One of my pals snitched on him 
for smoking cigarettes." 

Another prisoner resorted to a ruse to 
escape the horrors of idleness. Part of 
the idle, deficient in education, attend 
prison school a portion of each day. In 
this school one morning Lyon found a 
patient teacher trying to pound fractions 
into the head of a bright enough looking 
young fellow. At noon this chap said to 
Lyon: 

"Guess you think I'm a dunce?" 

"Well," said Lyon, "you didn't show 
much class in arithmetic." 

"I'm stalling. Think I want to rot ir, 
the idle house? I told em my early edu 
cation had been neglected. But I reallv 
had two years in college." 

The most unpopular man in prison was 
a fellow who insisted on peeling more 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL i, igi6 



37 



" This animal be- 
lieved in huge 
armaments; he 
is now extinct 



The latest publicity 
feature of the Anti- 
" Preparedness 

Committee 




// T'T IS difficult to conceive." writes Walter G. Fuller, who 

J. is getting up an exhibit against war for the Anti- 
" Preparedness" Committee of which the above model 
is part, "any more proper and appropriate symbol of militar- 
ism than that which the Anti- Preparedness' Committee has 
hit upon. What could be more like the heavy, stumbling, 
clumsy brutal foolery which is destroying Europe than those 
old monsters of the past, the armored dinosaurs!' These 
beasts, all armor-plate and no brains, had no more intelligent 
way of living than that of 'adequate preparedness.' All their 
difficulties were to be met by piling on more and more armor, 
until at last they sank by their own clumsv weight into the 
marsh lands, such as one would expect to find at low tide at 
Oyster Bay. 

"I/ere was an animal unable to do even a little intelligent 
thinking. Its brain cavity in proportion to the sice of its body 
ivas more diminutive than that of any other vertebrate. Like 
the militarist, therefore, it zvas unable to conceive of any intel- 
ligent foreign policy. Moreover, its vision was limited. Its 
eyes zvere small and could look only in a sidewise direction. 
It could not look ahead. 

"It is also considered likely that the dinosaur had no funny 
bone. 

"It is thought by those ivho have studied these creatures 
that at one time there zvere at least fourteen different species 
of armored dinosaurs roaming about the face of the earth. 
This fact has a peculiar significance, as there are just that 



number of patriotic 'societies in this country now urging 
dinosaurian preparedness' upon us. Increasing bulk and de- 
velopment of the armor caused the dinosaur to lose celerity 
of movement ; he became a sluggish, slow-moving creature of 
low mentality. Whereas his contemporaries in the animal 
kingdom, zvhose minds did not run so much on 'preparedness,' 
kept their wits about them and decided upon some zvorkable 
plan by which to live and let live, with the result that modern 
man and the armored dinosaur now meet one another only 
in museums. 

"So it will be with the great nations. 

"The free peoples zi'ho refuse to take upon themselves the 
hadge of militarism are destined to march far along the road 
of human progress and civilization zvhile the cringing goose- 
stepping, eternally saluting, taxpaying zvorshippers of the mil- 
itarist top-boot will have 'prepared' themselves off the face of 
the earth. 

"Some day, not verv far distant, happy civilians zrill come 
to look at models of the fighting men of today all dressed 
up — gas tespirators. steel helmets, trench boots and the rest 
of it — in the chambers of militarist horrors which will every- 
where be a part of the national museums of the future." 

The dinosaur has recently been on evhibition in Philadel- 
phia The z^'holc exhibit will be displayed for the first time 
in Nezv York citv early in April, and from there zvill move 
to other cities. 



potatoes than anybody else, thereby rob- 
bing others of work to do. 

The prisoners themselves have figured 
out ways of doing away with idleness. 
They think more men could be used at 
the state's brickmaking plant, which now 
employes seventy-hve. They think pris- 
oners could be used to build roads, for 
which the state is paying millions of dol- 
lars. And they see no reason why the 
new prison in Madison county, now in 
process of construction, could not be 
built with prison labor. 

Lyon came out of prison feeling that 
Warden P. E. Thomas is making the ma- 
jority of his prisoners better, that his ad- 
ministration is kindly and straightfor- 
ward toward the inmates. There is a 
chance, he says, for those who are em- 



ployed and well housed in the new cell 
block to respond to these methods. But 
no amount of kindness, he thinks, can 
avail to keep from sinking into mental 
apathy or madness a man who has noth- 
ing to do but wear out his trousers on a 
bench. 

SOCIAL CENTERS AS FRENCH 
WAR MEMORIALS 

INSTEAD of statues of laurel-browed 
heroes, a little group of French peo- 
ple is urging the establishment of social 
centers in every community to serve as 
memorials to the dead of the war, their 
names to be engraved upon marble in 
the entrance halls. 

Nor are social centers the only way 



through which these people banded to- 
gether in a Ligue d'Education Civique 
are working to institute in France im- 
mediately after the war a great educa- 
tional and social movement that will re- 
construct European civilization, wipe 
out world hatred and prevent a period 
of dissipation and frivolity such as fol- 
lowed the Franco-Prussian war. 

First of all the league would estab- 
lish at Paris an International Alliance of 
Civic Education which would have re- 
lations with all civic and educational as- 
sociations abroad, such as the Workers' 
Educational Association of London and 
the American Civic Association, and 
would hold a study congress every three 
years. This International Alliance would 



3« 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL i, igi6 



be simplified by the formation in France 
of a national federation of educational 
societies, meeting annually. 

In the second place, the league intends 
to support certain social legislation — for 
example, compulsory vocational train- 
ing, censorship of moving pictures, ob- 
ligatory primary instruction and laws to 
beautify the schools and improve sani- 
tary conditions. In particular, by form- 
ing in each arrondissement of Paris a 
"committee of action," the league will 
demand that all candidates for office 
pledge themselves for laws creating free 
schools and social .centers. 

Finally the league is organizing a so- 
cial service exhibition including models 
and graphic representation of the work 
of libraries, university extension, boy 
scouts and Y. M. C. A., child welfare so- 
cieties and other social movements. It 
urges foreign countries to send exhibits 
of social work that are particularly dis- 
tinctive of the country (a public library 
exhibit from the United States, for in- 
stance) and to send delegates to an edu- 
cational congress being planned at the 
same time. The date of the opening of 
the exhibition is fixed for July 1, 1916, 
or, if at that time war is not ended, six 
months later. The secretary of the 
Ligue d'Education Civique is M. H. 
Oger, 12 Quai Debilly, Paris. 

BRINGING HOME THE COST 
OF FEEBLEMINDEDNESS 

WHICH shall it be? One hand 
pointed to a dirty, crowded, di- 
lapidated hut, its broken windows filled 
with straw, the floor strewn with refuse, 
its one room shared by dejected wax 
figures of feebleminded humans and be- 
draggled fowls. This had been the home 
of a feebleminded family. In the other 
direction, a hand pointed to the beauti- 
ful buildings and grounds of a modern 
state institution for the feebleminded. 
Here a thousand of them lived healthy, 
useful lives. 

The simple contrast in this picture was 
the statement of the problem and the 
solution — everything else converged to 
this end. And it was the key to the ex- 
hibit on feeblemindedness prepared by 
the Public Charities' Association of 
Pennsylvania which recently closed a 
two weeks' engagement in Philadelphia 
and is shortly to go on tour through the 
cities of the state. Eventually it will 
be set up at the state capital, Harrisburg, 
as a standing object lesson to the legis- 
lature of the need of segregating the 
feebleminded for the protection of so- 
ciety and of themselves. 

In plain English, but without exag- 
geration, the story of the 18,000 or more 
mental defectives in Pennsylvania was 
told, not in tiresome statistics, but in 
crisp sentences, illustrated by scores of 
photographs, drawings and paintings. A 
great map of Pennsylvania brought the 
problem straight home to each commun- 










UNPROTECTED 
FEEBLE-MINDED GIRLS 




PANELS FROM THE SUCCESSFUL EXHIBIT 
ON FEEBLEMINDEDNESS 

ity, by showing in plain black figures the 
number of feebleminded in each county, 
and in bright red the comparatively small 
number of those in each county who are 
being properly cared for by the state. 

The panels put the story plainly 
enough for the man in the street, ex- 
plaining graphically the differences be- 
tween idiots, imbeciles and morons, 
counting the cost of unmarried mothers 
of "simple" children against the $200 a 
year for maintenance in a state institu- 
tion and bringing a definition of the 
whole thing down to these simple terms 
on a single panel : 

"What do you do that a feebleminded 
person cannot do? 

"You decide between right and wrong. 

"You appreciate the consequences of 
evil acts. 

"You make plans for yourself and for 
your children. 

"If you were not capable of doing 
these things you would not be a safe 
member of society." 

There were those who doubted that 
so delicate and intricate a subject could 
be explained in an exhibit without sacri- 
ficing either scientific accuracy or pub- 
lic interest. But that the exhibit solved 
both difficulties was amply demonstrated 
in Philadelphia. Many of the leading 
authorities of the country gave it their 
approval and spoke to twenty-nine 
crowded meetings at the exhibit hall. 

More than 100,000 adults (children 
were not admitted) attended in two 
weeks. And more than 20,000 of them 
signed a petition asking the Pennsyl- 
vania 1 egislature of 1917 to make lib- 
eral appropriations for the completion of 



OU FUWASTEFUL 



t 

4 



>Ft^M 



Iriplc 
THE FEEBLE MINDCD 




t 

* 




the Village for Feebleminded Women of 
Child-bearing Age and for the develop- 
ment and maintenance of this and the 
two existing state institutions at Polk 
and Spring City. Over 25,000 remained 
for further instruction in the lectures, 
moving pictures and stereopticon enter- 
tainments, and at the play. 

The play, written expressly for the oc- 
casion, by Fullerton L. Waldo and acted 
by the Stage Society of Philadelphia, 
told the true story of a feebleminded girl 
who had killed her baby, through ignor- 
ance and thoughtlessness and was haled 
into court for her crime. The deftly cov- 
ered moral was brought out when the 
judge discovered that there was no place 
to send the girl except back to her old 
beat on the street. 

Planned and prepared by the Commit- 
tee on the Feebleminded of the Public 
Charities' Association of Pennsylvania 
and with the help of the Department of 
Surveys and Exhibits of the Russell 
Sage Foundation, the exhibit was car- 
ried to success by the co-operative efforts 
of a score of social and civic organiza- 
tions in Philadelphia and its vicinity. 
The aim of the association and its allies 
in both Philadelphia and the state-wide 
tour to follow is to secure adequate ap- 
propriations for suitable institutions in 
which to segregate the feebleminded who 
are a menace to themselves or to the 
community and to provide suitable, uni- 
form methods for identifying and com- 
mitting such persons for observation and 
treatment. 

CONGRESS A LAGGARD OVER 
SOCIAL LEGISLATION 

CONGRESS is already whispering 
about adjournment dates. But 
those who are anxious to see it make a 
better record in social legislation than 
its predecessor believe that the demand 
for action on pending bills cannot be too 
loudly voiced. 

Having been in session since Decern 
her 6 it has yet to pass a single one of 
a score of measures designed to promote 
social welfare. The federal child labor 
bill, the bill to create divisions of mental 
hygiene and rural sanitation in the Pub- 
lic Health Service, the bills to promote 
vocational education, to provide ade- 
quate compensation for federal em- 
ployes who suffer industrial accident or 
occupational disease, to establish rural 
credits, to prohibit interstate shipment 
of convict-made goods, to create a bu- 
reau of safety in the Labor Department, 
and the bills to organize the national 
park service and create new parks — 
these are only a few of the much needed 
measures which still languish in com- 
mittee of one house or the other. 

Nearly all were threshed out in the 
preceding Congress, so far as their 
fundamentals are concerned. The same 
familiar arguments then rehearsed have 
been repeated and repeated. The same 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL i, jgi6 



39 



delegations have appeared at the same 
sort of hearings. And the same myster- 
ious sticking spots seem to be spread 
with the same glue for retarding legis- 
lation. 

With the disappointment of last year 
•n mind, the proponents of social meas- 
ures this year took especial pains in most 
cases to introduce bills early in the ses- 
sion and to push them persistently. But 
despite every effort, the situation is ap- 
proaching that stage in which last year 
so much was lost or left behind in the 
final rush for adjournment. The child 
labor bill, although it passed the House, 
lingers long in the Senate Committee on 
Interstate and Foreign Commerce. 

The same committee reported favor- 
ably the bill to create divisions of raem- 
tal hygiene and rural sanitation in the 
Public Health Service, but it has yet to 
be passed by either house. 

The vocational education bill has been 
favorably reported by the House Com- 
mittee on Education and the Senate 
Committee on Education and Labor. 
But it also has yet to be voted upon. 

The Kern-McGillicuddy bill for fed- 
eral employes' accident and occupational 
disease compensation is still in the Judi- 
ciary Committee of the House most 
of whose members are publicly on record 
in favor of the bill but privately failing 
to report it out. It is generally believed 
that the bill will pass if favoraby report- 
ed in time for a vote. 

The weight of sentiment which has 
been gathering momentum since the 
American commission on rural credits in 
1913 is likely to save the Hollis-Moss 
rural credits bill. 

The convict labor bill, whicb has pass- 
ed the House no less than four times in 
the last few years, is still slumbering in 
the House Committee on Interstate and 
Foreign Commerce and the Senate Com- 
mittee on Education and Labor. If 
passed, it would regulate, through the 
exercise of federal authority over inter- 
state commerce, the shipment of prison- 
made goods. Today a state which regu- 
lates strictly its own convict labor is 
powerless to prevent convict-made goods 
from coming across its borders. 

The bill to provide a bureau of safety 
in the Department of Labor passed the 
House on January 19 but sticks in the 
Senate Committee on Education and 
Labor — ominously, since this committee 
failed to report it out last year. Even 
in its present form it does not provide 
adequate funds for the work of such a 
bureau. 

Even the enthusiasm of public-spirited 
men who want to see our national parks 
better developed and popularized has 
thus far failed to gain much progress 
for the bills to organize the national 
parks service and create new parks. 

If the meager record of the last Con- 
gress in social legislation is not to be 
actually beaten for niggardliness by the 




Cave Life or Civilization 



Civilized man is distinguished 
from the cave man by his habit of 
co-operation. 

The cave man lived for and by 
himself ; independent of others, but 
always in danger from natural laws. 

To the extent that we assist one 
another, dividing up the tasks, we 
increase our capacity for produc- 
tion, and attain the advantages of 
civilization. 

We may sometimes disregard our 
dependence on others. But suppose 
the farmer, for example, undertook 
to live strictly by his own efforts. 
He might eke out an existence, but 
it would not be a civilized existence 
nor would it satisfy him. 

He needs better food and clothes 
and shelter and implements than he 
could provide unassisted. He re- 
quires a market for his surplus prod- 
ucts, and the means of transporta- 
tion and exchange. 

He should not forget who makes 
his clothes, his shoes, his tools, his 



vehicles and his tableware, or who 
mines his metals, or who provides 
his pepper and salt, his books and 
papers, or who furnishes the ready 
means of transportation and ex- 
change whereby his myriad wants 
are supplied. 

Neither should he forget that the 
more he assists others the more they 
can assist him. 

Take the telephone specialists of 
the Bell System : the more efficient 
they are, the more effectively the 
farmer and every other human 
factor of civilization can provide for 
their own needs and comforts. 

Or take our government, en- 
trusted with the task of regulating, 
controlling and protecting a hun- 
dred million people. It is to the 
advantage of everyone that the gov- 
ernment shall be so efficient in its 
special task that all of us may per- 
form our duties under the most 
favorable conditions. Interdepend- 
ence means civilized existence. 




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present Congress, those who understand 
the urgent need for the passage of so- 
cial measures must put forth most stren- 
uous effort witli their own representa- 
tives and senators, with the members of 
committees where bills seem so effectu- 
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There is imminent danger that many 
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AN AMERICAN RENAISSANCE 
IN TWENTY YEARS 

JOHN MASEFIELD has gone back 
to England after two months spent 
in this country in addressing university 
students and members of literary and 
musical clubs on the subject of English 
poetry. To judge by the newspapers, 
Americans like the flavor of this English 
lyric poet's rise from a seaman and a 
bartender in a Sixth avenue cafe no less 
than his more recent share in the ambu- 
lance service of the allies. So his re- 
ception was accounted for only partly by 
the melancholy loveliness of his Daffodil 
Fields or his stories of sailing vessels 
that "mark our passing as a race of 
men." 

At all events, it was because Mr. 
Masefield once associated with the men 
about the docks and, later, wrote of them, 
that a member of The Survey staff 
sought an interview with him before he 
sailed. And it was because he has re- 
vealed in his Tragedy of Nan, The 
Widow in the Bye-Street, and The Ever- 
lasting Mercy the immense suffering of 
a great class of men and women when 
deprived of certain fundamental things 
and thereby brought new understandings 
into poetry, that the first question asked 
was, quite bluntly: 

"Mr. Masefield, are you a social poet?" 

But Mr. Masefield shied from the 
nomenclature and apparently, with his 
English background, failed to catch what 
an American would have in mind in so 
describing him. He replied a bit vaguely: 

"A social poet? A poet of Socialism? 
I believe as Goethe believed that a poet 
should understand and understand with 
passion all creeds. Or do you mean by 
a social poet one who looks out upon the 
street and says, T shall go out and en- 
joy these comrades of mine — they are 
my brothers and my sisters'? 

"Whitman was such a poet. And he 
is the greatest spokesman of America and 
the American spirit. It is the spirit one 
feels as soon as one lands and as one 
goes across the country — an open, genial, 
welcoming spirit. This attitude toward 
the market-place differs greatly from the 
Englishman's attitude. 

"An Englishman is shy. His emotions 



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play inside himself. Outwardly and to 
others he is cold. He is an aristocrat. 
He is feudal. The Englishman looks out 
upon the street and sees each individual 
human being with all his thoughts and 
pleasures and pains, and understands 
with a deep sympathy, but he does not 
say 'I am one with them — they are 
brother and sister to me.' Chaucer was 
not a democrat — least of all I should 
say Shakespeare. 

"But the market-place is only one 
source from which an English poet cre- 
ates his poetry. To him each bit of the 
landscape has its warm, personal mean- 
ing. Your hills and rivers and fields are 
not your intimates. Your wide stretches 
of country seem raw; the green of your 
foliage is more metallic, dusty, compared 
to the rich green of our roadsides. Na- 
ture has a wide place in our poetry, and 
besides that the English poet is deeply 
religious." 

"But has not your poetry been steadily 
growing more and more democratic? 
Do you think your Everlasting Mercy, 
for instance, could have been written at 
the end of the eighteenth century?" 

"I think so. Only a little later Words- 
worth and Burns began writing of the 
poor. No — perhaps some of my oaths 
would not have been in vogue then. . . . 
But Burns and Wordsworth did make 
more inclusive the subject matter of 
poetry. They were in revolt against the 
previous formality in verse. 

"Now I should have said, before the 
war, the pendulum was swinging back 
again. The younger men, younger than 
Rupert Brooke, not yet known, writing 
in Oxford before the war, were becom- 
ing more and more formal. No one is 
writing now and this is no longer true. 
Most of them are too busily engaged in 
one form of war work or another. 

"And the reconstruction that will take 
place is bound to be more democratic. 
Men and women have been working to- 
gether for too long a time, they have 
endured too much, not to realize now 
each other's worth. Politically, some 
form of state Socialism will probably be 
adopted. 

"English women, I think and hope, will 
in all justice be given the vote and have 
a hand in the change when it comes. 
Emotionally, there may be such exhaus- 
tion that no European country will be 
producing poetry after the war; but if 
there is to be verse in England, I think 
some of that spirit which is in your life 
here will be found in it." 

Whatever comes in Europe, Mr. Mase- 
field believes that we will be producing 
in this country. He spoke of indications 
he had found of this in all directions. 

"You are thinking about and dipping 
into so many things," he said. "That is 
the way of a nation previous to a renais- 
sance. And my belief is that the Ameri- 
can renaissance will come about, sudden- 



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THE PROBLEMS 

OF THE 

COMING PEACE 

By FELIX MLYNARSKI, Th.D. 

Delegate cf the Supreme Polish National 

Committee to America 

Among an avalanche of hooks on the 
WAR — Hie tirst hook on PKACE ! This 
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economic interests in Kurope. 

The author is not only a profound student 
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The reader must soon realize that the author 
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The book covers one hundred and seventy- 
two pages, and is divided into the follow- 
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I. INTRODUCTION. 

II. The Turkish Question. 
III. The Part of Austria-Hungary. 

IV. The Future of Warsaw. 

V. The Cu'ses of the War. 

VI. The Peace Tribunal. 
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Society 

and 

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The Diplomatic 

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YALE 

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NEW HAVEN, CONNECTICUT 



ly, within the next twenty years. The 
pot will boil over, all in a minute. 

"One would expect new architecture 
from . a young country, and your archi- 
tecture is the greatest in the world to- 
day. Your dwelling houses are the most 
complete, your skyscrapers the most 
beautiful of buildings. In England our 
modern Gothic architecture is a flat and 
lifeless imitation, while here you have 
adapted Gothic architecture into — do you 
call it university Gothic? — and made 
something entirely new. Then within 
twenty years your great poets will be 
speaking." 

The reader, like the interviewer, is left 
to make his own guess as to whether to 
Mr. Masefield's mind they would be what, 
for want of a better term, Americans 
would call "social poets." 

THE WOMEN OF EUROPE AT 
WORK FOR PEACE 

INTERNATIONAAL is the name and 
spirit of the news sheet published 
by The Hague headquarters of the In- 
ternational Committee of Women for 
Permanent Peace whereby a member of 
the I. C. W. P. P. in Uraguay, for in- 
stance, may learn of the struggles and 
achievements of women peace advocates 
in Finland. Italy. Ireland or any other 
of the seventeen countries represented 
on the committee. 

The first two numbers of Interna- 
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items as a statement of the progress of 
organization, showing that committees 
have been appointed in Finland and 
Uraguay and that in Victoria, Australia, 
a provisional committee has been formed. 

From Denmark comes word that the 
I )anish committee is arranging study 
circles to prepare women for taking part 
in the congress to be held after the war. 
Signatures are being collected in Italy 
for an appeal that belligerents state 
their conditions of peace, that the peo- 
ple be directly represented in the official 
conference which fixes the terms of 
peace and that the first condition of 
peace lie disarmament on land and sea. 

The Melbourne, Australia. Peace So- 
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The news from England and Ireland 
is chiefly concerned with opposition to 



Commended to all interested in 

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BEING 
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The Springfield Survey 

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paration). Shelby M. Harrison. 25 cents. 

Springfield Survey Exhibition: E. C. Roulzahn. 
\ fary Swain Routzahn and Walter Storey. A brief 
p imphlrt description of the Kxhibition. 8 pages. 5c. 
A lew exhibit panels are reproduced in the reports. 



Library Edition : The reports will be available later 
in three cloth bound volumes. Descriptive announce- 
ment mailed to those sending in their names. 



DEPARTMENT OF SURVEYS and EXHIBITS 

Russell Safe Foundation 
130 East 22nd Street - New York City 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL i. i 9 i6 



43 



the bill introducing into Great Britain 
compulsory military service for unmar- 
ried men between eighteen and forty- 
one. The Women's International League 
of England and the provisional commit- 
tee of the Irish Women's International 
League have been among the active op- 
ponents of the bill. 

From England, too, comes a report 
that the Manchester City Council has 
endorsed the action of the Town Hall 
Committee in declining to let its public 
buildings for meetings under the aus- 
pices of the Independent Labor Party, 
the Union of Democratic Control, the 
No-Conscription Fellowship and the Fel- 
lowship of Reconciliation. Margaret 
Ashton, sister-in-law of Lord Bryce and 
a member of the City Council who op- 
posed this policy, has been expelled from 
three sub-committees of the Education 
Committee of the council because she 
discussed at a meeting of the Inde- 
pendent Labour Party what the terms 
of peace should be. Miss Ashton is 
one of the executives of the Women's 
International League. 

Of especial interest is the news from 
Germany and Austria-Hungary that the 
Women's International Committees art- 
combatting the war-instigating articles 
in the newspapers and the militarist 
ideal of education. The reports from 
Austria and Germany assert that the 
soldiers themselves stand with the wom- 
en to oppose the policy of the press in 
reviling the enemy. The report from 
Hungary reprints a newspaper item to 
the effect that the royal Hungarian min- 
ister of education requests all teachers 
to instruct children to respect and honor 
the enemy so that they may have no 
feeling of hatred or contempt for the 
brave men with whom their fathers 
are in deadly combat. Reports about 
Germany also emphasize the declaration 
of the Social-Democrats in the Reich- 
stag that the German people are against 
annexation. 

LABOR UNIONS FOR ACTORS 
AND TEACHERS 

WOULD a union card tarnish the 
glory of Ethel Barrymore, E. H. 
Southern, Maude Adams or any other 
Broadway star? 

That's the question which some 2,600 
members of the Actors' Equity Associa- 
tion must answer before the third Mon- 
day in May, when the matter of affiliat- 
ing with the American Federation of 
Labor comes before the annual meeting 
of the association. 

Between 800 and 900 actors and ac- 
tresses at a recent meeting in New York 
adopted almost unanimously the resolu- 
tion to submit the proposal of affiliation 
to the May meeting. And on the same 
day similar meetings with similar results 
were held in Boston, Philadelphia, Chi- 
cago and Los Angeles. 

As the A. F. of L. can grant but one 



OF COURSE YOU'RE COMING TO 
THE NATIONAL CONFERENCE! 

Your colleagues from all parts of the United States 
will be there, with the expectation of seeing you. 

One executive in social work this winter crossed the 
country merely to find out what his associates were 
thinking on the war question. It affects his business. 

Forty-five group conferences and platform sessions 
on up-to-date issues in social work. 

43rd Annual Session 

NATIONAL CONFERENCE of CHARITIES and CORRECTION 

Indianapolis, May 10-17, 1916 

The program is out ! Divisions on Children, Corrections, 
Family and Community, Feeble-mindedness and Insanity, Health, 
Inebriety, Public and Private Charities, Promotion of Social Pro- 
grams, Unemployment. 

Reduced Railroad Rates ! 

Address for information, 315 Plymouth Court, Chicago, 111. 



'"ii 



Rush and Emergency Work Efficiently Handled 



B. H.TYRREL 

Magazines, Catalogs, Annual Reports 
and all kinds of commercial 

PRINTING 

Telephones: Cortlandt 1136, 1137, 3208 



Nos. 206 and 208 Fulton Street, New York City 



iVnniiiimininintiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiNiiiiiuiiiiiJiiiitiiiiiiiiiiuiiiiiiiiniiin 1 nii;i : ii;iiiiiiN l .Liii..iii, L .i,. i . i , . ,■ :, ■, ■■; ' .1 ■■iiiniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiinii 











Secretary of War Newton D. Baker 
takes The Survey. Do you ? 

Once a month $2; Once a week <K3« 











44 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL i, i 9 i6 



Over 50,000 sold in nine months 

THE MEANING 
OF PRAYER 

HARRY EMERSON FOSDICK 

Art Leather, jo cents 

Rarely does an author so squarely meet 
the spiritual inte'est and need of human- 
ity. People in all walks of life testify to 
the helpfulness of this book; it throws 
new light on God's attitude toward us and 
our needs. Arranged for daily study; 
Scripture printed in full. Fresh, vigorous 
comment, rich in illustrative material. A 
splendid book for either individual or 
group uses, 

"No previous writer on the theme has 
excelled it. A permanent Christian clas- 
sic."— » He CoNTlNtM. 

"Gives a new, vital and more practical 
meaning to prayer; full of spiritual vis- 
sion."— l'HE SUKV h-\. 

"It will answer the questions of many 
an honest doubter." JOHN R. Mu'l 1. 

ASSOCIATION PRESS 

124 East 28th Street - - - New York 



PAMPHLETS 

OF THE 

Juvenile Protective Association 

of Chicago 

The followirg publications may be purchased 
from the Juvenile Pioteciive Association, 816 
South Halsted St., Chicago. Add one cent 
for postage to purchase price of each pamphlet. 



"Boys in the County Jail" 1913 

"Colored People in Chicago" 1913 

"Crime in Chicago." Reprinted from the New 

Republic, 1915 
"The Care of Illegitimate Children in Chicago" 

1912 
"Five and Ten Cent Theatres" 1911 
"Girls employed in Hottli and Restaurants" 

1912 
"Manual of Juvenile Laws in Illinois" 1916 
"Most Popular Recreation controlled by the 

Liquor Interests" 1911 
"On the Trail of the Juvenile Adult Offender" 

1912 
"The Real Jail Problem" 1915 
The Saturday Hall Holiday" 1915 
"Some Legislative Needs in Illinois" 1914 
"A Study of Mentally Defective Children in 

in Chicago" 1915 
"What should be done for Chicago women of" 

fenders." Report of the City Council Crime 

Committee, 1916 
"A Study of Bastardy Cases" 1913 
"The Block System of the Juvenile Protective 

Association" 1916 
"Child Beggars and Peddlers on the streets of 

Chicago" 1916 



Sc 
Sc 

Sc 

25c 

Sc 

10c 
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2c 
5c 

25c 



5c 
5c 



charter to any occupation or profession, 
and as the theatrical profession is al- 
ready represented by the White Rats 
[vaudeville] Actors' Union organized 
sixteen years ago, the proposed union of 
"legitimate" performers would receive a 
branch charter from the White Rats. 

Wages, the eight-hour day and the 
closed shop are not the goal of an ac- 
tors' union. Its chief concern would be 
to secure an equitable contract with 
managers with the following minimum 
demands : to secure transportation from 
New York and back to New York, to 
limit the period of free rehearsals, to 
re-establish the two weeks' notice clause, 
to protect an actor who has given more 
than a week's rehearsal from being dis- 
charged without compensation, to pre- 
vent the increase of extra performances 
without pay, to get full pay for all weeks 
played, and to seek an adjustment with 
regard to the cost of women's dress. 

This platform has been the aim of the 
Actors' Equity Association since it was 
organized in 1913 with the result that 
the old form of contract with its tricky 
clauses has been discarded by many man- 
agers. A few recalcitrant managers re- 
main, however. 

On the same night on which the ac- 
tors were proposing a labor union, more 
than 1,200 teachers in New York city 
came together to signify their willing- 
ness to follow the lead of the Chicago, 
Cleveland and Scranton teachers and 
join the American Federation of Labor, 
The Teachers' Union is being fathered 
by the Teachers' League of New York 
City, an organization of about 600 mem- 
bers which has been working along sim- 
ilar lines for several years. 

Among the results the union hopes to 
bring about in New York city are a 
salary schedule that will insure a living 
wage for new and apprentice mem- 
bers; a method of referendum by which 
such matters as pensions, hours of work, 
etc., shall be submitted to the teacher 
body ; direct representation of teachers 
on the Board of Education and the 



February 12 Wanted 

Extra copies of this issue are needed because 
an unexpected demand has exhausted the 
stock in this office. Will all readers of The 
Survey who do not keep their issues for bind- 
ing, forward copies of February 12 to 

THE SURVEY 
105 East 22d St., New York, N. Y. 

To those who are able to help us out, 
our hearty thanks. 



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THE SURVEY FOR APRIL i, 1916 



45 



elimination of "arbitrary and tyrannical 
systems of supervision." 

Teachers' unions affiliated with the 
American Federation of Labor are in ex- 
istence in Oklahoma City, Okla. ; Butte 
and Missoula, Mont. ; San Antonio, Tex., 
and Scranton. Pa. The Chicago Teach- 
ers, a fact which confirms the findings 
been in existence thirteen years. The 
Cleveland union has been waiting to pro- 
ceed with organization until a Supreme 
Court decision is reached in the case of 
Superintendent of Schools Frederick 
who dismissed six teachers active in 
unionization. The National Teachers' 
Union of England has a representative 
in Parliament. 

HELPING "TB" PATIENTS TO 
HELP THEMSELVES 

AN investigation which disclosed 
that 45 per cent of the patients dis- 
charged from a tuberculosis sanatorium, 
as improved or in an arrested condition, 
had as a matter of fact relapsed or died 
within two years after their discharge, 
was the basis for working out a plan for 
saving such an enormous waste by a 
joint committee of the Free Synagogue, 
the Montefiore Home and the United 
Hebrew Charities of New York city. 

In the first place, patients are being 
trained in occupations which will restore 
them to economic usefulness. The ma- 
jority of those coming under the com- 
mittee's care were needle workers. 

So a factory was opened last June on 
the upper floor of a two-story building 
in the Bronx. New windows were add- 
ed, and a stairway and bulkhead cut 
through to the roof on which a fresh-air 
rest room will be equipped this summer. 
The patients work on men's shirts, a 
task which though not paying the high- 
est wages has a fairly steady demand. 

The work in this factory is graduated 
both in difficulty and in time. Some pa- 
tients who at first could work only an 
hour or two, are now doing practically 
full time. They work in ideal conditions 
and under continued supervision. The 
usual accessories of welfare work are 
present, such as lunch room, rest room, 
and nurse service. None of the patients 
is paid more than they earn nor less than 
the union scale. 

Admission to the factory is strictly 
limited by doctor's orders, and examina- 
tions are repeated every month. 

The committee endeavors by its visit- 
ing nurses to keep track of the patient's 
entire family, and has found in a number 
of cases that other members than the 
one under treatment needed special care. 
In its rehabilitation process it includes 
the very practical assistance of loans to 
start patients in business. 

The total cost of the experiment for 
two years, including the cost of equip- 
ping the factory, was over $S0,000. The 
cost of service for each individual, was 
40.3 cents a week. 






1 ooo€^-oo o»^)3o< 



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INVESTMENT SECURITIES 



The Survey accepts only the advertisements of reliable banking firms, brokers, 
trust companies, savings banks and other financial institutions. 




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Corn Belt Farm Loans 

offered and recommended by The Merchants Loan 
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These loans are all secured by First Mortgages on 
improved farms of established value in the Corn Belt — the 
safest farm loan section in the United States. They are 
made only after thorough and exhaustive personal inves- 
tigation and never for more than one -half the value of 
the land alone. 

No investor purchasing these mortgages has ever failed 
to receive principal and interest when due. 

At present, these loans are being sold to net b°fc. 

A detailed list and description of loans aggregating 
any amount you state, will be sent upon request. 

Our service includes the examination and 
approval of title by the Bank's own attorneys, an 
inspection of the property by our own salaried exam- 
iner, the certification that ail taxes are paid as they 
mature, the collection and remittance of interest and 
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F. W. THOMPSON, Vice-President (in Charge) 
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that the Investment is safe beyond question and suitable 
for investors requiring sound security and excellent yield. 

Ask for Circular No. 6090A 

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(Established 1865) 



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Home and Institutional Economics 

FOR OUR READERS INTERESTED IN HOME ECONOMICS, 
HOME MAKING AND INSTITUTION MANAGEMENT. 



Housefurnishing 
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Domestic Science makes the work of the house 
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The correspondence courses of the American 
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been tested, proved by over 15,000 housekeepers, 
teachers, institution managers, etc. 

The attractive illustrated 100-page handbook of the 
school, The Profession of Home-Making," will be sent 
on request. Address a postcard or note— A. S. H. E 
519 West 69th St.. Chicago. 111. 



Essential to Health and 
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Mattress Protectors are necessary for cleanliness of 
the Mattress. 

No good housekeeper considers her bed rightly 
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A sheet in itself cannot properly protect the Mattress. 

During sleeping hours the body in complete repose 
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Get into the Habit of Reading the 
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HINDUS BATHING IN THE GANGES DURING AN ECLIPSE OF THE SUN 



Price io cents 



THE 
BEGINNI NG 
OF NATIVE 
EFFORT FOR 
THE PUBLIC 
HEALTH IN 
INDIA 

[See page (»> | 



April 8, 1 916 



Volume XXXVI, No. 1 



CONTENTS for APRIL 8, 1916 TAeQISToflT 



VOL. XXXVI NO. 2 

THE COMMON WELFARE 

Chicago Politics and a Tragic Death 

Harvey Humphrey Baker 

Fighting Women's Night Work in Rhode Island 

Social Measures in New Jersey's Legislature 

Child Labor Bill and the Mothers' Congress 

"Licensed Extortion" by Loan Sharks 

Instead of Salvarsan, A New Drug 

Testing Adjectives and Institutions 
CONTRIBUTED ARTICLES 

Farm Co-operation for Better Business. Schools and Churches 

- - - - WARREN H. WILSON 

Making Civil Service Effective herschel jones 

Sparks et.izabeth j. easton 

INDUSTRY 

May It Please the Court - I. a. f. 

Telephone Girls and Laundry Workers 
HEALTH 

A Year of the Harrison Narcotic Law 

Why They Have Cholera in India 
CIVICS 

Opening School Doors to Popular Discussion 

Finances Under City Commissions 

Dark Rooms and Cellars in New York 

Another Shoot for the Young Idea 

Cost of Living for City Fathers 
EDITORIALS 

Liquid Facts 

Farrellism 
CO MM UNICA TIONS 
PAMPHLETS 



47 
47 
47 
48 
48 
49 
49 
50 



51 

54 
55 

56 

57 

58 
60 

61 
61 
62 
62 
62 

63 

64 
65 
67 



PRICE 

Single copies of this Issue ten cents. Co-operating subscriptions $10 a year Regular subscriptions weekly edition $3 
a year. Foreign postage $1.20 extra. Canadian 70 cents Regular subscriptions once a-month edition $2 a ye ir. 
Foreign posrage 60 cents extra. Canadian 35 cents. Changes of address should be mailed to us ten days in 
advance. In accordance with a growing commercial practice, when payment is by check a receipt will he sen: 
only upon request. Copyright, 1916, by Survey Associates, Inc. Entered as second class matter 
March 25, 1909, at the post office at New York, N. >'., under the Act of March 3, 1879. 









/ 00 Years of Indiana 

The Hoosiers went west ahead of the railroad, 
sturdy bands of horsemen with the heroic 
women folk who can stand pioneering in the 
wilderness. Their sons wrote into the state 
constitution of 1816a plank on prison reform 
that was 8 1 years in coming wholly true. But 
from 1 8 1 6 to 1 9 1 6 Indiana has been a pioneer 
in many fields of social exploration. And the 
story of it has been written by the man best- 
equipped for the task, Alexander Johnson, 
who takes his pen in hand in 

An Early Issue of The Survey 











ILLICIT DRUG SELLING is on the 
wane, a year's operation of the Harrison 
law shows. But' the measure need? 
strengthening. Page 60. 

LOAN SHARK VICTIMS in Massachu- 
setts will be freed from a special "stran- 
gle hold" if a bill now in the legislature 
becomes law. It will prevent the heaping 
of "fees,'' "renewal charges" and other 
"extras" on top of the heavy loan and in- 
terest burden. Page 49. 

A MOTHERS' REBELLION has broken 
out. Leaders of the National Congress of 
Mothers declared before the Senate com- 
mittee that the 100,000 members of the 
congress are opposed to the federal child 
labor bill. But they have now "heard from 
their constituents" who protest against hav- 
ing been misrepresented. And it is point 
ed out that the president of the congress 
has until recently been the owner of share? 
of mill stock. Page 48. 

$1,000,000 OUT OF $8,000,000 paid each 
year to New York state employes is un- 
earned, reports the Senate Committee on 
Civil Service, which proposes a program to 
put vitality and efficiency into the state 
service. Page 54. 

THE DIFFERENT EFFECTS on health of 
the light, nervous work of telephone oper- 
ators and the heavy work of laundry girls 
is brought out in an Iowa report. Page 57 

HERE'S THE LATEST mountain from a 
mole-hill. Because there is no legal defi- 
nition of "strike." a point of order was suc- 
cessfully made in Congress to prevent con- 
sideration of Meyer London's proposal thai 
the National Guard shall not do strike dim- 
Page 56. 

MINIMUM STANDARDS of shelter 
food, education and recreation for children 
in the care of New York's charitable in- 
stitutions and agencies have become the 
crux of the controversy between the New 
York city Department of Peh'ic Charities 
and the state Board of Charities. Bitter- 
ness has been increased by a scurrilous 
pamphlet bearing the name of a Catholic 
priest, the Rev. William J. Farrell. Bui 
many Catholics have made it clear thai 
thev do not stand for "Farrellism." Page*- 
50 and 64. 

RURAL CO-OPERATION means more 
than giving the farmer a better income to 
make social improvement possible. Co- 
operation, writes Warren H. Wilson, "is an 
ethical process and undoubtedly moral gains 
will be secured when farmers act together 
in manufacture, in handling their credit 
and in the exchange of their products" 
Page 51. 

SCHOOLHOUSE FORUMS for discus 
s ; on of public affairs are increasing, and a 
bill is now pending in Congress to create 
ten in Washington schools. Page 61. 

DISTORTION OF AN ARTICLE from 
The Survey bv a wet press bureau has 
aroused prohibitionists throughout the 
country and particularly Birmingham. Ala 
Commissioner George B. Ward of that cit> 
gives facts "for the liquor people to chew 
upon." Page 63. 



hV 




^1 




5M 



fg€|gf 



CHICAGO POLITICS AND A 
TRAGIC DEATH 

THE suicide of Dr. Theodore B. 
Sachs on April 2 is the tragic 
sequel of the bitter political fight which 
has been waged upon him as head of the 
Chicago Municipal Tuberculosis Sana- 
torium. 

Goaded by incessant political inter- 
ference ever since the present city ad- 
ministration came into power, Dr. Sachs 
resigned on March 20. He had given 
years of the most devoted service to the 
effort which secured the establishment 
of the institution and to its management. 
His very life was wrapped up in it. The 
effort of spoilsmen to use it for their 
purposes was more than he could bear 
and in a letter which at his death he left 
addressed to "the people of Chicago," he 
pled that "unscrupulous politicians should 
be thwarted" and "the community should 
resist any attempt of unscrupulous con- 
tractors to appropriate money which be- 
longs to the sick and the poor." Those 
who were close to him do not hesitate to 
declare that he was hounded to death by 
the politicians whom he struggled to pre- 
vent from gaining control over the in- 
stitution. 

In a public statement at the time of his 
resignation, quoted in last week's is- 
sue of The Survey, he said: "I have 
refused to betray the community that 
has given me confidence during twenty- 
seven years of residence. Single-handed, 
at present, I cannot fight a big political 
machine. ... I cannot give efficient 
service under present conditions." 

So aroused was Chicago by Dr. Sachs' 
resignation that a large and representa- 
tive committee of citizens organized to 
present the facts to the people of the city 
and lead a "finish fight" against the 
political spoilsmen. The public state- 
ment by this committee described the 
movement which resulted in the sana- 
torium and told how every city adminis- 
tration up to the present one had ap- 
pointed boards in which the community 
had full confidence. 

The institution, with a capacity of 650 
beds, was opened in February, 1915. 
Two months later the present administra- 
tion came into power and almost imme- 

'Volume XXXVI, No. 2 



'liately sought to use it for spoils. The 
people of Chicago, says the committee, 
"must make known to the politicians 
that they will punish at the earliest op- 
portunity the invasion of politics into the 
management of the tuberculosis sana- 
torium." 

The Civil Service Commission, on 
March 25, held a hearing at which Frank 
Wing, business manager, and Dr. J. VV. 
Coon, superintendent of the sanatorium, 
gave specific evidence concerning the 
efforts of the city administration to make 
room for job holders. 

In place of Dr. Sachs, the mayor has 
appointed Dr. Charles P. Caldwell to 
serve as one of the three directors of 
the sanatorium but not as chairman of 
the board. He is a physician of good 
professional standing and has announced 
that he will not stand for incompetency 
at the sanatorium and will not continue 
to serve as director if incompetent ap- 
pointees are forced upon the institution 
staff. 



Harvey Humphrey Baker 

April II. 1869 April 10, 1915. 

LJ IS birthday lives among those 
happy days 

The love of grateful hearts keeps 
marked with gold, 

In sign of what all ivords must 
leave untold 

Of one zvhose life makes even 
heart-felt praise 

Less than ive ozve. He spent him- 
self to raise 

The helpless, and their lifted eyes 
behold 

The light his spirit kindled, as of 
old ' 

Men saw God's fire illumine dark- 
ened ways. 

He made us braver, nobler than 
before. 

By simply walking ivith us, day 
by day. 

And when we saw his smile, zvhich 
shines no more 

We knew ive had a friend who 
went our way. 
Only one means of telling what 

we oivcd. 
To reap a harvest from the seed 
he sowed. 



FIGHTING WOMEN'S NIGHT 
WORK IN RHODE ISLAND 

THIRTY THOUSAND club women 
in Rhode Island have risen in de- 
fense of the 53,896 women and minors 
employed in Rhode Island stores and fac- 
tories. They have served notice on the 
legislature that night work for these 
women and children must be abolished 
and that Rhode Island must get into line 
with Massachusetts, New York, Con- 
necticut and the other five states which 
prohibit work of women at night. 

The Consumers' League of Rhode Is- 
land has filed in the legislature house bill 
67 which seeks to amend the 54-hour 
statute passed in 1913 by adding that no 
boy under sixteen and no girls or women 
shall be employed in any factory, manu- 
facturing, mechanical or mercantile es- 
tablishment "between the hours of eight 
o'clock in the afternoon of any day and 
six o'clock in the forenoon of the follow- 
ing day." 

United with the league in its cam- 
paign are the local Council of Women 
with a membership of 10,000; the Fed- 
eration of Women's Clubs, the Rhode 
Island Congress of Mothers, the House- 
wives' League, Parent Teachers Associa- 
tion, Rhode Island Working Girls Clubs, 
the District Nurses, the Collegiate Alum- 
nae; the Rhode Island Suffrage Asso- 
ciation and the Equal Suffrage League, 
the Y. W. C. A., the W. C. T. U., and 
various philanthropic agencies — number- 
ing in all over 25,000 women. In addi- 
tion organized labor with a membership 
of 100,000 in Rhode Island is aiding and 
encouraging the women in their fight 

Of the 48,732 women and 5,104 minors 
employed in Rhode Island establishments 
it is impossible to estimate accurately the 
number of night workers because the 
night shifts are less permanent than the 
day shifts. The Consumers' League, 
however, reports that such employes run 
into the thousands and are on the pay- 
rolls of thirty or more factories and mills 
where night work has become a feature. 
The majority work from eight in the 
evening • ntil five next morning for five 
days a week. Some are working ten 
hours a night with no time off to eat 
their lunch. As wages are proverbially 

47 



48 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 8, 1916 



low in Rhode Island many workers pre- 
fer night work as it is better paid. 

The league in pushing the bill calls at- 
tention to the fact that night work de- 
stroys home life, that it means for 
women not only eight or ten hours' toil 
in a factory, but hours of drudgery at 
home before rest is possible; that liquor 
and narcotics are used as stimulants to 
overcome exhaustion, and that loss of 
sleep not only endangers the vitality of 
women but the health of their children. 

The league sent out a questionnaire to 
150 doctors in the state asking if they 
considered night work detrimental to the 
health of women and affecting the health 
and mortality of the next generation. 
The affirmative answers totalled 146. 

Although the state capitol is said to 
swarm with secret lobbyists against the 
measure, the only opponents who faced 
the women and labor advocates of bill 67 
on March 10, when a spirited hearing 
was held before the House Committee on 
Labor Legislation, were Charles S. Coul- 
ter, secretary of the Retail Merchants 
Division of the Providence Chamber of 
Commerce and J. Ellery Hudson, chief 
factory inspector for the state. Inspector 
Hudson's defense was not approval of 
night work as a benefit for women, but 
objection to the form in which the bill 
was drafted. He maintained that he 
could frame a better law. 

Since Mr. Hudson failed to act, a priv- 
ate organization, the Consumers' League, 
felt obliged to frame a statute which 
would rescue the women workers of 
Rhode Island from the evils of night 
work. The women of the state are de- 
termined to pass this bill, even if it is 
necessary to fight for years. The bill is 
still in the Committee on Labor Legisla- 
tion of the House. 

SOCIAL MEASURES IN NEW 
JERSEY'S LEGISLATURE 

THE New Jersey Assembly, now 
near adjournment, has passed a 
number of progressive laws relating to 
social welfare. Workmen's compensa- 
tion has been particularly considered, 
and while only one of seven bills recom- 
mended by a state commission has passed, 
it is the most important of the group, 
ft creates a bureau of workmen's com- 
pensation in the state Department of 
Labor, which is expected to improve 
greatly the administration of the exist- 
ing law. 

The seven bills were prepared after a 
series of conferences. The only organi- 
zation which participated in these con- 
ferences, but failed to support the bills 
was the Manufacturers' Association. 
The six defeated bills would have passed, 
observers believe, except for the com- 
bined opposition of the Manufacturers' 
Association and the farmers. The New 
Jersey workmen's compensation law is 
one of a very few which covers farmers 
and domestic servants. The combination 



of manufacturers and farmers was not 
only successful in its opposition to these 
measures, but also secured the passage of 
a bill exempting farmers and domestic 
servants from the provisions of the ex- 
isting law. An effort is now being made 
to pass it over the governor's veto. 

A commission appointed two years ago 
on mental defectives, which reported in 
1914, was revived in 1915 with authority 
to make a complete study and report its 
findings this year. It was unable to make 
a satisfactory report and the legislature 
has again continued it. Meanwhile, a 
campaign was waged by private interests 
to relieve overcrowded conditions at the 
state hospitals for the insane and pro- 
vide more extensive care for the feeble- 
minded. This resulted in an appropria- 
tion of $150,000 for a farm colony for 
the insane. For a farm colony for 
feebleminded an appropriation of $25,- 
000 is promised in the general appropria- 
tions bill. This colony will be under the 
direction of a board of managers of 
which the commissioner of charities and 
corrections is the head. 

The lunacy laws of the state were com- 
pletely revised. No radical change is 
made in the existing system of state 
care of the insane, but new provisions 
regarding the commitment are made. 

Among the measures enacted are an 
abatement and injunction law for disord- 
erly houses; a law permitting a jury in 
murder cases to recommend life impris- 
onment instead of capital punishment; a 
law giving witnesses held in jail a per 
diem allowance of one dollar ; a law pro- 
viding for the extradition of deserting 
mothers who are chargeable with the 
support of dependent children ; a law 
providing for visiting nurses in cities 
and one for visiting and inspecting tuber- 
culosis nurses in counties. 

Bills designed to injure the work of 
the state Tenement House Commission 
received scant support, and it now seems 
likely that this important department will 
no longer be subject to attack. It has 
won public confidence and will probably 
be given additional power hereafter. 

Bills to create a public defender, to 
provide dental clinics in small municipal- 
ities and to improve certain factory and 
labor conditions failed to secure a hear- 
ing. 

The beginning of a campaign for a 
state psychopathic hospital was made. 
The care of dependent children under 
state control is endorsed by an appro- 
priation for the work of the state Board 
of Children's Guardians and for the 
work of supervising the dependent 
widows and children who receive county 
funds under the law "to promote home 
life of dependent children," which is the 
widows' pension law of New Jersey pass- 
ed some years ago. 

A political issue was made of the De- 
partment of Labor. This department 
was reorganized last year along with 



other departments as a result of the study 
of the Commission on Economy and Ef- 
ficiency. In the legislative deliberation 
over this last year, Lewis T. Bryant, 
head of the department and Governor 
Fielder seriously disagreed. Bryant's 
term expired this year and Governor 
Fielder had announced that he would 
not reappoint him, although he has the 
support both of trade unionists and em- 
ployers. A bill was introduced to ex- 
tend Bryant's term to five years. It 
passed both Houses, over a veto by the 
governor. 

Governor Fielder has won the approval 
of the legal profession and public gen- 
erally by his practice of reappointing 
judges, whose record justified a second 
term, tegardless of political affiliations 
He likewise reappointed Calvin M. Ken- 
dall, commissioner of education, who 
was brought to New Jersey from Indiana 
by Governor Wilson to reorganize and 
strengthen the educational work of the 
state. 

CHILD LABOR BILL AND THE 
MOTHERS' CONGRESS 

THE Keating child labor bill has 
caused a break in the ranks of the 
National Congress of Mothers. When 
two members of the Executive Commit- 
tee of the congress, Mrs. A. A. Birney of 
Washington and Mary S. Garrett of 
Philadelphia, appeared before the Senate 
Committee on Interstate Commerce a 
few weeks ago in opposition to the Keat- 
ing bill, they stated that they represented 
the views of the 100,000 members of the 
congress and that they were opposed to 
the bill because they considered a four- 
teen-year limit without exemptions tor 
drastic. 

Many of the women who, without be- 
ing consulted, were thus put on record 
as opposed to the federal bill are indig 
nant since they not only favor the en- 
actment of the bill but have been ver\ 
active in the campaign for it. 

A committee of women representing 
seven Pennsylvania clubs with a mem- 
bership of 600, affiliated with the Nation- 
al organization has taken the lead in 
arousing the mothers' clubs throughout 
the country to the situation and urging 
upon them the importance of letting their 
senators know at once that their views 
have not been correctly represented 
This committee was organized in Penn- 
sylvania last year to fight the child labor 
bill introduced in the state legislature at 
the instance of Mrs. Frederic Schoff 
president of the National Congress. It 
was called the Pennsylvania Congress of 
Mothers' bill in spite of the fact that the 
board of the Pennsylvania Congress re 
fused to endorse it because of its reac- 
tionary provisions, but instead endorsed 
the bill advocated by the Pennsylvania 
Child Labor Association which later he 
came a law. 

Letters of protest have been sent iion 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 8, 1916 



49 



these Pennsylvania clubs to the members 
of the Interstate Commerce Committee 
stating that the Executive Committee of 
the National Congress has no power to 
speak for the whole association and that 
it does not express the convictions of 
many of its members. All the clubs in 
Pennsylvania and the presidents of the 
state congresses of mothers are being 
reached by this committee so that it is 
probable the Senate committee will short- 
ly be in possession of sufficient evidence 
to convince it that the two members of 
the National Congress who appeared be- 
fore it do not fairly represent the 
mothers of the country in the matter of 
federal child labor legislation. 

According to the secretary of the Na- 
tional Child Labor Committee, "Mrs. 
Schoff has not been in sympathy with 
many of our programs of child labor 
legislation during the past ten years. 
Why this is we don't know. The Moth- 
ers Congress appears to have a broader 
program than ours, dealing with all mat- 
ters pertaining to child welfare, while 
their president apparently believes that 
our program is narrow and one-sided. 
There are many perfectly sincere employ- 
ers of child labor in textile mills who 
ire thoroughly convinced that we are 
making a mistake in trying to interfere 
with such employment." The Philadel- 
phia court records show that only week 
before last Mrs. Schoff sold 1,174 shares 
of her stock in the Kent Mills at Clifton 
Heights, Pa. This matter came to public 
notice when the plant went into receiv- 
er's hands and she sued the receiver for 
depreciating stock. 

"LICENSED EXTORTION" BY 
THE LOAN SHARKS 

LOADING loans with "expenses" 
and "paper charges" has given 
Massachusetts loan sharks an added hold 
upon their victims. But a strong effort 
is now being made in the legislature to 
curb this special grasp. 

Since 1911 the small loan agencies in 
Massachusetts have been under the su- 
pervision of a state supervisor of loan 
agencies. The office -was created after a 
careful investigation by a legislative 
committee which felt that evils would be 
more speedily eliminated by an official 
having broad supervisory powers than 
by the enactment of hard and fast legis- 
lative restrictions. 

In some respects the supervisor has 
brought about an improvement, writes 
A. H. Ham, of the Sage Foundation's 
division of remedial loans. But a recent 
investigation showed large numbers of 
city employes to be paying high rates, 
running up to 200 per cent per annum on 
small loans which in many cases had run 
continuously for years. One money 
lender alone was reported to have 1,500 
employes in his clutches. Regulations 
promulgated by the supervisor seem to 
have been generally violated and the 



Bradley in Chicago Daily Newt 




THE CRADLE SONG 



money lenders' operations to have earned 
the description of "licensed extortion." 

The chief source of the trouble is 
found in the extra charges which the 
supervi ;or has permitted lenders to exact. 
In addition to an interest rate of 3 per 
cent per month, a charge has been al- 
lowed for drawing papers, investigating 
the applicant, e.c, amounting to 10 per 
cent of the sum 1 •uned. Contrary to the 
supervisor's regu..'tions, lenders have 
been making loans for one month and 
less, repeating the expense charge upon 
renewal or when a new loan is made, 
thus forcing borrowers to -jay rates of 
from 150 per cent to 200 per cent per 
annum. The result has been that under 
state supervision Massachusetts money 
lenders are securing a higher return on 
loans than is allowed in any other state 
in the Union. 

In his inaugural address, Governor 
McCall urged the passage of new legis- 
lation which would correct the evil, and 
on January 11, 1916, Representative 
Charles F. Rowley introduced in the leg- 
islature a bill, drafted by Assistant Cor- 
poration Counsel George A. Flynn and 
R. H. Smith, attorney for the Boston 
Legal Aid Society, which eliminates all 
"paper charges," fees, and expenses of 
any character, limiting the total charge 
to interest not exceeding 3 per cent per 
month — a rate which has been adopted 
by several states and which the opera- 
tions of the remedial loan societies have 
proved to be adequate. 

The bill has attracted wide attention 
in the state. The legislative committee 
to which it was referred has given more 
time to its consideration and granted a 
larger number of public hearings than 
has been given to any other measure 
presented to the legislature this year. 
Public sentiment overwhelmingly favors 
the passage of the bill and open opposi- 
tion before the committee has been neg- 
ligible. Members of the money lending 
fraternity, however, seeing their profits 
endangered, are prepared to contest its 
passage. Other influences, more or less 



powerful, whose reason for opposition is 
less apparent are attempting to kill the 
bill and at the present time the issue is in 
doubt. 

The line-up in favor of the bill in- 
cludes scores of philanthropic and social 
and civic organizations in Boston and 
throughout the state, and those opposed 
include only the money lenders, the form- 
er supervisor of loan agencies, and back- 
ers of the Morris plan of loans and in- 
vestments. 

INSTEAD OF SALVARSAN. 
A NEW DRUG 

ONE of the least conspicuous but 
one of the very serious by-pro- 
ducts of the war has been the shortage 
of salvarsan in the United States. This 
very powerful anti-syphilis remedy is 
patented in Germany and can be ob- 
tained nowhere else. 

It seems that the Germans have been 
willing to send it to us provided we 
would send in exchange certain chemi- 
cals of which they had not a sufficient 
supply and which were necessary to their 
industries; but the British, declaring 
that such chemicals could be used in the 
manufacture of munitions of war, re- 
fused to allow the exchange. So for all 
these months, no salvarsan has come to 
the western continent. 

The American dealers, greatly to their 
credit, did not send up the price, as they 
easily might have done, but sold at the 
usual price as long as the supply lasted. 
For some months now there has been no 
salvarsan available except small stocks 
which were bought up by speculators and 
sold at $15 a dose and even more. 

But we have had several instances of 
the stimulating effect on American in- 
ventiveness of a forced self-dependence, 
and the salvarsan situation is furnishing 
another. Dr. Jay Schamberg, a promin- 
ent Philadelphian, has invented a sub- 
stitute for salvarsan which has been ac- 
cepted by the Council on Pharmacy of 
the American Medical Association. This 



5° 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 8, 1916 



drug is arsenobenzol. Ormsby and 
Mitchell in Chicago report excellent re- 



sults from its use in seventy-five cases of 
syphilis. 



Testing Adjectives and Institutions 



FOR over two months the New 
York State Board of Charities 
has been under investigation by 
Charles H. Strong, a special commis- 
sioner appointed by Governor Whitman. 
Every topic in the wide range of state 
charitable administration, from the ques- 
tion of subsidizing private institutions 
to the proper place of adjectives in an 
inspection report, has been made a sub- 
ject of inquiry in that time. 

A dramatic turn was given to the hear- 
ings within the past fortnight. This 
centered about the now famous Farrell 
pamphlets which, bearing the name of a 
prominent Catholic priest as author, and 
violently attacking the inquiry and Com- 
missioner Strong, have been distributed 
through Catholic churches to the number 
of over 700,000 copies. William H. 
Hotchkiss, attorney for the New York 
city Department of Public Charities, 
which was largely responsible for the 
holding of the inquiry, strove to prove 
that these pamphlets were not written by 
the Rev. William B. Farrell at all but 
that they were the handiwork of one 
Daniel C. Potter, a former city official 
who for years has befriended private 
charitable institutions in their efforts to 
secure increased funds from the munici- 
pal treasury. Mr. Hotchkiss brought out 
also that the printing of the pamphlets, 
costing several thousand dollars, was 
paid for by an employe in the chancery 
of the archdiocese of New York. 

The Survey will in a later number set 
forth the various personal and other con- 
troversies that have arisen in the course 
of the inquiry. For the moment it will 
confine itself to the developments in re- 
spect to issues, which were first outlined 
in The Survey for February 12. 

At the end of the past week the state 
board had introduced no evidence to 
show that it had ever, prior to the be- 
ginning two years ago of the city's in- 
spection of private child-caring institu- 
tions receiving public wards, withheld its 
certificate from these institutions. This 
certificate has for years been the city's 
guide in determining whether institutions 
were fit to receive public charges, and it 
is because the board is believed by the 
city department to have habitually issued 
its certificate to unfit institutions that the 
latter brings charges against the state 
body. 

Commissioner Strong has announced 
that unless the board puts in its own evi- 
dence on that point, he will accept as 
correct the city's declaration that no cer- 
tificates were ever withheld until the city 
began its own inspection of institutions. 

The board has been at great pains, 
however, to rebut one count in the city's 
indictment. This is in respect to the 



conditions actually existing in the insti- 
tutions. The proof that improper con- 
ditions existed in many such institutions 
u as a vital part of the city's case and 
days were spent by it early in the trial 
in establishing that fact. 

Testimony with respect to twenty-six 
specific institutions was given by William 
J. Doherty, second deputy of the city 
department, R. R. Reeder, superintendent 
of the New York Orphanage at Hast- 
iuga-on-Hudson, Ludwig B. Bernstein, 
superintendent of the Hebrew Sheltering 
Guardian Orphan Asylum at Pleasant- 
ville, and other members of Mr. Doher- 
ty-s advisory committee. 

To refute this testimony the state 
board went to the institutions themselves 
and brought in over 100 witnesses — su- 
perintendents, matrons, heads of depart- 
ments, members of the teaching staff's, 
prefects, attending physicians, caretakers, 
and nearly every other manner of em- 
ploye. For two solid weeks the com- 
missioner and a daily audience of scores 
listened to minute descriptions of every 
aspect of institutional life, from spirit 
and ideals to the dish-washing on a par- 
ticular day of inspection. 

Take, for example, the Boys' Depart- 
ment of the Mission of the Immaculate 
Virgin at Mt. Loretto, Staten Island. 
This is a Catholic institution, the city's 
criticism of which was given in The 
Survey for February 12. On rebuttal 
the visiting dentist of this mission was 
called to deny that the dental records 
were inadequate and to explain the 
method of making sure that individual 
toothbrushes were used by the 1,023 chil- 
dren cared for. 

The visiting physician was called to 
deny that cases of malnutrition had de- 
veloped within the institution, that of- 
fensive conditions existed in the lava- 
tories, that food was insufficient or un- 
attractively served, and to testify further 
with respect to medical records, segrega- 
tion of diseased children and sanitation. 

The visiting oculist came to tell how 
contagious eye cases were treated. The 
visiting throat specialist told how fre- 
quently lie visited the institution. 

A former chaplain and the present as- 
sistant priest described conditions of 
which they had knowledge. Three sis- 
ters and the mother superior were called 
to refute charges in respect to matters 
under their control. 

The superintendent of prefects added 
his testimony, and finally, an import and 
export merchant, who was a friend of the 
institution and familiar with it, described 
the general lay-out of the plant and the 
care given the children. 

For the most part, rebuttal on this head 



took three lines: it admitted the condi- 
tions described by the city and dismissed 
them as trifling, it strove to explain them 
and to cite extenuating circumstances, or 
it denied them entirely. Whether the 
state board effectively overthrew the 
city's criticism of institutions, or whe- 
ther that criticism in the main still stands, 
is a matter of weighing evidence that 
Commissioner Strong will have to decide 
By way of answer the city was able, in 
some cases, to go beyond the word of its 
own investigators and to show that re- 
ports of the state board itself had made 
the same charges against the institutions 
that the board is now seeking to deny. 

Not only on the ground of their sub- 
stance has exception been taken to the 
inspection reports of the city department 
Their form and phraseology have been 
criticized also. Adjectives, declared one 
inspector of the state board, should be 
looked at askance. Such epithets as 
"shocking," "squalid," "wofully inade- 
quate," found in the city's reports, are 
not professional words, said this witness 
The function of an inspector of institu- 
tions, she declared, is to set forth facts 
and to let others draw conclusions. 

The reply of the city was that when 
adjectives correctly describe conditions 
found, they are not only justifiable but 
highly useful in giving the reader an 
adequate picture of the thing described 

In order to meet the charge that the 
city's inspectors pointed out only the bad 
in institutions and were "'temperamental- 
ly unable to see the good," Mr. Hotch- 
kiss asked Mr. Doherty to read from re- 
ports on ten institutions that the city had 
praised. Six of these were Catholic, 
three Hebrew and one Protestant. 

For a few moments the desired result 
was obtained, and the words "progres- 
sive," "splendid spirit," "high aims," 
"adequate facilities," served as a pleas- 
ing contrast to the phrases of dispraise 
that had become so familiar. But not 
for long was this allowed to continue 
John M. Bowers, attorney for the state 
board, interrupted to point out that even 
in these reports defects were cited, and 
to insist that Mr., Doherty read the lists 
of recommendations as well as the words 
of eulogy. 

This incident threw light also on the 
newspaper reporting of the inquiry, 
which has been severely criticized be- 
cause of its alleged emphasis on the evils 
in institutions. "I hope," said Conimis 
sioner Strong, when Mr. Doherty began 
to read favorable comments from the 
city's reports, "that the newspaper men 
present will report the good as diligently 
as they have reported the bad." 

"It isn't as good a story, commission- 
er," muttered one reporter under his 
breath, and when Mr. P.owers insisted 
shortly thereafter that the bad be read 
as well as the good, the reporters saw 
more material for "sensations." 

Commissioner Strong will continue to 
receive evidence until April 17. 



Farm Co-operation for Better Business Schools 

and Churches 

By PVarren H. If'i/son 



THE need of better business man- 
agement is at the root of the 
troubles of the country church 
and school. Social surveys made in the 
past three years have all led the investi- 
gator back of small salaries for ministers 
and poor pay for teachers to the meager 
income of the farmer. The reason for 
the farmer's poor return for his labor is 
a very simple one. He does not manage 
his business well. 

As a result of serious study of the 
rural problem in the past five years, the 
dictum of the Country Life Commis- 
sion that "better business" is needed in 
the country, has been confirmed. The 
farmer's occupation is the only one now 
pursued in all rural regions. Workers 
in other economic processes have de- 
serted the open country and assembled 
themselves in the big towns and the 
cities. Even in the villages there are 
very few factories. 

The Ohio rural life survey discov- 
ered in the villages of less than 1 500 
population so few factories or cher 
industrial organizations as to confirm 
the census definition of these villages 
as "rural."' Workers in iron, workers 
in wood, manufacturers of farm prod- 
ucts, of farm machinery and the work- 
ers in nearly all the trades thai once 
were distributed throughout the open 
country are now at work away from 
the farm, in the cities big and little. 
^o that the tiller of the soil who works 
with land, vegetables and animals, is 
the only economic type to be discovered 
everywhere in the open country. 

The general impression is that farm- 
ers in the Middle West are prospering. 
If social institutions are signs of pros- 
perity, this impression is a mistake. The 
general aspect of the Middle West is 
that of universal improvement of the 
means of agricultural production, along 
with general neglect of social improve- 
ment. Productive improvements which 
may be purchased with borrowed mon- 
ey, such as machinery, drainage of land, 
pure bred cattle, are everywhere, and 
the automobile stands in the farmer's 
garage ; but churches and schools which 
may be paid for only out of income, are 
unimproved. 

In such states as Illinois and Iowa, 
according to high authority, the farm- 
ers are not getting an income equal to 
5 per cent of their invested capital. 
For their labor they have no pay. In 
newer states of the Middle West, if 
depreciation of the producing power of 
the soil is reckoned, it is evident that 



the income of the farmer is secured by- 
waste of the soil. Spurious prosperity 
in the country which will not support 
social institutions is of this sort; the 
price of the land is rising while its 
value as a producing property is fall- 
ing. It will sell for more, but it pro- 
duces less. Social institutions in the 
country are undermined by such a con- 
dition. Churches and schools and other 
social institutions are built of bushels 
and tons rather than of dollars. They 
can be purchased only out of income 
and the income that guarantees social 
institutions in the country is pay for 
labor. Wherever the farmer gets no 
pay for his work, even though as a cap- 
italist he gets interest on his invest- 
ment, social institutions in the country 
are weak, and this is the general condi- 
tion throughout the Middle West. 

Farming is a co-operative occupation. 
The poet Hesiod, centuries before 
Christ, so described it. For this pur- 
pose men are dependent upon one an- 
other. Its markets are one. The prices 
paid to the farmer and demanded of 
the farmer are uniformed. But the 
business of farming has in America 
been individualized. This is partly due 
to the cabin and the homestead, which 
made men lonely, self-reliant and sus- 
picious, but the effect of it has been to 
impoverish and weaken the farmer. 

His methods of tilling the soil are 
old-fashioned, yet he buys and sells in 
the open market as a competitor of vast 
corporate enterprises. His head, with 
which he thinks, is in a cabin : his hands 
are the hands of a homesteader; but his 
feet .stand in the open market among 
the trusts and corporations. Obviously, 
co-operative organization of farmers is 
a needed reform. 

The Basic Difficulty 

The desire for co-operation is not 
merely economic. School men in the 
country are urging the consolidation of 
schools and their centralization at con- 
ven'ent foci of larger districts. Church 
men, on behalf of the country church, 
are pleading for federation. The move- 
ment is one; but the serious student of 
country conditions realizes that at bot- 
tom the trouble in the country is eco- 
nomic. Until the farmer co-operates in 
getting a daily living he will never co- 
operate in the higher life. Educational 
union is forbidden by economic compe- 
tition and disunion. Men could not sin- 
cerely federate in the quest of food for 
the soul who are competitors in the 



quest of daily bread. While no one be- 
lieves that economic co-operation will 
result automatically in the consolidation 
of schools or the federation of churches, 
it is pretty plain that the organization 
of the schools and the churches can not 
come until economic co-operation trains 
the people in the ways of collective ac- 
tion. 

This need is illustrated and enforced 
in a startling manner by studies made 
in New York state under the direction 
of Cornell University by Professors 
Warren and Livermore. The book on 
Farm Management recently published 
by Prof. F. G. Warren presents in its 
first chapter all we know about the in- 
come of the American farmer. In a 
favored county in New York the aver- 
age income of farmers is $423. An 
income of corresponding size in the in- 
dustrial centers of New York state 
would be about $700 or less than the 
standard of living needed by a mechanic 
in those cfties. Similar studies are be- 
ing made in other states but the result 
is such as to show that the average 
farmer has less than a living wage, 
even in the present prosperous days, 
What shall we say of his poverty dur- 
ing the past two decades? 

Professor Warren in a recent pub- 
lic discussion estimated the income 
which farmers in New York state could 
pay to their minister as $500 per year 
and a house. This income is recognized 
by clergymen as insufficient for the sup- 
port of a minister's family in the open 
country. Professor Warren insisted 
that the only way by which a minister 
might earn a larger income out of the 
contributions of farmers of average 
generosity — themselves receiving the 
average income — would be by greatly 
enlarging his parish bounds and taking 
in a wider circle to his ministry than 
is included in the present parish of the 
average church. In other words, th< 
present country community is incapal.lt 
of supporting adequately the usual so- 
cial institutions. The lack of an income 
adequate for social organization is tht 
leading argument for co-operation in 
the country. 

Co-operation is at this time more than 
a pious wish. The book by Prof. John 
Lee Coulter, Farm Co-operation, con- 
tains the story of the battle, for years a 
losing fight, which American farmers 
have fought in order to be recognized 
in the market. The trouble with fann- 
ing in America is that the countryman 
has nothing to say as to the price of 

5i 



THE SURl'EY FOR APRIL 8. 1916 



his goods. Me produces and sells as a 
rule perishable goods on which there is 
no time to dicker. Grain brought to 
market, fat cattle, tobacco, milk, garden 
produce — are all perishable in such a 
degree that as a rule the seller of them 
must make terms with the first pur 
chaser. He has no margin of security 
or assurance, in which to ask for a 
larger price. The result is that farm- 
ers since 1890, without the assistance 
of any central agency yet under the 
pressure of common experience, have 
been organizing persistently in a com- 
mon direction. 

Grain farmers in the Middle West 
have organized their grain elevators 
and compelled the railroad by legisla- 
tive action to serve them with tracks 
and with cars. Farmers on the Eastern 
Shore have wrought out the problem of 
the produce exchange by which they 
market the produce of their truck farms 
in near-by cities at good advantage. 
Kentucky farmers, through their asso- 
ciations have learned how to sell their 
tobacco to advantage, and have lifted 
themselves from a condition of practi- 
cal slavery into one of independence 
and power. Fruit farmers on the Pa- 
cific coast only by co-operation have 
been able to deliver their citrus fruits 
and their apples in the eastern market 
at the highest prices. Many other in- 
stances might be cited, but these art 
representative. The story told by Pro- 
fessor Coulter is one of the most heart- 
ening and encouraging in American 
rural history. 

It is a significant thing that Sir Hor- 
ace Plunkett, an American landlord and 
Irish patriot, dates from 1890 the be- 
ginning of the present agrarian move- 
ment in America, and J. B. Ross of 
Lafayette, Ind., a profound student of 
American country life, places in the 
same year the beginning of the present 
era in American country life. 

New Federal Bureau 
The present secretary of agriculture 
at Washington has introduced 'into the 
department a new Bureau of Market- 
ing, of which Prof. Thomas Nixon Car- 
ver of Harvard was the organizer 
This bureau undertakes the investiga 
tion of co-operative methods and the 
publication of reliable information on 
the subject. This departure is revo- 
lutionary. Under the former secretary, 
every creature on the farm was studied 
except the farmer. It is important to 
know about plants, trees and hogs, and 
their diseases, weevils, scales and insect 
pests. But the central interest of agri- 
culture is human ; and the motive of the 
farmer is to get an income. 

The farmer's income will be increased 
through co-operation in the conquest by 
the farmer of three great processes be- 
longing to his occupation but now in 
the possession of others than farmers. 
The low income of the farmer is ex- 



plained by the fact that he does not 
manufacture his goods, and the profit is 
in the manufacture. Others handle 
farm credit and farm loans, and 
the interest on his deposits is very 
small. The interest on his borrow- 
ings is very large His low in- 
come is explained furthermore by the 
extraordinary number of middlemen 
who handle the goods which he pro- 
duces. The paradox of the producer 
being impoverished while the consum- 
ers are supplied is explained by the fact 
that the exchange of the fanner's goods 
is in the hands of other men. So that 
the process of manufacture, of credit 
and of exchange are three great fields 
for farm co-operation. When these are 
in the hands of farmers, the income of 
the farmer will be secure and his posi- 
tion in the country will be what once it 
was, that of the leading American eco- 
nomic type. 

How can farmers expect to have a 
good income from milk unless they have 
some say as to the price of dairy prod- 
ucts? No farm population except those 
in the favored lands are getting good 
pay in the dairy business. The manu- 
facture of milk into butter and cheese 
promises to give to the farmer the pos- 
sibility of dickering about his goods; 
for these products can be retained until 
the day of a better price, but milk must. 
he sold the same day it is produced. 
Kuropean farmers get a good income 
by manufacturing their pork into bacon, 
and they own the bacon factory. Amer- 
ican farmers sell fat hogs. Thus they 
lose the manufacturer's product and 
they never possess the right to dicker 
which gives them an advantage in the 
market. Just so far as possible, farm- 
ers ought to manufacture the goods 
they produce, and the factories should 
be owned by the tillers of the soil. The 
only method by which this is possible 
is farm co-operation 

Farm credit is in some ways the best 
credit in the world. The present in- 
vestment of capital in very large 
amounts in the farm lands of the Mid- 
dle West under conditions which forbid 
anv but a very low rate of interest. 
indicates that capitalists regard farm 
land as a good, safe investment. Vet 
the farmer who must borrow money on 
this land has to pay in average instances 
throughout the United States Sy 2 per 
cent on his loans. He has, moreover, 
no facilities for securing short loans 
to tide him over a crisis or to make a 
crop. City investors are content to get 
3 or 3 J/2 per cent on the farms they 
own. but the owners of those farms 
must pay more than twice that amount 
for farm loans. 

European farmers, and in a very few 
instances American farmers, have 
bridged this difficulty by loaning farm 
money to farmers in banks owned by 
the farmers, the depositors being paid 
about 3 per cent and the borrower being 



required to pay about iy 2 per cent. On 
the difference between these two the 
bank is able to live provided it be a 
rural bank owned and operated by the 
people who deposit and who borrow. 
This means co-operative credit. The 
story of European credit is soon to be 
written in American terms. 

Get-together Selling 

In order to eliminate the middleman 
a great many American farmers are 
experimenting in the co-operative sale 
of farm products and not a few in the 
co-operative purchase of farm necessi- 
ties. Frequently the prosperity of the 
country merchant arouses the envy of 
the farmer, but it is probable that the 
co-operative store should be the last in- 
stead of the first institution to be es- 
tablished by the farmer for handling 
his own business. Methods of sale of 
farm products are many, and notable 
among them is the co-operative grain 
elevator in the Middle West. Such ar- 
ticles as grain must be sold as they are 
grodttced The market demands them in 
the raw. In these instances a co-opera- 
tive selling organization is necessary. 

Another of the leading forms is a 
town market conducted as a rule not by 
the farmers but by the municipality or 
under its protection. Such markets are 
.1 form of co-operation by which the 
consumers meet the producers face to 
face, getting rid thus of the long string 
of middlemen who strtiggle and compete 
between the farmer in the country and 
the salaried man in the city. In Des 
Moines. Iowa, the establishment of a 
town market around the city hall low- 
ered the price of farm products to the 
city consumer in one week from 25 to 
50 per cent The farmers who sold 
thus at first hand secured a correspond- 
ing increase over former prices. 

The farmer is not a stingier man 
than other Americans. If he has the 
money he will support social institu- 
tions as well as townsmen do. It is 
the hope of school men and church men 
who are profoundly concerned today be- 
cause of the decadent country church 
and the neglected, backward country 
school, that good business management 
in the country will, by bringing the 
farmer a better income, make possible 
social improvement which now, what- 
ever his disposition, is impossible. The 
farmer himself has one answer to all 
such proposals of social improvement — 
"I can not afford it." So that the first 
great argument for co-operation is that 
by giving the farmer a better income it 
will make social improvement possible 
But a bigger argument is to be had in 
the very nature of co-operation itself 
For it is an ethical process and undoubt- 
edly moral gains of the highest value 
will be secured when farmers act to- 
gether in manufacture, in handling 
their credit and in the exchange of their 
products 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 8, 1916 



53 



There are three principles essential to 
all rural co-operation without which it 
can not proceed. Urban forms of or- 
ganization do not thrive in the country. 
The joint stock corporation is not a 
success among farmers. The first prin- 
ciple of rural co-operation is of strik- 
ingly democratic character. In some 
form or other combinations of farmers 
which become permanent have as a part 
of their organization this principle — 
One man, one vote." Joint stock or- 
ganizations work on the principle — "for 
every share one vote" — but farmers can- 
not so combine. Both in America and 
in Europe the principle of equality in 
voting power is shown to be essential. 
Some American companies recognize 
this principle in part, requiring that no 
member of the co-operative union can 
have more than two or three or five 
votes, thus approaching a "one man one 
vote" principle, but in some form or 
other, this principle is essential to all 
successful rural unions. 

Second, farm co-operation is not for 
the purpose of dividends but for higher 
prices. Since it is a union in the inter- 
est of those who produce and owned by 
them for their own good, the simplest 
method to distribute its benefits is in 
higher prices. So that the second prin- 
ciple of rural co-operation is, that if the 
co-operative union have any profit to be 
distributed it shall be distributed, as 



prices are, according to the quantity of 
business done. Each person bringing 
milk, or bringing pork, or bringing 
grain, shall be paid a share of the profit 
according to the quantities he brings to 
the union. 

The third principle, not so easily de- 
scribed, has to do with liability. In some 
form or other co-operative unions are 
underwritten by the individuals enter- 
ing into the union. Each man must 
make himself liable for debts and for 
obligations of the union, and frequently 
the tendency is to approach unlimited, 
liability more nearly than joint stock 
organization does. Among the very 
poor farmers of Ireland, unlimited lia- 
bility is possible. The Raiffeissen banks 
are of this type and they have been of 
extraordinary value in lending money 
to a depressed people, so poor that they 
are willing to underwrite the debts of 
the co-operative credit association, 
through which alone they can borrow 
money. By this method of securing 
credit, countrymen who could not bor- 
row $10 anywhere are able through 
underwriting the debts of an associa- 
tion formed by them, to borrow on their 
collective credit an amount that not all 
of them acting independently could se- 
cure in fractional parts. This money 
they are able to lend for described uses 
to one another, and by this means im- 
provements are made possible that with- 



out it could never be even attempted. 

There is a fourth principle in co-oper- 
ation, namely the co-operative spirit, 
and here the church and the school are 
mighty factors. For, as I said before, 
the spirit which is longing for church 
federation and school consolidation is 
the same moving spirit that hopes for 
the economic organization of farmers 
The church must put its sanction upon 
the obligation of a farmer to his neigh- 
bors. It must condemn the old individ- 
ual competitive spirit. It must teach the 
virtues of obedience, subordination, the 
obligations of leadership, the control of 
honor, truthfulness, loyalty to verbal 
contracts and the nobility of self-sacri- 
fice in the interest of the community. 
This co-operative spirit is the ethical 
form of the whole process. Co-opera- 
tion is not merely, for the sake of mak- 
ing money, but it has to do with the 
conscience; it is a form of discipline for 
the will. 

I believe, therefore, that the future 
of the country church and the possibil- 
ity of developing a system of rural 
schools adequate to the needs of th< 
American people are dependent upon co- 
operative organization of the farmer. 
By this means an income will be secured 
adequate to the support of social insti- 
tutions, and by the same means a spirit 
will be cultivated by which a new rural 
civilization will be n.ade possible. 



The Disease Known 
As Crime 



tl P)ID you ever hear of a doc- 
tor sending a sick man to 
a hospital with instructions that 
he be kept there six months or ten 
years and then discharged as 
cured? 

"What would you think of a 
doctor who would send a patient 
to a hospital for one, ten or twen- 
ty-five years without medical at- 
tention from him or any other 
doctor? 

"Then why should judges send 
wen to prison for from one to 
fifty years and immediately feel at 
liberty to wash their hands of the 
ivhole thing? The criminal is a 
sick man, the prison is his hospital 
and the judge who sentenced him 
is his physician. A judge has no 
more right to hold himself unac- 
countable for a criminal's recovery 
than has a physician a right to send 
a patient to a hospital for a cer- 
tain length of time, and then com- 
pletely neglect him. 

"When the criminal judge is off 
the bench his place is in the prison 
studying the sick man and the ef- 
fects upon that patient of the 
treatment he has ordered. It 



should be tvithin the province of 
that judge-physician to change the 
treatment when he considers a 
change advisable. 

"In the trial of criminals the 
jury system has proved a failure; 
instead of a jury, criminals should 
be tried by a bench of three expert 
criminologists. There should be 
special institutions where crimin- 
ology is taught, and where all lazv- 
yers, desiring to fit themselves for 
criminal judgeships, would be com- 
pel' cd to spend sufficient time in 
study to become expert modern 
criminologists. They must regard 
the criminal as a sick man. He 
must be studied psychologically. 

"I zvould have all prison pardon 
boards abolished. It is the man 
zvho has sentenced the prisoner 
who is the best judge as to "wheth- 
er the prisoner is sufficiently re- 
covered to merit a parole or a par- 
don. I would have all prison sent- 
ences indeterminate. A prisoner 
should be kept in the penitentiary 
until the trained criminologist says 
he is ready to be released." — Dr. 
Victor C. Vaughn, dean of the 
Medical School, University of 
Michigan. 



Making Civil Service Effective 

By Herscbel "Jones 

OF THE STAFF OF THE BUREAU OF MUNICIPAL RESEARCH; NEW YuRK SI ATK SENATE COMMITTEE ON CIVIL SERVICE 



WHY is the civil service so in- 
effective? This is a question 
that has repeatedly come to 
the minds of social workers and others 
who are brought into contact with the 
weakness of government administration 
in New York and other states where 
civil service laws are supposed to pro- 
tect us from the spoils system. With 
every advance in social awakening lead- 
ing to the extension of governmental 
activity, we cling to the belief that gov- 
ernment is not inherently and neces- 
sarily inefficient. 

We have done our best to expose the 
incompetence of unqualified factory in- 
spectors, for instance, and have held our 
breath anxiously when new appointees 
took their places. All the time we have 
felt baffled by the apparent failures of 
the present system of civil service con- 
trol. 

At last an agency of government it- 
self, the Senate Committee on Civil 
Service of the New York Legislature, 
has seriously tackled the problem, and 
after nine months of exhaustive investi- 
gation has made its first report to the 
legislature with the basis of a construc- 
tive program that promises to do for the 
government of the state what a com- 
prehensive city plan does for a city that 
has grown and sprawled without a pur- 
pose. 

New York, Chicago and Pittsburgh 
have overhauled their civil service sys- 
tems and put them on a scientific basis, 
but New York is the first state to at- 
tempt to apply enlightened business prin- 
ciples to the people's business. 

The distinctive characteristic of this 
legislative investigation is its absolute 
freedom from politics and its thoroughly 
scientific plan of work. The chairman, 
Senator Clinton T. Horton of Buffalo, 
has co-operated with the Bureau of 
Municipal Research of New York in the 
selection of the examining staff and in 
the direction of the investigation. The 
prejudice and opposition encountered 
from heads of departments at the outset 
of the investigation have gradually 
dwindled as the officials have found that 
the goal was a constructive program in 
the formation of which they would have 
every opportunity to participate. 

These are the defects the committee 
emphasizes: Lack of proper qualifica- 
tions and preliminary training of em- 
ployes; irregularity in rates of pay — with 
large amount of overpayment and some 
striking cases of underpayment; multi- 
plicity of fictitious and unnecessary 
titles — with resultant confusion of work, 



iriction between employes, and adminis- 
trative difficulties in assigning and con- 
trolling the personnel ; inadequate and 
inequitable system of advancement and 
promotion; unnecessary duplication of 
work — appalling prevalence of useless 
positions; prevalence of positions ex- 
empted from examination — need for 
more permanence of tenure in important 
posts ; lack of esprit de corps — deaden- 
ing influence of service under present 
conditions. 

Lack of Training 

No better illustration of the lack of 
previous experience or training that 
would tend to fit the employe to perform 
the work of the position for which he 
secures appointment, can be found than 
among the factory inspectors. An analy- 
sis of the civil service records of 110 
factory inspectors shows that 54, or al- 
most half the entire number, had ap- 
parently no experience or training to 
qualify them in any way to meet the 
difficult technical problems that constant- 
ly confront the factory inspector. 

A man may be a fine teacher, but does 
that enable him to distinguish a hot-air 
pipe from an exhaust ventilator, or a set- 
screw from a line shaft? He may be a 
good stenographer, but does that enable 
him to recognize the presence of an oc- 
cupational disease among the employes 
of a chemical plant? He may be a per- 
fectly good undertaker, but does that 
give him any technical knowledge of 
building construction? The mere fact 
that a person is able to pass a more or 
less academic examination on the labor 
law is insufficient reason for turning 
over to him the responsibility for pro- 
tecting the health and welfare of thou- 
sands of men, women and children em- 
ployed in factories. 

Among the previous occupations of the 
present force of inspectors, however, we 
find 13 clerks, 4 teachers, 4 stenog- 
raphers, 3 salesmen, 2 painters and paper- 
hangers, 2 letter-carriers, an undertaker, 
a manager of a sewing-machine agency, 
etc. By years of experience they may 
have become proficient as inspectors, but 
what a cost to the state and to the fac- 
tory workers that they should have to 
be trained without any background of 
experience or technical education ! 

The extent to whicli employes of the 
state are paid beyond what their work is 
worth aggregates, according to the com- 
mittee, nearly half a million dollars on 
a payroll of $8,000,000 thus far analyzed. 
The amount of underpayment, which 
represents the difference between the 
minimum salary that the work performed 



is worth and the present compensation, 
totals $82,120. 

That the payroll cost in the state 
government can be reduced by at least 
$2,000,000 through proper reorganiza- 
tion of methods and simplification of 
work, of which half a million could be 
immediately effected, is the judgment of 
the committee. "In no department of 
the state government do employment con- 
ditions approach the standards adopted 
by private practice," states the commit- 
tee's report, "although there are many 
instances of highly competent and thor- 
oughly trained officials and employe." 
rendering much more service to the state 
than could be required of them." 

For the purpose of creating more jobs 
with plenty of freedom for fat salaries, 
each new administration has added to the 
morass of fictitious and unnecessary 
titles and positions. Approximately 785 
of these deceptive titles are shown to 
exist in the state service today. By way 
of illustration, the committee calls at- 
tention to thi fact that employes doing 
miscellaneous clerical work of the same 
grade that would warrant a compensa- 
tion of from $840 to $1,200 per annum, 
and which would be classified under one 
standard title, are now receiving a variety 
of salaries from $600 to $2,500 per an- 
num under 69 different titles. 

The Senate committee's report reveals 
the most striking injustices in promo- 
tions due to the present inadequate civil 
service control. One person may be ad- 
vanced at extraordinary speed to a sal- 
ary far beyond the value of the work he 
is doing, while another starting under 
the same conditions, and perhaps a more 
efficient worker, may have little chance 
for advancement. Under such conditions 
it is not surprising that the best men 
tend to leave for private employment, 
and that those who remain have little 
stimulus to improve their work. The 
head of an important state bureau says 
that a vacancy in his office force causes 
him to lie awake nights with anxiety lest 
he be compelled to advance some incom- 
petent person with resultant demoraliza- 
tion of the esprit de corps. "A definite 
system of qualification, advancement and 
promotion, together with adequate rec- 
ords of efficiency." he states, "would pro- 
tect us from this spoliation." And his 
is the opinion of a large percentage of 
the state officials. 

The program of the Senate committee 
is positive. It is evident that this body 
has ceased to think of civil service con- 
trol in the negative sense in which it 
originated — the sense of preventing 



54 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 8, 1916 



55 



spoils and protecting officials from har- 
assing office-seekers. The committee 
conceives of it as the means of putting 
vitality and efficiency into government 
work. It proposes as steps toward re- 
organization the following: 

1. The establishment by law of definite 
classifications of titles and duties for 
every position in the state service, with 
definite entrance requirements of train- 
ing and experience ranges of compen- 
sation instead of flat salaries, automatic 
annual advancement from the initial sal- 
ary rate to the maximum in each grade 
of employment conditional only upon 
efficiency, and definite lines of promotion 
from the lowest grade to the highest 
grade position within a given field of 
work. These standards have been 
worked out in the form of "specifica- 
tions," the result of months of analysis 
of state departments and conference with 
their officials, of intensive study of stand- 
ards for similar work in private and 
other public employment. 

2. Reorganization of the machinery of 
civil service control, improvement in the 
methods of examining and rating candi- 
dates and in the rules governing their 
appointment. 

3. Establishment of a uniform system 
for recording the efficiency of the work 
of employes so that promotion will lie 
based on demonstrated merit and not on 
favoritism. 

4. A joint legislative committee on civil 



service to assist in the installation of the 
proposed standards, to review their op- 
eration, to conduct sucn additional in- 
vestigations as may be necessary and to 
report to the next legislature. 

5. The development of a plan for pen- 
sioning and retiring state employes after 
long period of service. 

If this program is put into effect by 
the present legislature, the old politic- 
ally popular fallacy that anybody can 
do a government job regardless of his 
previous experience will be on its way 
to the limbo of worn-out democratic 
shibboleths. With it will go the similar 
fallacy that because a man has been suc- 
cessful in running a newspaper or selling 
insurance he can be successful at run- 
ning the people's business of an entirely 
different character. 

The committee seems to have found 
enough idealism in the state service un- 
der the present conditions to warrant 
the conclusion that men and women of 
the highest caliber and the best equip- 
ment of training and experience can be 
attracted to the service if the standards 
are raised, the compensation equitably 
adjusted and advancement and tenure 
of office based upon efficiency. 

The program is essentially one of 
"preparedness" — for civil service. For 
the factory inspector it contemplates the 
requirement of certain definite practical 



experience in technical trades, or a com- 
bination of academic training in engi- 
neering, public health, medicine or sociai 
investigation together with practical ex- 
perience of a professional or technical 
nature. In the large number of other 
technical and professional lines of work 
performed for the state, similar stand- 
ards will be applied. 

The greatest stumbling block to the 
installation of a sweeping reorganiza- 
tion of salary rates and the elimination 
of useless and unnecessary positions is. 
of course, the effect upon the present 
incumbents of those jobs. The commit- 
tee does not recommend that salaries ol 
present employes be reduced except 
where they are obviously much overpaid 
and then only to within 10 per cent of 
the maximum that the job is worth. I1 
does recommend the abolition of posi- 
tions found to be positively unnecessary, 
and in this it is having the hearty co- 
operation of practically all the depart- 
ment heads. The requirements of ex- 
perience and training, however, are in- 
tended to apply only to new employes 
that will come in in the future. 

Whether or not this advanced program 
will be put into effect by the present 
legislature remains tc be seen. Though 
politics has had little to do with the 
investigation, it may play its part in the 
action on the findings. 



gPARKS die unless they fall into 
some material they can kindle. 
Thoughts cannot live unless you 
let them kindle your imagination, 
light your understanding, char 
your soul or Burn into your con- 
science. 

TT is true that you can catch more 
flies with molasses than with 
vinegar; nevertheless molasses 
does not cure the fly evil. 

pACT and deceit both end in t, 
but their origin and the end 
they work for are different. 

J F we ask others to stoop to our 

prejudices, let us not blame 

them if they lose their uprightness. 

|F the most difficult parts of a 
certain work appeal to you, it 
is a good si°m that you are fitted 
for that work. 

p^ FALSE accusation may harm, 
but it is the true one that 
hurts. 

CUBMIT to oppression and you 
become a partner in its per- 
petuation. 



Spar/es 



By Elizabeth J. Easton 

A/TISS EASTON is an American 
social worker whose early 
life was spent in the mission field 
in Persia. There is a suggestion 
of the Orient in her habit of jot- 
ting doivn epigrammatic thoughts 
as they occur to her, like putting 
pebbles in a glass bottle. She occa- 
sional'y sends her friends a bottle 
full in the form of manuscript gift- 
books. The sentences here given 
arc from a booklet sent to a friend 
interested in social movements, the 
author having picked out those 
which applied to that field of inter- 
est. — Editor. 



"Y\7HERE you find temper do not 

look for truth ; where you find 

indignation, righteousness is nigh. 

FHE people who have next to 
nothing to do spread next to 
nothing out so thin it covers all 
their time. 



"THE whole world is longing to 

do a kindness but is rendered 

callous by traditions that stalk in 

the guise of culture, creed or 

"real" charity. 

I T is worse to feel poor than to 
be poor. 

("JREATE an atmosphere in 
which others can do their 
best and your own burdens will be 
lightened. 

CHARITIES should cater to the 

uplift of their clients rather 

than to their contributors' whims. 

p CONOMY is a virtue or a vice 
according to what you save on. 

J^ HORSE of another color can 
do team work. You can be 
and think differently from others 
and yet work in with every one 
who is pulling in the direction of 
the common weal. 

\YHEN you talk to a friend 
who understands, thoughts still 
come and come like the seagulls 
on an ocean, seemingly without a 
shore. 



56 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 8, 1916 



Industry 



May it PLEASE the COURT 



WHERE is the United States 
Court of Language Claims? 
There is recent and high au- 
thority for believing that such a court 
exists, but where is it? It ought to be 
sitting continuously, and, especially with 
Congress in session, its calendar would 
be crowded. Without it, how are we to 
have our words defined or our pronunci- 
ations pronounced? How warmly would 
a decision be welcomed, for example, in 
the case of People vs. Hors-d'oeuvre and 
in re Eyether. 

There is so much question about the 
propriety of words that all you have to 
do now, to put the quintessence of scorn 
into an attack upon your adversary, is 
to quote something he has said and label 
it "so-called." 

"What about these so-called McNa- 
maras?" demanded a witness before the 
Industrial Relations Commission, who 
was called upon to discuss violence. 

The court should have jurisdiction 
over other things than words — headlines, 
for example. If you happened to see 
the caption in one of the papers last 
week, Pope Appeals to Workers, did you 
not anticipate something in the way of 
religious consolation or admonition ? 
When you read what appeared below the 
headline you learned that the "Pope" in 
question is a colonel, that his first name 
is George, and that he is president of 
the National Association of Manufac- 
turers ; and then you remembered that 
he makes automobiles or bicycle pumps 
or something up in Hartford, Conn. 

Incidentally, Colonel Pope's "appeal" 
to the workers was that "from patriotic 
considerations alone all clamor for class 
privilege" should forthwith be stopped. 
"Every employer in the United States," 
went on the appeal, "should inform his 
workers and associates of the positive 
necessity for co-operative effort to con- 
serve his industrial resources. It is even 
more important for the worker to realize 
the situation than the employer. His 
livelihood is primarily at stake." 

Now Colonel Pope has never been 
called a dangerous radical and yet "co- 
operative effort" is the thing that the So- 
cialist Party lays down as the first_ de- 
sideratum of a tolerable state of society, 
and they, equally with the colonel, favor 
it because the worker's "livelihood is 
primarily at stake." Could there be 
•stronger evidence of the need of an 
arbiter verborum? 

These suggestions merely indicate 
something of the extent of the labors 
that remain to the court of official vo- 
cabularies. There is such a court, and 
you had better see to it that your lan- 
guage has not been chosen from its in- 
dex expurgatorius if you want to get a 



law passed, especially if you are in a 
minority. Listen, if you doubt it, to this 
story from America's leading daily, the 
Congressional Record. 

It was March 22. The House of Rep- 
resentatives had resolved itself into a 
"Committee of the Whole House on the 
State of the Union." The Honorable 
Finis J. Garrett of the ninth district of 
Tennessee was in the chair, and the "so- 
called" Hay militia bill "to increase the 
efficiency of the military establishment 
of the United States" was up for con- 
sideration. Several amendments were 
disposed of, and then Mr. London, So- 
cialist congressman from New York, 
rose and addressed the chair. Thus runs 
the tale : 

"Mr. London: Mr. Chairman, may I 
now offer an amendment to come in as 
a separate section — section 23a ? 

"The Chairman: The gentleman from 
New York offers an amendment which 
the clerk will report. 

"The clerk read as follows: 

"Add a new section after section 23 to 
be designated 'section 23a' and which is 
to read as follows: 

" 'That no member of the National 
Guard shall be called upon to perform 
duty in connection with the suppression 
of strikes.' 

"Mr. Hay: I make a point of order 
against the amendment." 

What the point was will never be 
known. The chair did not ask for it. He 
had, as it later developed, grounds of his 
own for barring out the amendment — 
grounds which bear tribute to his quali- 
ties as a lexicographer if not as a parlia- 
mentarian. Without a break the Record 
proceeds: 

"The Chairman: The chair sustains 
the point of order. 

"Mr. London: Will the chair hear me 
on the point of order? 

"The Chairman: Of course, the chair 
will hear the gentleman on the point of 
order." 

Mr. London then made an argument 
for his amendment. "If the National 
Guard," he said, "continues to be used 
for the suppression of strikes, you will 
destroy all respect for the National 
Guard. People will look upon it as a 
strike-breaking agency. . . . They will 
refuse to join. . . . You will help to 
intensify the hatred which exists between 
the classes and the masses. 

"The Chairman: The chair does not 
think that there has ever been a legal 
definition given of the word 'strike.' No 
definition of that word has ever been 
given by any court or by anv arm of the 
government. The chair does not think 
the amendment offered by the gentleman 
from New York is germane, and the 



chair sustains the point of order. 

"Mr. London: May I ask the chair <• 
question? 

"The Chairman: Certainly. 

"Mr. London: Has not the word 
'strike' come to mean a certain definite 
thing — the simultaneous quitting of work 
by a number of employes? Has it not 
acquired a certain definite meaning in 
the English language and is not every 
word of the English language a part of 
the legal language? 

"The Chairman: In the popular mind, 
perhaps, but not by any opinion of a 
court or any responsible government 
agency. 

"Mr. London: I know, but have not 
the courts for more than a quarter of a 
century dealt with strikes and strikers? 
Have they not been issuing decrees in 
strikes? The word 'strike' has a definite, 
specific, certain meaning today. 

"The Chairman: In the popular mind, 
perhaps, but not by any legal definition. 
The chair sustains the point of order." 

There seemed to be nothing more, in 
particular, to be said on that subject, so 
Mr. London said it, and for three pages 
of the Record the language is, presum- 
ably, admissible, orderly and legal. But 
on page 5290 we read: 

"Mr. London: Mr. Chairman, may I 
offer an amendment now? 

"The Chairman: The gentleman from 
New York offers an amendment, which 
the clerk will report. 

"The clerk read as follows: 

"Amendment offered by Mr. London 
Add a new section after section 25 to be 
designated as 'section 25a,' and which 
is to read as follows: 'That no member 
of the National Guard shall be called 
upon to perform duty in connection with 
any controversy which may arise be- 
tween capital and labor.' 

"Mr. Hay: Mr. Chairman, I make a 
point of order against that. 

"The Chairman : 'The chair will hear 
the gentleman." 

Mr. Hay then stated that he consider- 
ed the amendment unconstitutional. 

"The Chairman: The chair think* 
this amendment is subject to the same 
objection that the chair suggested to the 
gentleman awhile ago. There is no 
legal definition of 'strikes' and no legal 
definition of 'contests between capital 
and labor.' 

"Mr. London: Will the chair hear me 
for a moment? 

"The Chairman : The chair sustains 
the point of order." 

So if Mr. London wants to get any 
legislation through Congress when Mr 
Finis J. Garrett — Finis, mark you — is in 
the chair, he will have to find where tht 
Court of Definitions is sitting, and get 
a writ of certiorari or something. 

Let us hope he discovers it. There i> 
work for the court to do. It might tell 
us why an "open shop" is also a "closed 
shop" and how to know just when some- 
thing becomes "a practical matter, and 
not a theory." 

And after that, perhaps it would de 
fine "judicial temperament," "bunk." 
"law-nnd-order." "deliberative assembly." 

A grateful people would rejoice in thr 
decisions of such a court. 

J. A. F. 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 8, 1916 



0/ 



TELEPHONE GIRLS AND 
LAUNDRY WORKERS 

IT IS not for pin money nor because 
they prefer it to the home that 
women work in laundries and telephone 
exchanges. They do it to make a living 
and often enough it is a poor living that 
they make and in many cases at the ex- 
pense of their health at that. 

Such was the conclusion of Ellen M. 
Rourke of the Iowa Bureau of Labor 
Statistics after she had completed an 
investigation begun January 15, 1915, 
of those two industries, and so she re- 
ported in a paper read last fall at the 
Iowa Conference of Charities and Cor- 
rections. 

The investigation showed that a large 
proportion of the girls at work had no 
parents, were supporting invalid parents 
or for other reasons were obliged to 
supplement the family income. One in- 
teresting fact revealed was that the size 
of the family to which the worker be- 
longed was an important factor. Out of 
more than 900 girls from whom informa- 
tion on this subject was obtained, only 
a few came from small families, but 
more than 800 were from families where 
there were four or more children. 

One of the most important reasons 
for these girls and women having to 
work outside the home was the low wage 
or unemployment of the father, or, in 
the case of married women at work, of 
the husband; indeed, with respect to the 
latter it was the greatest cause. "Out 
of 324 married women interviewed," 
said Mrs. Rourke, "there were half of 
this number whose husbands were out 
of work or not steadily employed." 

The investigation showed further 
"that the low wage of the fathers and 
wage-earners crippled the opportunities 
of children for educational advantages 
as 167 were found who had to quit school 
between 13 and 15 years of age to go to 
work because their fathers were labor- 
ers receiving only $12, $13.50, to $15 a 
week or were seasonal workers." 

The investigation covered 1,296 laun- 
dry workers and 1,077 telephone work- 
ers. These two industries were selected, 
said Mrs. Rourke, "because of the two 
great extremes in condition of employ- 
ment; namely, the telephone girl must 
sit constantly, and her work is light, but 
she is working under a severe nervous 
strain, while nearly all the laundry girls 
must stand constantly and their work is 
very heavy, requiring more than the 
ordinary physical strength ; and for the 
further reason that those two occupa- 
tions are peculiarly fitted for women and 
girls, and wherein they render a better 
service than men." 

The girls were asked to tell what ef- 
fect the work had on their health, and 
Mrs. Rourke reported that "345, or 32 
per cent, of the telephone workers said 
the work made them nervous. . . . 
At the time of the investigation, six 
girls were on the verge of a nervous 
breakdown, and were going to be obliged 
to give up the work. In looking up the 
peg count, it was found that one of these 
girls answered 200 calls in half an hour; 
250 is considered a large number for o^e 
hour." Eyestrain, headache, backache 
and the strain of reaching were among 
the other complaints. 



"One hundred and ninety-five of the 
laundry workers complained of extreme 
exhaustion due to standing all day at 
their work. . . . One hundred and 
eighty-two complained of their feet and 
ankles swelling, and said it was worse 
in summer time than in winter. . 
Others had varicose veins and broken 
arches, which are common in all occu- 
pations that necessitate continuous 
standing. 

"Forty-seven complained of sideache. 
This complaint was found largely among 
the women who constantly use the foot- 
lever machines, such as body ironers, 
sleeve presses, cuff presses, etc. The 
body ironer is the heaviest machine, 
and most of the employers will not allow 
a young girl or woman who is not strong 
to operate this machine. Most operators 
complain of the left side, due to the fact 
that the machines are operated by one 
foot continuously, which results in one- 
sided muscular activity. Thirty-seven 
complained of backache. . . Sixty 

complained of headache; 37 of their 
eyes; a few of catarrhal trouble and 
sore throat. 

"These latter complaints were found 
throughout the entire laundry. The 
eyestrain and headache prevailed among 
the markers, sorters and listers who also 
complained of nervousness because of 
the work being so exacting and the hours 
so long. At the mangle the complaint 
was of the steam affecting their eyes 
and of the excessive heat, causing head- 
ache. The gas and fumes from some of 
the ironing machines were said to be the 
cause of headache and of a bad effect on 
the eyes. 

"Rheumatism was complained of, and 
was found among the older women with 
a few exceptions. 20 had female trouble, 
14 had operations, 14 were not strong. 
All of these last named complaints were 
not chargeable to working in the laun- 
dry, but were said to be aggravated by 
laundry work. Because of the heat 
being so weakening, 14 girls said they 
were compelled to give up laundry work 
during the summer months. The humid- 
ity of the atmosphere in summer time is 
one of the worst features in laundry 
work." 

There is no law in Iowa limiting hours 
of labor for women. Consequently, says 
Mrs. Rourke, "the hours of labor for 
women are regulated by the character 
of the work and the inclination of the 
employers, running from reasonable to 
excessive, taking 9 hours as a standard. 
In laundries the hours are from 55 to 
60 a week, but in some of the industries 
the hours are not evenly distributed, that 
is, three days of the week — generally 
the first three — some of the laundry 
workers, the sorters, markers and listers 
in particular, work 11, 12 and 13 hours 
a day. 

"One girl who was a lister might be 
cited as a typical case of girls working 
too long hours. At the time of the inter- 
view she was at the verge of a nervous 
breakdown, her hands and feet were 
swollen, the latter condition the result of 
too constant application to her work. It 
was disclosed that she worked three 
nights a week until 8 and 9 o'clock, with 
only a short lunch period. Tt happened 
that this same girl and her sister worked 
in the cotton mills in England, and they 



both declared that they worked much 
harder in this country. 

"In the telephone exchanges, in the 
larger and medium'size cities, the girls- 
work from 7y 2 to 8 and 9 hours, and 
every other Sunday possibly 7 hours, or 
if they work every Sunday they work 
from 4 to 5 hours. The night girls usu 
ally work 10 hours, and are allowed from 
\ l / 2 to 2 hours' relief during the 10 
hours' service, while the girls in the 
smaller towns work from 10 to 11 hours- 
a day. One of these was found eating 
her lunch on the switchboard; she said 
she worked 11 hours straight and had 
no lunch period, with an additional 6 
hours every Sunday, receiving $7.50 a 
week for her services. 

"Some of the night girls in the smal 
ler towns are on duty 13 hours, but are 
allowed rest periods; yet in a few places 
they were not provided with anything to 
lie down on and were not expected to 
sleep. Over-fatigue and nervous ex- 
haustion are the resultant effects from 
too long hours at exacting work, whether 
mental or physical." 

In conclusion Mrs. Rourke said: 

"When this and the previous investi- 
gation, which covered retail clerks and 
hotel and restaurant employes, reveal 
that 39.7 per cent of the 3,914 women 
interviewed receive less than $6, $6.50 
and $7 a week, and 18.4 per cent receive 
less than $8 a week in industries wherein 
they render a better service than men. 
there should be no question as to what 
the state owes these wage-earners, for 
the problem of underpaid and over- 
worked women is of vital importance 
and grave consequence to the state. 

"There was an hour limitation bill and 
a minimum wage bill introduced at the 
last session of the general assembly. 
Both measures were defeated, but this 
is not surprising, for in every study of 
labor problems certain interests strive to 
prevent the establishment of all wage 
standards or any other progressive 
movements, and many times they oppose 
so-called drastic measures that would 
be a blessing in disguise. For shorter 
hours and a living-wage make efficient 
workers, faithful workers, and a hap- 
pier and better world for all." 

UNIFORM WAGES AND ANTI- 
TRUST LAW 

JUDGE W. S. ANDERSON at 
Youngstown, Ohio, last week quash- 
ed the indictments against five steel com- 
panies, returned by the grand jury that 
investigated the strike in the plant of 
the Youngstown Sheet and Tube Com- 
pany last January [see The Survey for 
March 18]. It is believed that the in- 
dictments against the United States Steel 
Corporation and the chairman of its ex- 
ecutive board, E. H. Gary, will also be 
dismissed. 

The indictments alleged a conspiracy 
to maintain uniform wages in defiance of 
the Ohio anti-trust laws. One of the 
most interesting of the comments they 
have called forth was by Samuel Gom- 
pers. who expressed concern lest an in- 
terpretation of the law that would allow 
the punishment of corporations for 
agreeing to fix wages might be turned 
against trade unionists as well. 



58 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 8, 1916 



HEALTH 



A Year of the Harrison Narcotic Law 



I. The Law Itself 

ON March 1, 1915, a federal law 
became operative in the United 
States, which had the large aim 
of restricting the traffic in certain drugs 
to legitimate channels. During the year, 
a chorus of protests arose chiefly from 
physicians all over the country, first in 
grand crescendo, later, as a sort of 
mezzo-forte criticism of annoyance, per- 
plexity and distrust. 

Annoyance resulted, not unnaturally, 
from the amount of bookkeeping involved 
in the required records. Perplexity re- 
sulted, also not unnaturally, from the 
wording of the law. Does "preparation" 
for instance, mean something already 
"put up," or does it include a doctor's 
prescription? And distrust of the meas- 
ure has been expressed as reports told 
of the havoc made by thus cutting off 
the supply from habitues, of the over- 
crowding of hospitals, sanatoriums, 
pavilions, and every possible shelter, 
with suffering human beings. 

To clarify thought on the situation and 
galvanize interest into intelligent activity 
in a most important cause, it is worth 
while to review briefly the law itself, note 
the official report of its workings, thus 
far available, and see how one group of 
interested citizens watched and furth- 
ered its enforcement. 

The Harrison law is a part of an 
international movement to check the use 
of habit-forming drugs — a government 
policy of long and honored standing. 
Since 1833, American citizens have been 
forbidden by treaty to engage in the 
opium trade with China. The confer- 
ences at Shanghai in 1906, and at The 
Hague in 1911, and the international 
agreement signed in January, 1912, for 
strict regulation of all trade in habit- 
forming drugs, are progressive stages 
of this same movement, in which 
America has taken prominence. 

The narcotic law or Harrison act is, 
therefore, seen against this background 
to be in logical sequence, an attempt of 
this nation to order its own affairs even 
as the nation has sworn to help China 
order hers. The law is, naturally, a reve- 
nue measure regulating one feature of 
commerce by the income therefrom. It 
is mandatory — violation is followed by 
prosecution. Its method is publicity. 

The law affects traffic in the following 
drugs: Opium, morphin, heroin, codcin, 
alpha- and beta- cucain, and cocain. 

All persons who import, manufacture 
or dispense these drugs must first reg- 
ister with the collector of internal reve- 
nue and receive a federal number of his 
registration and pay an annual tax of $1. 

The physician prescribing any one of 



these drugs must make out an elaborate 
prescription including name, address and 
age of the person receiving the drug. 
If he dispense any of these drugs — that 
is, furnish them himself directly to the 
patient — he must order his supplies on 
special blanks keeping a duplicate in his 
own possession for two years. 

The druggist keeps prescriptions and 
order blanks until called for by the col- 
lector and may not refill a prescription. 
The same rulings apply to dentists and 
veterinarians. 

It is interesting to note that no mat- 
ter how small the amount of these drugs 
which the physician desires to use, all 
the detail just specified must be given on 
his prescription. The druggist, however, 
may sell over the counter without special 
registration various oreparations — in 
plain English, proprietary medicines — 
which contain the prescribed minimum or 
less of these drugs. These drugs can be 
transported in interstate commerce only 
through a legally appointed dispenser. 

ft is obvious that through these reve- 
nue regulations a great power is put into 
the hands of physicians and manufactur- 
ers alike to control this drug trade. 

That there are "leaks" in the law 
even the first year's experience has 
proved, though reports are not yet avail- 
able from many portions of the country 
and measures for revision of the law 
have not as yet been finally formulated. 
One such leak is said to be in the en- 
forcement of interstate commerce regu- 
lations. Another is the fact that there 
is no means of discriminating between 
honest and dishonest intention on the 
part of physicians, though an official 
"interpretation" of the law, issued dur- 
ing the year, may cover this point. It 
rules that when an especially large 
amount of the drug is ordered, the pre- 
scription must indicate the purpose for 
such amount. 

Another matter for scrutiny is the ad- 
vantage given to "preparations" over 
doctors' prescriptions, in the much-dis- 
cussed section 6. The repeal of this sec- 
tion is being strongly urged. Several 
months may yet elapse before a full re- 
port on all such amendments is available. 

An important movement has been 
started meantime, "that newspapers shall 
reject all whiskey advertisements as well 
as advertisements of medical prepara- 
tions containing alcohol or opiates in 
habit- forming quantities." 

II. A Federal Report 

FROM the report for 1915 of the 
commissioner of internal revenue, 
further facts regarding the Harrison 
narcotic law are available. 

The law had been in force only four 



months at the close of the fiscal year 
ended June 30, 1915; but the results ac- 
complished during this short time clearly 
demonstrate the need for and the wisdom 
of such legislation. 

Investigations and prosecutions inci- 
dent to the enforcement of this law have 
disclosed conditions which require 
remedial legislation, both strengthening 
the law and ameliorating the sufferings 
of those unfortunate citizens addicted 
to the use of the narcotics prescribed by 
this act. The curtailment of their supply 
of the drugs, or their entire deprivation 
of them without any adequate provision 
for treatment, left many persons in dis- 
tress who were financially unable to ob- 
tain necessary treatment at hospitals or 
sanatoriums, or because of advanced 
age or physical infirmities, could not be 
deprived of the drugs without endanger- 
ing their lives. 

The evils of drug addiction are found 
among all classes, ages and conditions 
of society — persons of the high and low 
walks of life, children of tender years 
and very aged persons, the latter have 
in many instances been habitues for over 
half a century. 

During the four months ended June 
30, 1915, there were reported a total of 
5,085 violations of this law and the regu- 
lations made thereunder, of which 528 
were by persons registered under the 
law, and 4,557 by unregistered persons. 
The violations by the registered persons 
were distributed among the professions 
as follows: 257 by physicians; 40 by 
dentists; 6 by veterinary surgeons; 3 by 
manufacturers; 5 by wholesale dealers; 
211 by retail dealers; and 6 by registered 
persons not within these classifications. 

Prosecutions were instituted and trials 
had in 131 cases, resulting in convictions 
in 106 cases and acquittals in 25 cases. 
Upon convictions, fines only were im- 
posed in a number of cases, while in 
others both fines and imprisonment, rang- 
ing from short jail terms to three years 
in the federal penitentiary, were fixed 
by the courts. 

There were 170 cases under indictment 
or held for the grand jury at the close 
of the fiscal year. A total of 27 cases 
were compromised and 4.058 cases in- 
volving only technical violations of the 
law and regulations (often, it is said, due 
to misunderstanding of the exact re- 
quirements), dropped upon recommenda- 
tion of the internal revenue officers and 
United States attorneys: and 699 cases 
in which no action had been taken were 
pending June 30, 1915. 

Among the recommendations which 
even a brief experience of the law has 
proved desirable are these: 

1. A tax on the drugs specified, based 
upon some unit of weight, and denoted 
by stamps affixed to original packages or 
containers. 

2. The inclusion of chloral-hydrate, 
cannabis indica, and other drugs having 
the same general properties within the 
law. 

3. The repeal of the section permitting 
sale of "preparations" without registry 

4. That registration under this law 
shall be limited and restricted to per 



THE SURVEY FOR AFR1L 8, iqi6 



59 



sons lawfully entitled under state laws to 
dispense, prescribe, administer, or have 
in possession such drugs. 

5. That the writing of prescriptions, 
filling, keeping records, and the altering 
or forging thereof, be definitely ?.nd fully 
covered by the law with adequate pro- 
vision for the punishment of the offenses 
denounced therein. 

6. That every person registered under 
the provisions of this law be required to 
keep record of all narcotic drugs pur- 
chased, received, dispensed, distributed, 
prescribed, or administered, and that col- 
lectors of internal revenue be authorized 
to require sworn statement covering such 
registered person's operations in these 
drugs for a given period. 

7. That some provision be made for 
the treatment, either by the Public 
Health Service, or such other agency as 
may be designated, of indigent persons 
unfortunately addicted to the use of these 
drugs, where the operation of the law 
brings about conditions necessitating 
such treatment. 

. III. The Law in One City 

How a group of interested citizens 
studied the working of the Harrison law 
in their own city, is told by United 
States Attorney Francis Fisher Kane: 

IN Philadelphia, a committee was 
formed to collect data in regard to 
the narcotic drug evil in that city, par- 
ticularly in regard to the enforcement 
of the Harrison drug act. The commit- 
tee is composed of fifteen prominent citi- 
zens, with Edward W. Bok of the Curtis 
Publishing Company at its head, and in- 
cludes representatives of the medical 
societies. 

An agent has been employed by the 
committee, with desk-room in the office 
of the Society for Organizing Charity, 
to collect data, investigate individual 
cases, refer to physicians and hospitals 
when necessary, and lend a helping hand 
to the individual victim as opportunity 
offers. Co-operation with the probation 
officers of the Municipal Court and with 
other charitable agencies in the city has 
been secured, and an arrangement has 
been made with several hospitals for re- 
ferring patients to their clinics. 

At the Philadelphia City Hospital, 
drug habitues are received free of 
charge. They cannot be legally com- 
mitted, however, nor forced to remain 
for cure when they desire to leave the 
hospital. So most of them fall inevitably 
back into their old life. 

Habitues may be committed to the 
county prison, where a very successful 
form of treatment is in use. But the 
sentences are usually for short terms, 
and the prisoners leave the jail before 
they gain a real control of themselves 
even though they may have an honest 
desire to free themselves permanently 
from a drug. At present, further, when 
the individual comes out of prison, he 
is not followed up. 

A "seller" or "peddler" of drugs has 
been given sentence in the county prison, 
but where the evidence merely showed 
possession, although there might be a sus- 
picion of something further, the defend- 
ant has generally been discharged, the 



time in prison subsequent to commitment 
being regarded as sufficient punishment. 
The effort of the government has been 
to arrest only persons who were at least 
carrying or peddling prohibited drugs. 
In other words, its intention has been 
not to prosecute nr.re users, although 
many such have been arrested by the 
police in raiding places where it was 
known that drugs were being sold. 

Some few, against whom it could be 
proved that they were maintaining re- 
sorts, have been arrested ; and a few 
doctors who were charged with dispens- 
ing drugs to victims not in the course 



up, and the result has been a constant 
temptation to the weak and unscrupulous. 
"Big money" can be obtained by person? 
who are willing to disobey the law, and 
it is openly boasted that if a man is will- 
ing to pay money enough he can get all 
the "dope" that he wants. This may be 
questioned, for our tenderloin is not a 
large area and it is under pretty strict 
police surveillance. 

Still, the difficulties in preventing the 
illicit sale of narcotic drugs are great. 
Cocain or morphin, in the form of cap- 
sules or powder, can be quickly passed 
from hand to hand or thrown awav and 



Quantities of various narcotic drugs entered for conxumption in the United States during 

the years 1912-1915. 



1912 



1!)13 



1914 



1915 



Coca leaves pounds. , 

Cocain and salts of ounces. . 

Opium : 

Crude pounds. 

Powdered pounds. 

Morphin or morphin sulphate. .. .ounces. . 
All other alkaloids of opium. .. .ounces. 



.1,179,540.00 1,175.780.00 
2,004.00 3,715.00 



711.504.00 1,038,212.00 
3.290.50 179.00 



3S4.911.C1 

77,551.10 

13,825.00 

634.00 



441.270.04 

49,07" 1.50 

24.797.00 

9.G72.00 



441.021.00 

32. 1(15.45 

12.891.00 

4.507.00 



353,000.00 

38,977.00 

1,383.00 

9,626.00 



of an honest practice and for the pur- 
poses of' cure have also been prosecuted. 
But it must be admitted that, so far as 
getting at the source of supply in the 
city's tenderloin, only the surface has 
been scratched, and much remains to be 
done if the law is to be effectively ad- 
ministered. 

The petty "peddler" of morphin or 
cocain is almost always a user before 
he starts to peddle. He has learned 
where the drug can be obtained, and be- 
comes acquainted with the persons who 
use it. He has got out of the way of 
making an honest living and naturally 
takes to any means at hand for keeping 
soul and body together. It is believed 
that this is the origin of a good deal of 
the peddling that goes on from hand to 
hand in the street and elsewhere in the 
tenderloin of a big city. There are also 
men higher up who should in some way 
be "got after." 

Since the Harrison act has gone into 
effect, the price of narcotic drugs ob- 
tained under cover has enormously in- 
creased. A person who sells morphin, 
heroin, or cocain, not upon a written 
order or under a doctor's prescription, 
now runs the risk of being sent to 
prison. Of course, this has sent prices 



secreted. Many houses have been raided 
where it was known that persons were 
securing the forbidden articles, only to 
find little or nothing on the premises. 
A few unfortunates would be arrested 
who had trifling amounts of the drug on 
their persons, but the man in charge who 
had the main supply had escaped or else 
the supply was not in the house but was 
brought there in small quantities by some 
one who called at the house from time 
to time and supplied particular indi- 
viduals. 

But this does not mean that the Har- 
rison act has not been a good thing for 
a city like Philadelphia, where until its 
passage morphin or heroin could be sold 
with impunity by any corner druggist. 
Cocain alone could not be sold under the 
state law except under a doctor's pre- 
scription, but morphin and heroin could 
be dealt in freely, and it mattered not 
whether they were given to a patient 
in need of them or to a miserable addict. 
Now the "dealer" hat the federal law 
before his eyes, and it has become diffi- 
cult and dangerous to dispense morphin 
and heroin, as well as cocain for other 
than legitimate purposes. 

The federal law is at least preventing 
to some extent the cultivation of a new 




A NEW car has just been added to the health train which for several years has 
traveled through the Creole state with exhibits and illustrated lecture ma- 
terial. The new car is put on the road for the purpose of analyzing the public 
water supplies, milk and whatever food products may require investigation. Where 
a water-borne disease prevails, special examinations are frequently made and the 
public are informed. Tn this work the Louisiana State Board of Health co-operates 
with the federal Public Health Service. 



6o 

<^nurtcsy uf the Spirit of Missions 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 8, 1916 




BATHING IN THE GANGES — WHAT DECREE OF WATER POLLUTION RESULTS FROM THIS 
SEETHING MASS OF HUMANITY MAY BE IMAGINED 



crop of drug victims. Old habitues will 
continue to get their drug, but the crea- 
tion of new victims will be checked, and 
this at least is a great point gained. 

IV. A Summary 

THE Public Health Service has 
lately published a review of the 
workings of the Harrison law. The 
service states that in spite of the fact 
that it is a revenue-producing and not 
a police measure, yet it has resulted in 
a decided lessening of illicit drug-selling. 
There is, however, need of strengthen- 
ing its provisions, perhaps by supple- 
mentary state laws. 

The figures presented in the table on 
the previous page to show the amounts of 
habit-forming drugs which were imported 
for three years before the law and for 
the year after, seem far from brilliant. 
It is true that the amount of cocain has 
fallen off decidedly, but the importation 



of coca leaves is alniusi as lari;*.- as be- 
fore. Morphin also has dropped notice- 
ably, but not the other opium alkaloids, 
codein, heroin, etc., and crude and pow- 
dered opium show little if any diminu- 
tion. 

The year that saw the enactment of 
the federal law saw also the passage of 
amendments to state laws in nineteen 
states. All this is good; but unless all 
the states pass uniform laws on this sub- 
ject, trouble will continue in the cities 
which are placed, as so many of the larg- 
est cities are, near the state line. 

The Harrison law should be made 
stronger, for it applies to the whole 
country. The secretary of the treasury 
in his annual message to Congress recom- 
mended that it be amended in several 
ways with the object of stopping up some 
of the many leaks. One of his recom- 
mendations is that the Public Health 
Service, itself a part of the Treasury 
Department, be ordered to provide for 
the care of indigent victims of the drug 



habit whenever the operation of the law 
makes such treatment a necessity. 

WHY THEY HAVE CHOLERA 
IN INDIA 

PHOTOGRAPHS like that opposite 
help to interpret the reports of 
thousands of cases of epidemics which 
frequently follow pilgrimages in Oriental 
countries, for an unspeakable degree of 
water pollution is obviously an inevitable 
result of unlimited bathing in the "sacred 
waters." Another aspect of the question 
is shown in a note to the government 
sanitary commissioner of Bombay, signed 
by K. R. Bohsle, a municipal councilor 
of Bombay, printed in the Indian So- 
cial Reformer, urging improved condi- 
tions for pilgrims to inland shrines. 

Railway accommodations, for instance. 
Mr. Bohsle declares, are both inadequate 
and insanitary. At present the railway 
to Bandharpur — southwest from Bom- 
bay — has an insufficient number of car- 
riages in its trains; sometimes only ten 
coaches are furnished to carry a thou- 
sand people. The coach has no water- 
supply or toilet conveniences. The state 
of exhaustion in which pilgrims reached 
the station after several hours of travel, 
packed so closely into a coach that they 
cannot even sit down, makes in itself a 
predisposition to disease. 

Many of these pilgrims depend upon 
food offered them by the more or less 
devout at various stations. A certain nut 
which has been believed to produce 
cholera is often unwittingly given by 
villagers. But frequently food of un- 
satisfactory character is offered by un- 
scrupulous persons who satisfy them- 
selves with the form of the gift rather 
than the reality. 

Other groups of pilgrims come by 
road and halt to rest or to spend the 
night in camping-places whenever pos- 
sible where other pilgrims have, a day 
or so preceding, also halted. To his as- 
tonishment, Mr. Bohsle found that the 
pilgrims ate the black soil from the spot 
occupied by the palkhis, taking it as a 
gift from heaven. '"Surely," he says, 
"this must cause cholera and measures 
should be taken to stop it." 

Says Mr. Bohsle in closing, "Highh 
paid officers . . . are no doubt serv- 
ants of the municipality for the time be- 
ing, but no powers to which they are 
entitled by the municipal act are even 
given to these officers. What, then, of 
others? I know for certain on many 
occasions that officers are discouraged 
and consequently good work cannot be 
expected from them." 

Dr. Rao, director of the Public Health 
Institute, Mysore, also calls attention to 
pilgrimages as a source of cholera in- 
fection. He urges that village sanitation 
committees do away with step-wells, into 
which any wayfarer returning from a 
shrine may step to wash his feet, and 
that the drinking-water supply be pro- 
tected by pump fittings. 

India has evidently some grave public 
health problems. But that conditions 
are thus being analyzed by native ■offi- 
cials themselves is a long step forward. 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 8, 1916 



61 



CIVICS 




OPENING SCHOOL DOORS TO 
POPULAR DISCUSSION 

COMMUNITY forums have increased 
in number so rapidly that recently 
a conference of representatives from 
several of them was held under the au- 
spices of the Public Forum of the Church 
of the Ascension in New York city. 
This was the second occasion of the sort, 
the first such conference having been 
held in the summer of 1914 by the Saga- 
more Sociological Conference. 

Last year saw an emphasis on the use 
of school buildings for forum purposes 
in New York city. Those who, a decade 
and more ago in pioneer social settle- 
ments of the country, conducted "free 
floor discussions" little realized that these 
early beginnings would lead to popular 
participation in social and industrial dis- 
cussion in the public school buildings of 
the large cities — and even to the intro- 
duction of a bill in Congress directing 
the commissioners of the District of 
Columbia to designate ten public school 
buildings for use as community forums. 

The Johnson bill for this purpose is 
sponsored by Margaret Woodrow Wil- 
son, daughter of the President, who was 
present at a meeting held by the Labor 
Forum in the Washington Irving High 
School. New York city, on Sunday even- 
ing, March 26. One of the speakers 
was E. J. Ward, who formerly, under the 
auspices of the University of Wisconsin, 
promoted social centers in that state, and 
who is now connected with the federal 
Bureau of Education as community 
center adviser. Representatives of four- 
teen similar forums held in schools, 
churches, theaters, and other gathering- 
places joined to endorse the bill. 

The Lahor Forum which now meets in 



Washington Irving High School began 
under the auspices of the East Side 
Neighborhood Association, which in Sep- 
tember, 1914, undertook to develop in 
Public School 62 the East Side Forum, 
organized along the lines which have 
made the public discussions conducted at 
Cooper Union famous throughout the 
country. 

The experience of this forum has led 
its director, Carl Beck, to urge the neces- 
sity for some standard as to sound meth- 
ods for organizing and conducting such 
work. He points out that a public forum 
in a public school building is dependent 
upon factors that do not prevail in con- 
nection with forums organized in 
churches, theaters or privately controlled 
halls. 

The use of a public school is properly 
subject to criticism by newspapers and 
citizens. The disputatious character of 
forum meetings leads the reactionary ele- 
ment in the community to voice its op- 
position. Helen Keller's radical chal- 
lenge to militarism and preparedness, for 
example, brought about criticism which 
nearly cost the Labor Forum its life in 
the Washington Irving High School 
building. The Board of Education, com- 
mitted to a progressive policy, sustained 
the continued use of the schoolhouse by 
the forum. 

At the recent Conference on Public 
Forums, Mr. Beck made suggestions of a 
plan and regulations for the conducting 
of forums, and the subject will be further 
discussed, he hopes, at the conference 
on social center development which is to 
be held in New York, April 19 to 22. 



A forum, he declares, should be con- 
ducted in a non-partisan, non-sectarian 
and non-exclusive way. It should be 
open to any persons with a sincere mes- 
sage. During his address a speaker 
should not be heckled but should have un- 
interrupted opportunity to develop his 
subject. Questions asked from the 
audience may be preceded by an explana- 
tory statement of one minute's length. 
No individual should be allowed two 
questions until all persons have had one 
chance. 

Public officials, Mr. Beck believes, 
should not be subject to questions at the 
end of their forum addresses unless they 
desire them. He feels that a public offi- 
cial whom citizens put into office as an 
administrator should be free to talk at 
a forum without being subjected to ques- 
tions from political opponents desirous 
of merely tripping him up, rather than 
bringing out truth. 

FINANCES UNDER CITY 
COMMISSIONS 

THE efficiency of city administration 
in commission governed munici- 
palities is indicated by statistics which 
have recently been issued by the Census 
Bureau. Such cities are compared with 
council governed cities of approximately 
the same size. 

Three groups of cities were studied — 
8 having the council form of government 
during 1913 and 1915, 8 having the com- 
mission form during those years and 
8 having the council form in 1913 and 
the commission form in 1915. The per 
capita expenditures for all governmental 
costs — expenses of general departments, 
expenses of public-service enterprises, 
interest on indebtedness, and outlays for 
permanent improvements — increased dur- 
ing the two-year period from $23.70 to 
$28.33 in the council cities, taken as a 
group, from $19.92 to $22.20 in the com- 
mission cities and from $16.44 to $18.76 
in the cities governed by council in the 




A NEIGHBORHOOD HEARTH 

The use of the fireplace in the Washington Irving High School where the New 
York Labor Forum meets zcas denied to the forum although the latter offered to 
pay the fuel bill. Permission to light the fire zvas granted at last when Margaret 
Wilson, the President's daughter, was the guest of the forum on March 26 The 
motto over the fireplace reads : 

"The fire of hospitality in the hall 

The genial flame of charity in the heart " 



t>2 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 8, rgi6 



earlier year and by commission in the 
later. 

The per capita expenditures for out- 
lays for permanent improvements alone 
increased from $8.4® to $10.80 in the 
council cities, from $4.60 to $5.86 in the 
commission cities, and from $4.07 to 
$5.21 in the cities which changed from 
the council to the commission form be- 
tween the earlier and the later year. 

The per capita payments for current 
expenses and interest— that is, for all 
governmental cost except outlays — in- 
creased from $15.30 to $17.53 in the 
group of council cities, from $15.32 to 
$16.34 in the commission group, and 
from $12.37 to $13.55 in the group which 
changed from council to commission 
during the two-year period. The in- 
crease in these expenditures was more 
than twice as great in the council cities 
as in the commission cities, and nearly 
twice as great in the council cities as in 
those governed by council in the earlier 
year and by commission in the later. 

Excess of expenditure over revenues 
was found in council governed cities to 
a greater extent than in the commission 
governed cities, and city indebtedness 
increased in each of the council gov- 
erned cities, while it decreased slightly 
in the commission governed group — al- 
though three of the cities in this group 
showed an increase. 

The situation indicated by these sta- 
tistics cannot, of course, be fully under- 
stood without data as to the relative 
value received by the cities for their 
expenditures. 

DARK ROOMS AND CELLARS 
IN NEW YORK 

TWO bills to improve tenement con- 
ditions in New York city are being 
urged in the state legislature by the New 
York Congestion Committee. One is de- 
signed to empower the Tenement House 
Department to vacate rooms that are so 
defective in lighting and in means of 
escape in case of fire as to be unfit for 
human habitation and dangerous to life 
and health. The other would prohibit 
living in basements or cellars in old law 
tenements unless they comply with the 
requirements of the new law in force 
since 1901. 

In support of the first bill the commit- 
tee points out that, although the tenement 
law prescribes how windows are to be 
cut in the walls connecting interior 
rooms, many rooms which are thus 
legally and technically light, are physical- 
ly dark. So far as fire safety is con- 
cerned, the committee declares that the 
department has at present no authority 
to vacate apartments that have no fire- 
escapes or inadequate ones. 

Commissioner John J. Murphy of the 
Tenement House Department is under- 
stood to be inclined to favor the bill ex- 
cept for the part concerning lighting — as 
to wh ; ch he feels there is yet no stand- 
ard. Lawrence Veiller, former deputy 
tenement house commissioner and now 
secretary of the National Housing As- 
sociation, believes the measure unneces- 



HOWOMCLEMOSE' 
SPENDS HI5MONET- 




FROM A PAMPHLET ON THE COST OF COM- 
MUNITY HOUSEKEEPING ISSUED BY THE CLEVE- 
LAND CHAMBER OF COMMERCE 

sary. He feels that lighting is adequate- 
ly assured if the ventilation requirements 
are satisfied, and that apartments not 
properly provided with fire-escapes may 
be ordered vacated under the present 
law which gives the commissioner such 
power wherever he finds defects in con- 
struction. 

The bill to prohibit livi: g in cellars- 
apartments more than half below the sur- 
face of the ground or curb — would also 
put old tenements on the same basis as 
those built under the new law. It would 
prohibit the occupation of any room un- 
less the ceiling is four and a half feet 
above the surface of the street or ground 
outside. The present requirement is only 
two feet in the case of old law tenements. 
It would also repeal the section permit- 
ting janitors' families to occupy cellars 
which do not conform with the require- 
ments for old law tenements. 

The committee urges that dust, damp- 
ness and darkness make these rooms un- 
healthy and declares that discretion 
should not be vested in the Tenement 
House Department to grant permits for 
occupancy in rooms below such a stand- 
ard as the bill prescribes. It cites sta- 
tistics from the Tenement House Depart- 
ment to show that the total number of 
permits for occupancy of cellars and 
basements issued up to 1916 were 14,313. 
Some of these were investigated by the 
committee, which found dark rooms and 
conditions it considers prejudicial to 
health. 

The regulations in several of the 
larger cities prohibiting cellar dwellings 
are cited to show that the provisions of 
the bill are not unreasonable. 

Tenement House Commissioner Mur- 
phy considers the measure unnecessary, 
however, on the ground that the present 
law gives ample power at the discretion 
of the commissioner. The law provides 



that no permit shall be issued for base 
ment or cellar occupancy unless each 
room has "sufficient light and ventila- 
tion," is "well drained and dry," and "fit 
for human habitation." 

Mr. Veiller declares that the bill is not 
merely unnecessary but unwise in that it 
substitutes an arbitrary standard in place 
of actual facts which, in a given case, 
may or may not warrant vacating cellar 
rooms. He refers to the experience un- 
der the tenement house law which was* 
originally drafted with similar arbitrary 
standards for cellar occupancy. A study 
revealed a number of cellar rooms which 
did not meet the strict requirements but 
had plenty of light and ventilation, were 
free from dampness and were in every 
way fit for occupancy. This led to the 
amendment of the law to its present 
form. 

ANOTHER SHOOT FOR THE 
YOUNG IDEA 

JUNIOR Chambers of Commerce art- 
today sharing some of the popularity 
which has been enjoyed for twenty years 
by junior congresses and junior city 
councils. In Knoxville, Tenn., 275 boys 
from 14 to 19 years of age are member:- 
of a Junior Board of Commerce which 
is working for the approval by popular 
vote of a $50,000 bond issue for public 
parks and playgrounds. The boys pub- 
lish monthly the Junior Citizen. 

The students of Washington High 
School, Portland, Ore., have also or- 
ganized a Junior Chamber of Commerce. 
with a business manager, seven vice- 
presidents and a scheme or organization 
corresp-nding to that of the Portland 
( hamber of Commerce. The vice-presi- 
dents are heads of bureaus, civics, pur- 
chasing, employment, industrial, charity, 
development and publicity. According 
to Prof. Don T. Orput, the member of 
the high school faculty appointed to 
supervise this student activity, the 
"junior chamber" is a phase of student 
government and has much practical and 
beneficial work to its credit. 

COST OF LIVING FOR CITY 
FATHERS 

iiT TNCLE MOST." has the same sort 

LJ of household difficulties that 
trouble Father Knickerbocker, William 
Perm and all the other paters familias of 
American cities. Moses Cleaveland's 
struggle with the ancient problem of how 
to meet living expenses is defined in a 
pamphlet recently issued by the Cleve- 
land Chamber of Commerce. 

Progress toward greater wisdom in ex 
penditure must be preceded by better 
understanding of how municipal funds 
are now spent. The pamphlet puts in 
plain language the details of a situation 
whose main facts are that bonded indebt- 
edness is increasing because the city has 
for many years failed to provide ade- 
quate sinking funds, and that the yearly 
operation of tax-supported city activities 
is $800,000 more than the tax receipts 
for the purpose 




Editorials 



EDWARD T. DEVINE 

JANE ADDAMS 
GRAHAM TAYLOR 

Associate Editors 



PAUL U. KELLOGG 

Editor 



LIQUID FACTS 

THE Vindicator, The Survey, press bureaus of 
liquor interests and prohibitionists from Mon- 
tana to New York, the American Year Book 
and the official statements of the city commis- 
sioners of Birmingham, make up a pretty kettle of fish — 
nil together and simmering. 

So far as The Survey goes, our part runs back to 191^ 
when we brought out a special Birmingham number show- 
ing, among other things, how this industrial center of the 
new South was crippled in many of its governmental and 
social activities by the hang-over of old village and rural 
fiscal arrangements. For example, the sheriff, on the 
antiquated fee system, was drawing down as much as the 
President of the United States, while the municipality was 
starved for funds by an outworn tax-system, and by ham- 
pering provisions of the state constitution with respect to 
bonding. These, coupled with an economical desire on the 
part of the city to avoid paying more than its heavy share 
of the state taxes, was limiting Birmingham to an annual 
expenditure of about $7.50 per capita for the service for 
which cities of the same size were spending $12 or more. 

In the succeeding years, the scope of municipal service 
carried on by Birmingham grew apace ; and on the other 
hand, the success of the dry campaign in Alabama cut off 
license revenues of the city. Last summer the city com- 
missioners, squarely facing the accumulated indebtedness 
piled up in earlier years, and faced, also, by the 
fact that Birmingham was spending something like $1,000 
a day more than it had to spend, decided that they would 
have only as much government as they could pay for. 
But to attribute the whole dilemma to prohibition, as has 
been done by others, is to distort the situation as badly as 
to say that the British expedition to the South Pole froze 
to death because their last fagot went out. 

Last September, The Survey published some news 
paragraphs from a Birmingham correspondent telling of 
the radical cuts under way in the city service due to the 
shortage in income, and the agitation in defense of the 
social service departments — recreation, education and 
charities. In October, the same correspondent reported 
| see The Survey for October 23] that "to the joy of the 
city fathers and the public generally" the service cuts 
were not to be so drastic as had been feared and that the 
financial situation was to be improved by a budget system. 

Not a word was said in either report about sources of 
income or reasons for its falling off — neither the adoption 
of prohibition nor the archaic system of taxation clamped 
down on a growing industrial city by a legislature con- 
trolled by farmers and cross-roads attorneys, and by cor- 
porations which are quite content with the low tax-rate. 

A little later a state campaign for prohibition was on in 
Montana. The Survey's first report was seized upon by 



the Montana Commercial and Labor League, and they put 
out large display advertisements in which 

"The Survey, a high-class publication that has on its Board 
of Directors some o.f the biggest and ablest men in public life 
in America," 

was apparently made to bear witness that because of pro- 
hibition, Birmingham was in sore financial straits and 
that "the city is infested with criminals and crooks." 

George B. Ward, president of the Municipal Board of 
City Commissioners, challenged their statement as untrue 
on the ground that Birmingham's deficit was the result 
of "the large floating debt that had been accumulating for 
some years," branded the use made of The Survey item 
as "exaggerated and garbled," and carried the argument 
as to the results of closing the saloons sharply over to the 
affirmative side by this official statement of the compara- 
tive number of arrests and convictions for the final three 
months of the last two years : 

IQ14 1915 Per Cent 

Wet Dry of Decrease 

Total arrests 4599 2742 41 

Total convictions 3294 1910 42 

Drunkenness 999 340 66 

Wife-whipping 23 11 57 

Disorderly conduct 862 487 44 

Further, homicides for three months were reduced 33^ 
per cent ; suicides for the full year, GO per cent, and on 
the day his statement was made, there were just 3 cases 
in the police court of a city of 150,000 people against 44 
on the same day of the preceding year and 130 the year 
before that. 

"It will doubtless occur to the liquor people in a very 
short time that they have made a tremendous blunder in 
citing Birmingham as an example of the disastrous effects 
of prohibition," said Mr. Ward ; and he summed up the 
incident by declaring that "in addition to perverting The 
Survey article, the liquor people stultify themselves by 
adding that 'in Birmingham social disorder prevails.' ' 
To his characterizations we heartily subscribe. If thosr 
who oppose prohibition wish to carry conviction on the 
basis of the social experience of dry cities, they can only 
do so by finding the truth on their side ; not by distorting it. 

Later, a prohibition paper called The Vindicator, pub- 
lished at Franklin, Pa., fell plumply into the Montana 
liquor men's trap, and attacked The Survey as making 
"exceedingly erroneous statements concerning the re- 
sults of prohibition in the city of Birmingham." and added 
that "its representations are wholly false." 

Still later, another chapter has appeared in the American 
Year Book for 191 G. Writing on the Liquor Problem 
(page 414), John Koren recorded that Birmingham's pre- 
dicament was due to the loss of liquor revenue, but failed 
to note the tax-system and other factors in the situation 

63 



6 4 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 8, 1916 



He recited the radical cuts in the city service, but again 
failed to note that these had later been scaled down. 

Meanwhile, certain liquor interests have not left off 
advertising their belief that Birmingham is in the dumps 
financially because of prohibition ; neither have they stop- 
ped spinning the impression that The Survey bore them 
out in it. Only the past fortnight the New York World 
has been vigorously unswallowing apparently guileless 
news-matter which had been offered it on both points. 
And the National Wholesale Liquor Dealers Association 
last week reproduced and spread broadcast through its 
publicity department, photograph, news item, and quo- 
tation from The Survey in the form in which they had 
been unsuspectingly printed by the World. Here we have 
distortion compounded. 

Meanwhile, Birmingham has been working out some 
compensations from its difficulties. For example, when it 
became necessary to cut down the fire department, a de 
liberate and successful plan was put in operation to re- 
duce the number of fires. And the city's chief problem 
at present is to find a use for its $100,000 jail — "the 
handsomest jail in the South." Before prohibition it 
normally housed prisoners to the number of "200 and 
upwards ; today the number ranges from GO to 70." 

And that, as Mr. Ward says, "is another fad that the 
liquor people can chew upon." 

"FARRELLISM" 

PEOPLE may believe or not in putting the great mass 
of dependent children into institutions. That is a 
question on which Catholic, Protestant and Jewish child- 
caring workers differ among themselves. With respect 
to it they do not split along religious lines. The answer 
is to be found not in dogmatic assertion but in analysis 
and massed facts as to mortality and physique and the 
social and educational results of such care in the lives 
of the children themselves. 

People may believe or not in public subsidies to private 
charitable organizations. That is a question on which 
Catholic, Protestant and Jewish social workers differ 
among themselves. They do not split along religious lines. 
The answer is not to be found in dogmatic assertion but 
in analysis and massed facts as to the economics of such 
a hybrid system compared with straight public or straight 
private care, or both ; as to the educational and physical 
results for the children ; as to the effect of such an en- 
tangling alliance upon the healthy operation of both pub- 
lic and private activities. 

There is a third question, and people may not be of two 
minds concerning it and still carry the respect of the pub- 
lic. This question is, whether any institution or any 
agency, public or private, should be allowed to thwart 
the growth of the children committed to its care. This is 
the question before New York. It becomes precise and 
inescapable, when we arrive at minimum standards of 
shelter, food, education, recreation below which no insti- 
tution should be permitted to act as a steward of child- 
hood. This is a question on which Catholic, Protestant 
and Jewish people cannot in sincerity differ. The answer 
is not to be found in dogmatic assertion, but in scrutiny 
of an institution's administration and of the results of its 
work expressed in the lives of its wards. 

Such an inspection was attempted for the New York 
Department of Public Charities by a committee composed 
of Catholic. Protestant and Jewish experts. Tt was car- 



ried out under the administration of a Catholic mayor, 
under the direction of a Protestant commissioner, and in 
the immediate charge of a Catholic deputy. This com- 
mittee of inspection reported that there were institutions, 
receiving city money, which violated tolerable standards 
of decency, health and education for the child wards of 
the city. It developed that by a quibble as to the form of 
its certificates, the State Board of Charities (charged with 
the supervision of these institutions) was not enforcing 
such standards. 

Thereupon an investigation of the work of the state 
board was undertaken by a commissioner appointed by the 
governor at the solicitation of the city administration 
While this investigation is in process, the weight of the 
organized forces of one great religious body has apparently 
been thrown into an effort to discredit the impartiality of 
the investigation, to inject the religious issue into state 
and city politics, and to make a blanket defense of the 
charitable institutions of this church. Yet if there were 
no public supervision whatever, the prior and solemn ob- 
ligati- 11 of the church itself has been to prevent neglect 
and mistreatment of the children committed to the care of 
any and all of tb?se institutions. 

THE situation calls for self-assertion on the part of 
the progressive Catholics of New York lest they con- 
tinue to be misrepresented and compromised by spokes- 
men who have not stopped at falsehood, abuse, and whole- 
sale charges of anti-Catholic animus, cast at every public 
official who has ventured to challenge the administration 
of any institution of that faith. 

This is the question which has been put squarely up to 
the Roman Catholic men and women of New York, by 
the issue of Farrellism. Pamphlets bearing the name of 
the Rev. William B. Farrell of the Church of SS. Peter 
and Paul, Brooklyn, and violently attacking the inquiry 
by Charles H. Strong into the state charitable adminis- 
tration of New York, have been making their periodic 
appearance for several weeks. These pamphlets are scur- 
rilous and abusive ; they have been amply proved untrue 
in many of their important statements of fact. A large 
part in the preparation of the pamphlets, if not their ac- 
tual authorship, has been traced to Daniel C. Potter, an 
ex-Baptist minister, discredited public official and "friend' 
of private charitable institutions receiving public money 
Over 700,000 copies of these pamphlets have already been 
distributed through Catholic churches. 

When Father Farrell was called before the Strong in 
(]uiry and given an opportunity to substantiate the state 
ments in his pamphlets, he refused to answer any ques- 
tions relating to his allegations, declared that he had a per 
feet right to make any statements he desired to make. 
and that he had no respect for the investigation. "I'll 
answer you in another pamphlet." he announced. 

After Father Farrell had left the stand, another priest 
approached Commissioner Strong and said that as a Cath- 
olic, he desired to repudiate the attitude that Father 
Farrell had taken He expressed appreciation for the 
courtesy and patience shown the recalcitrant witness. 

But the printing of the Farrell pamphlets was paid for. 
in the sum of thousands of dollars, by the archdiocese 
of New York, and the Very Rev. James J. Dunn, chan- 
cellor of the archdiocese, has acknowledged his part in dis- 
tributing them. Scores of churches have handed them out 

Where do the great body of Catholics in New York 
stand? Do they sanction Farrellism. or will they reject it* 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 8, 1916 



65 



Communications 



A New Name for the National 
Conference 

To the Editor: At the Baltimore 
meeting of the National Conference of 
Charities and Correction, the president, 
on motion of the undersigned, was re- 
quested to appoint a special committee 
to report at the next meeting with regard 
to changing the name of the conference. 
Speaking not as a member of this com- 
mittee, but upon my own personal re- 
sponsibility, may I state briefly the 
grounds upon which a change of name is 
urged, and then suggest a general form 
of name which appears to me to be sub- 
stantially better than the present one ? 

While in its early days the conference 
still consisted mainly of officials of the 
then existing state boards of charity and 
private charity societies, and while other 
forms of social work were still little de- 
veloped, the name charities and correc- 
tion was doubtless adequate. But during 
recent years social agencies of many 
other kinds have arisen, and the con- 
ference has greatly expanded. Under 
these conditions, the retention of the 
original name appears to be due to a 
combination of tradition and inertia. 

There are three good reasons why a 
change should now be made: 

The first is the desirability of having 
the name tally with' the facts. Charity, 
in current use among social workers, has 
reference to the administration of ma- 
terial relief; while the only reason this 
term is used more loosely by the man in 
the street is because the latter still con- 
ceives of any or all social work in terms 
of relief. 

In the second place, the present name 
keeps out of the conference some agencies 
who do not care to be regarded as either 
charities or corrections ; while, unless a 
broader name is soon adopted, some of 
the agencies of this sort which the con- 
ference now includes, will be likely to 
affiliate with other national bodies, such 
as the American Sociological Society. 

The most important objection to re- 
taining the present name, however, is 
that it tends to retard adequate recogni- 
tion and understanding of other equally 
important forms of social endeavor be- 
sides charities and corrections. The 
Mational Conference, instead of continu- 
ing to be a party to prevailing miscon- 
ception, should itself take the lead in a 
campaign of education, by adopting a 
name which more truly tells the story. 

The name, American Conference on 
Social Betterment, impresses me as hav- 
ing the requisite feature?. It carries its 
meaning plainly on its face, and is 
dynamic and constructive in suggestion. 
Social service and social welfare are 
other possibilities, but the first is too 
self-commendatory, and both lack the 
constructive note. Social work may con- 
serve more of the technical at i profes- 



sional significance of the present title, 
but some members of the general public 
do not know what social work really 
means, and this term is also wanting in 
dynamic appeal. The proposed substitu- 
tion of American for national is due to 
the growing feeling that as the confer- 
ence now includes representatives from 
Canada, and may soon take in others 
from countries to the South, its geogra- 
phical scope should be more suitably 
indicated. 

The surest sign of the times in this 
connection is the fact that a half dozen 
or more state conferences have broad- 
ened their names during the past few 
years, while others, including Maryland, 
are considering doing so. 

In conclusion, may I urge all those who 
feel an interest in this question, either 
pro or con, to communicate their views 
to Prof. Graham Taylor, 955 Grand ave- 
nue, Chicago, as chairman of the Com- 
mittee previously mentioned, so that the 
best judgment of the conference may be 
ascertained and the question satisfac- 
torily settled at Indianapolis next month. 

John Daniels. 
[Director Social Service Corporation.] 

Baltimore, Md. 

A Correction 

To the Editor : The statement in 
The Survey for March 18, page 734, 
to the effect that the German and French 
citizens of St. Louis joined in a war re- 
lief bazar is untrue. It could have been 
said that a gift from the French Society 
to the German bazar brought a few small 
contributions in return from Germans, 
but these interchanges of courtesies had 
no such significance as this statement 
declares. One might as well say that 
exchanging little commodities by men 
in opposite trenches indicated that Ger- 
man and French troops joined in war re- 
lief, as make the remark to which The 
Survey has given currency. 

The facts are that the bazar, adver- 
tised for humanity's sake, limited to 
Austro-German relief, cleared about 
$100,000, and the French fete about 
$9,000. There was no "war-relief bazar" 
in which German and French citizens 
joined. 

John W. Day. 

St. Louis. 

$5 for a Poster 

To the Editor : The Woman's Peace 
Party wants to teach in posters the story 
of internationalism. The following post- 
ers have been drawn up but they lack a 
little "poster punch." We offer $5 for 
every poster that is sufficiently sharp- 
ened and improved: 
1. General Sherman said "War is Hell !" 

General Sherman was right. 

fs war necessary ? 



2. Uncc men settled disputes by duel. 
Now they bring them into court. 
Law has replaced war within the 

nations. 
Why not between the nations? 

3. This woman is working for war re- 

lief. (Picture of Red Cross Nurse.) 
Why not work also for war preven- 
tion? 
Let's have a union cf nations, with 
law instead of war. 

4. America is the home of many races. 
One law governs all. 

Is a United States of the world im- 
possible? 

5. Armaments cost money — the people 

Pay- 
Do armaments prevent war? Look 

at Europe ! 
6 All nations wish to be safe. 

Safety comes in getting together. 
A league of peace means nations 

getting together to prevent war. 

7. How can a league of neace prevent 

war? 
Nations together will boycott nation 

that makes war. 
No letters, no trade, no food, no 

money for nation that makes war. 

8. 4,000 miles of water protect the 

United States. 
United States is the safest nation in 

the world. 
Does the United States need a large 

army and navy? 

9. What is the surest way to keep our 

country safe? 

See that United States treats all na- 
tions justly. 

Give no nation cause for quarrel with 
United States. 

10. Is the yellow peril real? 

Ask for commission to investigate 
United States treatment of Japan. 
Give Japan no cause for quarrel. 

1 1. 67 cents out of every dollar of United 

States federal taxes go to war ex- 
penses. 

What have we to show for it? 

Demand an investigation of present 
war expenses. 

12. Get together and fight war ! 

This is the real Battle* Cry of Peace. 

13. Love of country is a good thing. 
Love of humanity is a better thing. 
"Above all nations is humanity." 

Elizabeth Glendower Evans. 
[For Poster Committee, Woman's Peace 
Party, 12 Otis Place.] 
Boston. 

Scientific Management 

To the Editor: The Hoxie article 
appearing in The Survey for March 4 
and the editorial prominence given to it 
have convinced me that this subject 
could never have been investigated by 
The Survey in the thorough manner 
which has been employed in the case of 
other subjects having to do with social 
welfare. 

For twenty years I have been actively 
engaged in engineering work, and dur- 
ing this time have been associated in a 
technical or managerial capacity with 
some of the foremost industrial concerns 
in this country. In practically all of my 
work T have been in close contact with 



66 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 8, 1916 



large numbers of workers— men and 
women— and through this period have 
been a student of the industrial problem 
as relates to labor. 

In the principles of scientific manage- 
ment as enunciated and practiced by the 
late Frederick W. Taylor can be found 
the means of solution of every problem 
that confronts industry in its social rela- 
tion to labor. My firm belief in these 
principles coupled with the results which 
I found had been accomplished in prac- 
tice, led me a few years ago to throw 
in my lot with the movement, and made 
me decide to devote the balance of mv 
life to assisting in its development. 

The Hoxie article virtually consists of 
•excerpts from the author's book Scientific 
Management and Labor. If anyone de- 
liberately set out to discredit this move- 
ment and to create in the minds of your 
readers a distrust of the propaganda, it 
does not seem to me that he could have 
gone about it in any very different way 
than that employed by the author. It 
would be hard to compile any more 
damning evidence than is contained in 
that portion of the article commencing 
on page 674 under the caption, The Test 
of Practice, and continuing to the end. 

Professor Hoxie's article is editorially 
characterized as having "the distinction 
of being the first through-going study 
of scientific management that has been 
made by a competent and disinterested 
observer," and attention is called to '"the 
possibilities of investigation undertaken 
in this way." I am not in a position to 
judge of Professor Hoxie's disinterested- 
ness, but I do question his competency. 

The unfairness of Professor Hoxie's 
method consists in taking a set of high 
ideals which a group of engineers and 
managers are conscientiously striving to 
attain, picking whatever flaws he can 
find in the methods employed, noting the 
failures of ideal accomplishment; and 
magnifying these to the point where they 
are exhibited as results indicative of 
failure. 

Could not any really great effort, 
analyzed in a similar way, be made to 
show up in this kind of a light? As 
long as we are human, so long will we 
fail of perfection, but this is no argu- 
ment for the condemnation of the effort 
itself. 

Inasmuch as scientific management has 
been offered as a solution of the indus- 
trial problem, the only fair kind of an in- 
vestigation would consist in the examina- 
tion of a number of establishments oper- 
ating under scientific management and a 
number operating under the ordinary 
type of management, and a comparison of 
the two, point by point. Or better still, 
ascertain the conditions that existed in a 
scientifically managed sbop prior to the 
introduction of scientific management, 
and compare these with similar condi- 
tions afterwards. Such an investigation 
would not be misleading; on the other 
hand, it would be interesting and illumin- 
ating. 

I know of no instance, and I challenge 
Professor Hoxie to cite one, where scien- 
tific management developed by an ac- 
credited follower of Mr. Taylor, has not 
resulted in an improvement over previ- 
ously existing conditions in matters per- 



taining jo tbe social welfare of the 
workers. 

I am a reader of The Survey and ap- 
preciate its efforts and sympathize with 
its aim. I am consequently anxious that 
it shall have the same right viewpoint 
of scientific management that it has of 
other big matters affecting the general 
welfare of society. I am convinced that 
ultimately The Survey will be as ardent- 
lv interested in this movement and as 
warm an advocate of it, as it now is of 
other endeavors working toward social 
betterment. 

Keppei.e Hall. 

Bangor, Maine. 

[The Hoxie article consisted in large 
part, as Mr. Hall points out, of excerpts 
from his book. The reason why The 
Survey published it was to give his find- 
ings a wider hearing. 

The question that is of prime interest 
to readers of The Survey is not whether 
Mr. Hoxie could have made out a better 
case for scientific management by com- 
paring old conditions with new, but 
whether scientific management in prac- 
tice is sufficiently taking into account hu- 
man and social phenomena, and whether 
it is actually attaining the ideals laid 
down by its leading spokesmen. 

Mr. Hoxie's study seems to answer 
both questions in the negative. He 
showed, however, that scientific manage- 
ment is often blamed for the conse- 
quences of general industrial changes — 
such as changes in machinery ; and his 
outlook for the future was far from 
pessimistic. When the "higher critics" 
are reproached by orthodox theologians 
they generally reply that if religion has 
any substantial basis it ought not to fear 
analysis and discussion — especially that 
undertaken in a constructive spirit. May 
not the same be said of scientific manage- 
ment ? — Editor.] 

Cleveland Survey 

To the Editor: Will you kindly give 
space to the following note : 

Porter R. Lee — Before and After 

(Letter to Cleveland Foundation, 

November 4, 191 5.) 

"The study of Cleveland's relief 
agencies is the first one of its kind I 
have seen. There ought to be a good 
many more such and I think you have 
put us in your debt in setting the ex- 
ample. I especially admire your courage- 
ous recommendations." 

(Signed) Porter R. Lee. 

(Review of the Cleveland Foundation's 
Survey of Cleveland's Relief Agencies 
by Porter R. ,Lec in The Survey for 
March iS, 1016.) 

"The survey is less a statement of 
fundamental facts than the conclusions 
of an experienced group of investigators 
who went as far as they could in the 
limited time at their disposal. It 
applies some objective tests of efficiency. 
Even by these more or less 
elementary tests the report finds, etc. 
As a propagandist document the report 
has value although some of its proposi- 
tions, pictorial and otherwise, are ques- 
tionable." 

Will you kindly give space to Mr. Lee 



for explaining what changed his opinion 
in four months. Please assure him that 
if he wishes to reaffirm his earlier opin- 
ion we can give him abundant backing 
in letters of commendation from unques- 
tionable authorities and leaders in relief 
work throughout the country. 

Allen T. Burns. 
[Director Cleveland Foundation Survey.] 
Cleveland. 



To the Editor: I have written Mr 
Burns a letter in which I tell kim that 
I am very glad to reaffirm the opinion 
of his study of Cleveland's relief agencies 
expressed in my letter of November 4. 
1915, and to reaffirm also what I said in 
The Survey review of March 18, 1916. 

Mr. Burns' letter quotes practically all 
of what I wrote him about this study 
last November. Any reader of The 
Survey who will take the trouble to 
read the review of the six books on pub- 
lic outdoor relief appearing in the issue 
of March 18 will, I think, find no incon- 
sistency between the letter and the re- 

Porter R. Lee 
New York. 

Miss Baylor 

To the Editor: Margaret Baylor of 
Boston, who is known for her work in 
Cincinnati and for the upbuilding of a 
unique community center in Santa Bar- 
bara, Calif., where various forms of civic 
and recreation work are promoted, has 
come East to do some lecture work and 
to make certain surveys in a number 
of cities. She will return to California 
the first of August. Miss Baylor's many 
friends have been desirous of getting in 
touch with her, and I felt that a note in 
The Survey would be the best way of 
reaching those interested. 

Alice L. Seinrali 
[318 East 4 Street, Cincinnati.] 



PAMPHLETS 

OF THE 

Juvenile Protective Association 

of Chicago 

The following publications may be purchased 
from the Juvenile Pioteclive Association, 816 
South Halsted St., Chicago. Add one cent 
(or postage to purchase price of each pamphlet. 



"Boys in the County Jail" 1913 

"Colored People in Chicago" 1913 

"Crime in Chicago." Reprinted from the New 

Republic, 1915 
"The Care of Illegitimate Children in Chicago" 

1912 
"Five and Ten Cent Theatres" 1911 
"Girls employed in Hotel* and Restaurant*" 

1912 
"Manual of Juvenile Law* in Illinois" 1916 
"Most Popular Recreation controlled by the 

Liquor Interest*" 1911 
"On the Trail of the Juvenile Adult Offender" 

1912 
"The Real Jail Problem" 1915 
The Saturday Half Holiday" 1915 
"Some Legislative Needs in Illinois" 1914 
"A Study of Meatally Defective Children in 

in Chicago" 1915 
"What should be done for Chicago women of- 
fender*." Report of the City Council Crime 

Committee, 1916 
"A Study of Bastardy Case*" 1913 
"The Block System of the Juvenile Protective 

Allocution" 1916 
"Child Beggars and Peddlers on the streets of 

Chicago" 1916 



5c 
2Sc 



10c 
5c 
2c 
Sc 

2Sc 



5c 
5c 



fir- 






SUTWG& 




SKUlilllllllllllllKllliiilllllllllli 




I 



APRIL 15, 1916 



lis 



Outlawing Fatigue 

The Oregon Ten-Hour Case before the Unit^ 



Supreme Court 
By John A. Fitch 




Symp< 



>osium of Rejoinder 
to John Martin's "Humanism" 

Contributions 

by 
Charlotte Perkins Gilman Caroline Bartlett Crane 

Anne O'Hagan Shinn Elsie Clew 5 Parsons 

Alice Stone Blackwell < & 

And a bundle of letters from Survey reader 



PRICE IO CENTS 



VOL. XXXVI 



NUMBER 3 




Irs 



CONTENTS for APRIL 15, 1916 The GIST*/ IT 



VOL. XXXVI NO. 3 

THE COMMON WELFARE 

Working Children and the Senate - - 69 

Socialists Again Elect Milwaukee's Mayor ... - 69 

Minimum Wage Urged for Subway Muckers - 70 

America and the Neutral Conference -- -----71 

Cells and Souls - ... - - w. d. l. 71 

CONTRIBUTED ARTICLE 

Outlawing Exhaustion. The United States Supreme Court to Decide on 

the Length of the Workingman's Day - - john a. fitch 73 

SOCIAL AGENCIES 

Making Rural Schools Count in Oregon - 75 

Associated Charities Day in Cleveland - 76 

Routes of Armenian Deportation - - 76 

One Way of Sugarcoating the Gas Bill - - - 76 

Meeting to Discuss Feeblemindedness - 76 

"THE FOUR AGES OF WOMAN" 

A brief symposium of rebuttal to the series of articles by John Martin - 77 
Contributions by Elsie Clews Parsons, Alice Stone Blackwell, Charlotte 

Perkins Gilman, Caroline Bartlett Crane, Anne O'Hagan Shinn. 
A Grist of Communications by Survey Readers - - 81 

EDITORIAL 

In Reply to John Martin - - 86 

JOTTINGS - - 88 

PAMPHLETS - - - 89 



PUBLICATION OFFICE PRTPF WESTERN OFFICE 

105 East 22(1 Street, New York X I\. 1 V^ XL 2559 Michigan Ave., Chicago 

Single copies of this issue ten cents. Co-operating subscriptions $10 a year. Regular subscriptions weekly edition $3 
a year. Foreign postage $1.20 extra. Canadian 70 cents. Regular subscriptions once-a-month edition $2 a year. 
Foreign pos'age 60 cents extra. Canadian 3s cents. Changes of address should be mailed to us ten days in 
advance. In accordance with a growing commercial practice, when payment is by check a receipt will be sent 
only upon request. Copyright, 1916, by Survey Associates, Inc. Entered as second class matter 
March 25, 1909, at the post olnce at New York, N. }'., under the Act of March 3, 1879. 











All Europe is dotted with detention camps, but the 
most interesting prisoners of war are right here in the 
United States at Ellis Island. The story of them told 
by Frederic C. Howe, with drawings of them in black 
and red by Joseph Stell . is the leading feature in the 
second once-a-month issu": of The Survey, out May 6. 

TO SURVEY READERS 

In order to bring this new once-a-month issue 
(twelve numbers $2; 8 numbers $1, beginning with the 
April issue) before a wider audience, we will mail the 
May number free to any five friends you think may be 
interested in this monthly Survey, if you will send their 
addresses to us before April 30. 









THE THREE RING CIRCUS has come 
again with the spring. But it cannot com- 
pete with the fireworks over John Mar- 
tin's Four Ages of Woman. Five special 
contributors and a sizable group of Sur- 
vey readers-in-ordinary take their pens in 
hand to say what they think. The author 
has a chance to answer. And the editor 
of The Survey winds up the show. Pages 
77-86. 

FROM HOTEL KITCHEN to mayor's 
chair is the career of Daniel W. Hoan 
who polled the largest vote thus far cast 
by the Socialists in Milwaukee. Page 69. 

POPULAR INTEREST in prison reform 
aroused by the Sing Sing situation is fur- 
ther spurred by the production of Gals- 
worthy's Justice, not seen in America 
since the Hull House players gave it in 
1911. John Barrymore plays the leading 
role. Page 71. 

AFTER ELEVEN YEARS the federal 
Supreme Court is again to decide the con- 
stitutionality of a law limiting the work- 
day of men. In 1905 the famous ten-hour 
law for bakery employes in New York was 
declared unconstitutional. This year an 
Oregon ten-hour law is put to the test. 
The brief for the law is by Louis D. 
Brandeis and Josephine Goldmark, whose 
briefs in behalf of legislation affecting 
women's hours have been so noteworthy. 
Page 73. 

GRANDFATHERS from among New 
York's unemployables are "making good" 
in a factory for children's toys. Page 72. 

UNDERPAID WORKMEN on New 
York's new subway, including the 
muckers whose lot was described in 
The Survey for October 2, have revolted. 
They demand $2 a day. The Consumers' 
League urges that the Public Service Com- 
mission be given broadened powers to regu- 
late wages and hours as well as rates of 
service. Page 70. 

REMARKABLE PROGRESS has been 
made by Oregon in her rural schools. Each 
school tries to measure up to a standard 
embracing fifteen specific points. Parent- 
teachers' associations thrive. Boys' and 
girls' clubs do real work. And playgrounds 
with supervised play are increasing in 
number. Page 75. 

WRITE YOUR SENATOR to vote for the 
Keating bill, says the National Child Labor 
Committee, now that the measure has been 
reported out of committee and is before the 
Senate as a whole. Page 69. 

THE OSCAR II is again carrying a peace 
traveler — Emily Greene Balch. professor of 
economics and sociology at Wellesley, who 
goes to take her place at the Stockholm 
conference of neutrals. Organized as a 
result of the Ford peace expedition, the 
conference has at present only two dele- 
gates from the United States, the Rev. 
Charles F. Aked and John Barry. Holland, 
Switzerland, Sweden, Denmark and Nor- 
way have each sent their full quota of five. 
Page 71. 



a-<i 





mm. 




WORKING CHILDREN AND 
THE SENATE 

THE chief graveyard for social 
legislation in the last Congress was 
the Senate. There, in one untimely 
mound, was laid away the federal child 
labor bill. This year the same under- 
takers who officiated so successfully last 
year aae again proceeding with the fun- 
eral arrangements. But they are by no 
means so sure of their victim. 

The Senate Committee on Interstate 
Commerce favorably reported the Keat- 
ing bill on April 5 and the National 
Child Labor Committee feels that it will 
pass if friends of the measure become 
active at once in urging their senators to 
vote for it. 

Last year after passing the House by 
an overwhelming vote, the bill was de- 
layed in the Senate until the fatal last 
two weeks of the session when a single 
objection to its consideration was suffi- 
cient to kill it. This came appropriately 
from Senator Overman of North Caro- 
lina, the state at the bottom of the list 
in child labor legislation. 

This year the federal bill has again 
passed the House by a vote of 337 to 46. 
Now that the bill is out of commit- 
tee and before the Senate, its advocates 
hope that it will be considered promptly 
on its merits and not placed in danger 
of the deadly "single objection" in thf 
closing days of the session. 

The Senate hearings developed no 
new arguments against the bill. South- 
ern mill-owners pled for the "inherent 
human right" of young children to work, 
■described the movement against child 
labor as a "mania," exhibited photo- 
graphs of Sunday school classes among 
their mill children, and bemoaned the 
future dearth of great men if the chil- 
dren of today are denied the blessings of 
poverty and toil. 

Constitutional objection to the bill 
was advanced by James A. Emery of 
the National Association of Manufac- 
turers who took pains to say that the as- 
sociation is not opposed to child labor 
restriction by the states but fears the 
extension of federal regulation to other 
industrial conditions if the bill should 

Volume XXXVI, No. 3. 



pass and serve as precedent; and he chal- 
lenges the power of Congress to impose 
such restrictions. This position was 
countered by the brief of Thomas I. 
Parkinson of Columbia University. 

Mr. Emery had contended that inter- 
state shipment of goods can be prohibit- 
ed only when the goods themselves are 
prejudicial to morals — as in the case of 
liquor or lottery tickets. Mr. Parkinson 
pointed out that the real reason is the 
bad effect upon the consumer. The pro- 
ducer is just as much entitled to con- 
sideration and interstate shipment of 
goods may be prohibited if the conditions 
of their manufacture are injurious to the 
worker. 

Each case has, however, been decided 
by the Supreme Court on its reasonable- 
ness in the interests of the general wel- 
fare. The passage of the child labor 
law and its approval by the court would 
not of itself open the door to arbitrary 
extension of federal authority based on 
the commerce clause. 

As reported by the Senate Committee 
the bill is in an amended form. In the 
opinion of the National Child Labor 
Committee and Mr. Parkinson who has 
had most to do with drafting the bill, the 
amendments do not affect its essentials 
but make its administration more prac- 
ticable, its constitutionality more unas- 
sailable and its chances of passage 
brighter. 

r-nm thr nnvtnn. O., Journal 




PLEASE, SIR, CAN YOU REACH THE KEY? 



SOCIALISTS AGAIN ELECT 
MILWAUKEE'S MAYOR 

FOR the second time a Socialist may- 
or has been elected in Milwaukee. 
The vote on April 4 for Daniel W. Hoan 
is the high-water mark reached by the 
Socialists in the largest city in this coun- 
try they have thus far captured. 

When Emil Seidel was elected mayor 
in 1910 it was a three-cornered fight, 
with a Republican and a Democratic 
candidate in the running. In 1912 the 
combined strength of the two old parties 
was rallied for a fusion candidate, G. A. 
Bading. This resulted in the defeat of 
Seidel in spite of the fact that his vote 
was larger than that by which he had 
been elected two years before. The 
coalition against the Socialists continued 
under a non-partisan election law, but 
this year was unable to cope with the 
steadily growing Socialist vote. 

The vote for Hoan was 33,863, which 
gives him a majority of 3,157 over 
Mayor Bading who was struggling for 
re-election. Hoan ran about 5,000 ahead 
of his ticket and Bading about 5,000 be- 
hind his. The Socialists thus failed to 
elect their candidates for city treasurer 
and comptroller. And the final returns 
indicate that they will control less than 
one-third of the aldermanic seats, al- 
though they have gained two. The So- 
cialists thus will not have complete con- 
trol of the city as they did under Mayor 
Seidel who had "comrades" in the other 
administrative offices and in a majority 
Df the aldermanic seats. 

The mayor-elect, writes Hornell Hart, 
civic secretary of the Milwaukee City 
Club, is a peculiarly appropriate repre- 
sentative of his party. As a boy of 
fourteen, the death of his father com- 
pelled him to leave school at the seventh 
grade and go to work. He started in a 
hotel kitchen, and finally became a full- 
fledged chef. Determined to secure an 
education, he worked his way through 
the University of Wisconsin, graduating 
in 1905. Compelled by lack of funds to 
postpone his law course, he returned to 
work and opened a restaurant in Chi- 
cago, but later he again took up his 
study of law, working during the day 

69 



70 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL i 5) ipi6 



for $6 a week in a Chicago law office. 
He graduated from the Kent College of 
Law and began practice in Milwaukee in 
1908. 

He was elected city attorney with the 
Seidel administration in 1910, and was 
re-elected in 1914. To some extent his 
election is a personal tribute. He has 
been exceedingly vigorous, as city at- 
torney, says Mr. Hart, in fighting for 
lower street-car fares and in opposing 
corporation aggression. 

Aside from hysterical appeals to "save 
Milwaukee from the disgrace of the red 
flag," and to vote for "Americanism vs. 
Socialism," one of the main arguments 
of Mr. Hoan's opponents related to a 
plan for sewage disposal. A commission 
was appointed by Mayor Bading, under 
a special act of the legislature, to design 
and install a sewerage system. This 
commission was made independent of 
interference by the mayor or the City 
Council and was given a special tax of 
half a million dollars per year for its 
work. 

The Socialist party unsuccessfully op- 
posed this arrangement on the ground 
that it was undemocratic to put a $10,- 
000,000 project beyond the control of the 
people. Later the administration pro- 
posed to issue without referendum 
$2,000,000 in bonds to expedite the pro- 
ject. The Socialists blocked this bond 
issue, urging that the bonds ought to be 
voted on by the people, that govern- 
mental advice should be asked, and that 
hasty action would be unwise. They 
advocated a filtration plant as an emerg- 
ency measure. 

A sudden outbreak of typhoid fever 
in February of this year emphasized 
the need of further protection of the 
water supply. The mayor in his cam- 
paign for re-election attacked the Social- 
ists for their opposition to the sewerage 
bonds. The bonds were submitted to the 
people at the election, endorsed by the 
non-Socialists. The Socialists did not 
endorse the bonds, but declared that 
they would carry out the wi'll of the 
people if the bonds were passed. The 
bonds have been endorsed by a decisive 
majority. 

The Socialists fought their campaign 
on the slogan "Public ownership of 
public utilities." The question of mu- 
nicipal versus private ownership of the 
street-lighting system had been raised. 
For years the city has been wretchedly 
lighted, due to failure of the council and 
the utility to agree on a contract. Two 
years ago Socialists and non-Socialists 
united to employ engineers to survey 
the whole problem and recommend a sys- 
tem of street lighting. The engineers 
submitted a report recommending city 
ownership of the lights, poles and wires, 
and the purchase of current from the 
private utility. A test of the system 
recommended by the commission proved 
that far better results in street lighting 



can be achieved at a little over half the 
cost per light of the old system. 

By a unanimous vote of the council, 
a bond issue was submitted at the elec- 
tion to provide funds for municipal 
ownership of the proposed system. The 
electric company fought the plan bitter- 
ly. The other side charges misstate- 
ments in newspaper editorials, news col- 
umns, and paid advertisements, attacking 
the plan and urging private ownership. 

The Socialists, although they wanted a 
municipal generating plant not provided 
for in this plan, came out vigorously in 
favor of the bonds. Mayor Bading 
hedged, but his commissioner of public 
works favored company ownership. The 
bonds were passed by a large majority. 

While the Milwaukee Socialists were 
pushing their successful campaign to 
elect a mayor, the Socialist mayor of 
Schenectady, George R. Lunn, was hav- 
ing trouble with his own party. The 
records of Socialist elections in the two 
cities are strikingly parallel. As in 




DANIEL W. HOAN 

New Socialist Mayor of Milwaukee 

Milwaukee, a Socialist mayor was chosen 
in Schenectady, failed of re-election un- 
der similar circumstances and was again 
voted into office. Mayor Lunn was 
elected for the second time last fall. 

Some months ago the New York state 
committee of the Socialist party sug- 
gested to Mayor Lunn that he ask for 
the resignation of one of his appointees 
whose choice had not been approved by 
the local Socialist organization. Mayor 
Lunn declared that he ought to have 
power with reference to his own appoint- 
ments and criticized the Socialist policy 
of control over candidates it succeeds in 
electing. He contended that as mayor 
his understanding of the desires of the 
community enabled him to act more 
democratically than if he followed the 
dictates of any small group which hap- 
pened to control the local Socialist party 
organization. 

The Socialist party contended, on the 
other hand, that Mayor Lunn was elected 
as a Socialist, that the party would be 
held responsible for his acts, that it more 
truly represented the sentiments of the 



workers of Schenectady than could any 
individual, and that it should therefore 
be consulted regarding appointments. 

The refusal of the mayor to accede 
to the wishes of the local resulted in a 
vote in the local of 91 to 79 for his ex- 
pulsion. This was not the two-thirds 
vote required for expulsion, however, 
and in order to discontinue the contro- 
versy over the matter the state commit- 
tee disbanded the local and organized a 
new one of which Mayor Lunn is not a 
member. The new local has a larger 
membership than the former one. 

AMERICA AND THE NEUTRAL 
CONFERENCE 

THE Oscar II is still carrying Ford 
peace delegates. On April 8, 
Emily Greene Balch, professor of eco- 
nomics and sociology at Wellesley Col- 
lege, set sail to take her place as a mem- 
ber of the Ford neutral conference now 
in session at Stockholm. Just a year ago 
Miss Balch was a member of the Wom- 
en's International Congress at The 
Hague and with Jane Addams was 
selected as the American delegate to 
carry the resolutions adopted at the con- 
gress to the courts of Europe. 

Five neutral nations — Holland, Switz- 
erland, Sweden, Denmark and Norway — 
have each sent their quota of five rep- 
resentatives to the conference, but only 
two American delegates are thus far 
present — the Rev. Charles F. Aked and 
John Barry, both of San Francisco. 
Mrs. Joseph Fels was recently called 
back to the United States while Henry 
Ford, Jane Addams and William Jenn- 
ings Bryan, who were selected by the 
Ford peace party to serve as delegates 
at this permanent mediation council, 
have so far been unavoidably prevented 
from going to Stockholm. Mr. Barry, 
like Miss Balch, was one of the five al- 
ternates appointed [see The Survey for 
February 12]. 

The European delegations contain 
many men and women of prominence in 
their respective countries. Mr. de Jonge 
Van Beek an Donk of the Central Body 
for a Durable Peace has come from 
The Hague ; Sweden contributes Pro- 
fessor Wigforss, the international law- 
yer, and Carl Lindhagen, life mayor of 
Stockholm, while among the Swiss rep- 
resentatives is Dr. William Rappard. 
With such people from foreign countries 
devoting themselves to the work, it is 
most important. Miss Balch believes, 
that the United States, which produced 
the Ford expedition be more fully rep- 
resented. 

At present, Miss Balch states, the 
Stockholm conference is formulating 
tentative proposals for the settlement of 
hostilities, to be submitted simultaneous- 
ly to each of the warring nations. Its 
policy is to call into conference leading 
citizens of the belligerent countries who 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 15, 1916 



7> 



present and discuss terms likely to be 
acceptable to their respective father- 
lands ; then to seek for a meeting ground 
which may be a basis for a just and 
lasting peace. The first of these repre- 
sentatives to speak to the conference was 
Professor Gilbert Murray of Oxford, 
the author of the widely read pamphlet 
in defense of Sir Edward Grey's for- 
eign policy. 

Another function of the conference, 
Miss Balch points out, will be to supply 
a medium through which the ideas of the 
tolerant and broad-minded groups in the 
various belligerent countries can be made 
familiar to one another. For example, 
the views of the Anti-annexation Party 
in Germany may perhaps through this 
channel be made known to the members 
of the Union of Democratic Control in 
England and to other people who do not 
want to prolong the war. Thus oppor- 
tunity for better understanding and re- 
vival of the international spirit is sup- 
plied. 

MINIMUM WAGE URGED FOR 
SUBWAY MUCKERS 

NEW YORK is in the throes of a 
strike among the workers on the 
new subway. Growing dissatisfaction 
with conditions of work afforded by con- 
tractors has finally led to open revolt. 
The claims of 10,000 excavators are the 
most important since they come from un- 
skilled workmen making the moderate 
demand for a wage of $2 a day. 

The public has recently heard much 
about the big bonuses paid to the officials 
of the Interborough Company, but it has 
not known or has paid small heed to the 
fact that men who are employed in 
building the new subways are shockingly 
underpaid. The labor law requires that 
their wages shall be determined ac- 
cording to the so-called "prevailing 
rate" for the locality where the work 
is being done. But this method has 
in practice resulted in the lowest wage 
which workmen under-bidding each other 
can be made to accept. William H. 
Matthews showed in his article, The 
Muckers, in The Survey for October 2, 
1915, that the men were receiving $1.50 
a day ($468 a year). Since this article 
was written, the rates paid by some of 
the contractors have been increased to 
$1.75 a day. The number of men af- 
fected is not known, but even this amount 
is still far below a living wage for a 
wage-earner and his family. 

The construction of the subway is 
under the supervision of a state body, 
the Public Service Commission of the 
First District, but as the city of New 
York pays the costs for both construc- 
tion and supervision it cannot, as the in- 
direct employer, escape responsibility for 
the conditions of employment. It is a 
matter of concern to the whole com- 
munity that the city should be counte- 
nancing the systematic under-payment of 



any great group of its employes, direct 
or indirect. 

In a memorandum filed this week with 
the Thompson Committee which is in- 
vestigating the Public Service Commis- 
sion, the National Consumers' League 
describes the unsatisfactory character of 
the present method of determining wage 
schedules and the resulting under-pay- 
ment. The league recommends a broad- 
ening of the powers of the commission 
that they may regulate wages and hours 
as they already regulate rates of service 
and that minimum rates of pay should 
be stipulated in the public contracts and 
enforced by the commission. To quote 
an officer of the league: 

"The present crisis clearly reveals the 
defects of the method now in use and 
should lead to a prompt and serious con- 
sideration of these proposals. At the 
moment, however, there is urgent need 
that the Public Service Commission 
should intervene in behalf of the men 
and the public. The commission can 
apply drastic remedy in holding up the 
payment of any contractor who violates 
the prevailing rate-of-wages law. This 
the commission and the city are required 
to do by law. The responsibility clearly 
rests upon them. 

"The demand for a $2 rate cannot be 
considered unreasonable in view of the 
results of the city's own official investi- 
gation of wages. The Municipal Bureau 
of Standards recently submitted to the 
Board of Estimate a report on the cost 
of living for an unskilled laborer's family 
i. New York city. It concluded that 
'below $840 a year an unskilled laborer's 
family of five (husband, wife and three 
children under 14 years) cannot maintain 
a standard of living consistent with 
American ideas.' 

"Why then, should New York tolerate 
the muckers being paid little more than 
half this amount in the construction of 
the great dual subway system, one of 
the greatest engineering projects that the 
city has ever entered upon?" 




THE OLD MEN'S TOY SHOP 
T/ 7- ELLOW chicks and bunny rab- 
bits of Easter popularity, as zvell 
as all the animal favorites of child- 
hood, are being made by a group of 
grandpas in a little shop at 236 Mott 
street, in a crowded, out-of-the-way 
section of Nezv York where few buy- 
ers of such zvares are apt to see them. 
The grandpas were culled from the 
hundreds of unemployable who ap- 
plied for relief to the Mayor's Un- 
employment Committee during the 
winter of 1914-15. The shop was 
established for them by Christine S. 
Foster, and when the financing of a 
"factory" of 100 hands become too 
for her, the Nezv York Association 
for Improving the Condition of the 
Poor took over the grandpa's shop. 
The men are paid a wage of 60 
cents a day and maintain a co-opera- 
tive flat where a number of them 
live. It is hoped through the sale 
of the toys, which are of wood paint- 
ed in brilliant colors, to make the 
undertaking nearly self-supporting. 
During the Christmas season, through 
sales in an uptown store donated for 
the purpose, the toy shop started with 
a favorable outlook. Now all it 
needs is a chance to reach the ap- 
preciating eyes of the children. 



CELLS and SOULS 



BY THE courtesy of humor they 
called the room the "officers' mess 
hall." I sat there playing check- 
ers. My fourth consecutive opponent 
was opposite me. Around us sat and 
stood fifteen or twenty other gray-clad 
men, watching us play. I was as much 
interested in the men as in the game, 
partly because I was wondering which 
one would be my next antagonist, but 
especially because I had come to study 
their faces and their conduct. 

They acted for all the world like any 
group of unselected, average human be- 
ings. I have played checkers in corner 
groceries, barber shops and cross-roads 
hamlets all over the Middle West. I 



know how the village blacksmith and the 
"cracker-box philosopher" act at a 
checker game. These men acted just 
that way. They used the same small 
talk, they made the same sallies at each 
other and at the players : "Why, Rats, 
I thought you said you could play check- 
ers." "Aw, lem me sit down, I can beat 
the man that made the board." "Hello, 
Bill, how's your periscope this evening?" 
And, disappointingly, they offered pre- 
cisely the same quality of false wisdom 
as to how the game ought to have been 
played at the move before the last. 

My opponents, also, acted like other op- 
ponents. Their knowledge of the game 
was that of men who play checkers 



72 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 15, ipi6 



as a pastime only. They began with the 
same ill-concealed air of confidence and 
played through the middle game with a 
noticeably growing perplexity. Finally, 
when the God of Battles smiled upon 
my mute wooden heroes, they pushed the 
pieces from them with the same tactical 
protest that they "hadn't played for 
years, and never did think much of the 
game, anyway." 

All of this was interesting because it 
happened in Sing Sing prison just a few 
weeks ago. The men were prisoners, 
both those who played and those who 
watched. The thing could not have hap- 
pened, of course, before the days of rela- 
tive freedom inside the walls. In that 
time there was no such thing as play, 
to say nothing of spontaneity and nat- 
uralness ; even conversation was barred. 
There was one difference, however, be- 
tween this prison group and other audi- 
ences at checker games. The banter of 
the Sing Sing convicts, as easy and un- 
exaggerated as children's, was never 
harsh and was often affectionate. 

The other night I saw Galsworthy's 
Justice. In this tragedy, now produced 
for the first time in the United States 
since the Hull House players gave it in 
Chicago in 1911, I found thj contrast to 
the checker-playing scene in Sing Sing. 
Justice is an indictment not only of pris- 
on cells, but of the psychology of courts 
and of anti-criminal phobia in general. 
It combines a moving human story with 
an intellectual clash between the forces 
that see criminals as something very 
akin to patients and the forces that 
see criminals as self-willed incarnations 
of evil. 

One factor in the play's power is the 
utter absence of any extraordinary 
means to excite sympathy. To begin 
with, there is no question about the guilt 
of the chief character, who offends 
against the law. Falder, a weak youth, 
for love of a married woman whose 
husband mistreats her raises a cheque 
from nine to ninety pounds. Nobody 
hates him for it, nobody wants to prose- 
cute him from spite or vengeance. But 
society must be protected. His employ- 
er, a man of decent impulses, is also one 
of those stern souls who take their pre- 
cepts and formulas on other than em- 
pirical evidence. And one of James 
How's precepts is that "if a man is go- 
ing to do this sort of thing he'll do it, 
pressure or no pressure; if he isn't noth- 
ing'll make him." 



Neither can there be any complaint 
against the fairness of Falder's trial. 
His attorney tries to show to the jury 
"the background of life — that palpitating 
life which . . . always lies behind 
the commission of a crime." "Is a man 
to be lost," asks the lawyer, "because he 
is bred and born with a weak character?" 
Men like the prisoner, he declares, are 
destroyed daily under our law for want 
of that human insight which sees them 
as they are, patients, and not criminals. 

"He has had his punishment, gentle- 
men, you may depend. The rolling of 
the chariot wheels of Justice over this 
boy began when it was decided to prose- 
cute him. We are now already at the 
second stage. If you permit it to go on 
to the third I would not give — that for 
him." 

The appeal is in vain and Falder en- 
ters an English prison for a term of 
three years. Here, too, everyone is as 
kind to him as can be expected. It is 
the system that eats remorselessly at his 
mind and soul. Since the English are 
never in a hurry, Falder is given three 
months of solitary confinement in which 
to "think it over." Nobody mistreats 
him and everybody offers him plenty of 
the kind of advice they think he needs. 

It is in introducing us to this prison 
that Galsworthy presents the contrast 
to the Sing Sing incident. Prisoners 
come forth from their cells onto the 
stage and stand for a moment dazed, 
blinded by the weak lights of the jail cor- 
ridor. Hollow chested, wearing the cap 
and suit of their degradation, they stoop 




under the weight of years in which they 
have led vacuous, impotent lives. 

One grizzled convict, fifty-six years 
old, defends the secret making of a saw 
by himself in his cell because it was his 
only recourse "to pass the time." An- 
other, reprimanded for banging on his 
cell door that morning, explains that it 
was only "the want of a little noise" — 
"a terrible little would do," he says — that 
drove him to it. 

And finally, Falder, always weak and 
always a little nervous, is shown strug- 
gling hard to keep off the mental hor- 
rors that had become an old story to 
the rest of the prisoners, yet succumbing 
in the end and going temporarily mad 
because he couldn't endure three months 
of solitary confinement in a cell no big- 
ger than a closet. 

Prisoners like those in Justice can 
still be found in many a prison in this 
enlightened land. We are not yet out 
of the dark age of punishment. Yet 
any one of these criminals in the play 
could be transformed, or could have been 
transformed if he had been caught early 
enough, into the animated, clear-eyed, 
self-respecting watcher at a checker 
game in Sing Sing, who acted for all 
the world as if he were sitting by a 
stove in a corner grocery store. 

The life in those cells could lead to 
but one result. Falder came out ful- 
filling the prophecy of his attorney. 
His weaknesses were accentuated. He 
seemed to be struggling "against a thing 
that was all round him." "It's as if I 
was in a net," he said; "as fast as I cut 
it here, it grows up there." Somewhere 
Galsworthy has described this play as "a 
picture of the human herd's attitude to- 
ward an offending member — heads down, 
horns pointed — and of its blind tramp- 
ling of him out." That was what Fal- 
der found. His relatives forsook him. 
his fellow clerks in the first job he got 
made him so uncomfortable he "couldn't 
stick." Then came a forged reference 
in applying for a second position, a 
failure to report to the authorities to 
whom he was still bound by his ticket- 
of-leave, and a second arrest. It was 
too much. Whether suicide was in his 
mind, or his fatal fall came in trying to 
escape the detective, no one knew. He 
had gone to prison because he was unfit 
to live in society, and he had come back 
so much less fit that death was a merci- 
ful ending to his tragedy. 

W. D. L. 



JACK BARRYMOKE IN THE LEADING ROLE 
IN JUSTICE 



Outlawing Exhaustion 

The United States Supreme Court to Decide on the Length 

of the Workingman's Day 



AFTER an interval of eleven years 
the Supreme Court of the 
United States is once more to 
decide whether it is contrary to the fed- 
eral constitution for a legislature to set 
a maximum limit to the working day of 
adult men. On April 10 the constitution- 
ality of an Oregon law limiting to ten 
hours in twenty-four the working day 
of male employes in "mills, factories 
and manufacturing establishments" was 
set for argument. 

In 1905, the last time the Supreme 
Court passed on such a law, it decided in 
the famous Lochner case (198 U. S. 45) 
that a ten-hour law for bakery employes 
in New York was unconstitutional. Be- 
fore that, in 1898, it had upheld an eight- 
hour law for miners in Utah (Holden vs. 
Hardy, 169 U. S. 366). 

In the one case the court was con- 
vinced that work beyond eight hours was 
a menace to health. In the other, it was 
unable to see that any number of hours 
could hurt a baker. 

What the attitude of the court will be 
in 1916, no one can anticipate. Two 
things materially change the aspect of the 
present case as compared with the two 
previously decided : First, the law is al- 
together different; it applies not to a 
selected class but to all adult male labor 
in mills and factories. For this reason, 
it will doubtless be urged that it comes 
within the ban of the Lochner case. 
Surely if it is contrary to the federal 
constitution to limit the working hours 
of bakers, a law covering bakers and 
many other classes of labor besides, will 
also be unconstitutional. 

Here enters the other circumstance 
that differentiates this case even more 
radically than the scope of the law in 
question, from the cases previously de- 
cided. It is since 1905 that the method 
has been employed, when social legisla- 
tion was attacked in court, of basing the 
argument for its defense on physical and 
economic facts, instead of solely on legal 
precedents. 

This is the method that Louis D. Bran- 
deis and Josephine Goldmark have made 
famous in their extensive briefs in be- 
half of legislation affecting women's 
hours, which, argued by Mr. Brandeis 
before the courts of Oregon, Illinois, 
New York and the Supreme Court of the 
United States, have established the 
power of the states to limit the hours of 
working women. 

For the first time a law fixing a limit 
beyond which a man shall not be re- 



By yohn A. Fitch 

quired to work, is also to be defended 
almost exclusively on the ground of phys- 
ical and social necessity. A brief as 
extensive and as telling as the one sub- 
mitted in the Muller case (208 U. S. 
412), involving the Oregon ten-hour 
law for women, prepared by Josephine 
Goldmark under the direction for the 
most part of Louis D. Brandeis, was 
filed with the Supreme Court on April 3. 

Attorney General Brown of Oregon 
has welcomed the co-operation thus af- 
forded and he has invited Felix Frank- 
furter of the Harvard Law School to 
assist him in the oral argument. 

Owing to Mr. Brandeis' nomination by 
the President as an associate justice of 
the court, he withdrew from the case be- 
fore the filing of the brief. 

THIS brief lifts the case out of the 
field of discussion that characterized 
the earlier cases and shows that not alone 
in exceptional cases, but in all employ- 
ment, even where the work is considered 
light, excessive hours of labor have a bad 
effect, physically, morally and socially, 
and therefore a limit should be fixed. 

In the short argument which precedes 
the presentation of facts, that fill nearly 
1,000 pages and two volumes, reference 
is made to the adverse Lochner case. 
This judgment, it is argued, "was based 
upon a view of the nature of the bakers' 
employment beyond ten hours as known 
to the 'common understanding.' " But 
"it is now clear that 'common under- 
standing' is a treacherous criterion. . . . 
The subject is one for scientific scrutiny." 

Such scrutiny has now been made. 
When, for example, the court sustained 
the eight-hour law for miners in 1898 
it did so because that industry appeared 
to the court as unhealthful. But 

'what in 1898 presented a specific, and ap- 
parently, exceptional instance — the pois- 
oning of the human system through long 
hours of labor in mines, and the implica- 
tions of this evil to the general welfare — 
is now disclosed to be of far wider and 
deeper application. It is now demon- 
strable that the considerations that were 
on the surface as to miners in 1898 are 
today operative, to a greater or less de- 
gree, throughout the industrial system. 

"It is to this body of experience that 
the court's attention is invited. It is a 
mass of data that, partly, was not pre- 
sented in cases like Lochner vs. New 
York, supra, but mostly could not have 
been before the court, because it was not 
heretofore in existence. Inasmuch as the 
application of the contending principles 
must vary with the facts to which they 



are sought to be applied, of course, new 
facts are the indispensable basis to the 
determination of the validity of specific 
new legislation. This attitude was strik- 
ingly enforced by the New York Court 
of Appeals, when called upon recently to 
pass on the validity of legislation which 
it had previously, for lack of adequate 
data, failed to sustain. 'There is no 
reason why we should be reluctant to 
give effect to new and additional knowl- 
edge upon such a subject as this even if 
it did lead us to take a different view of 
such a vastly important question as that 
of public health or disease than form- 
erly prevailed.' People vs. Charles 
Schweinler Press (214 N. Y. 395, 412)." 

In presenting this "body of experi- 
ence," the brief discusses the menace to 
national vitality that exists in the in- 
creasing grip that certain diseases are 
getting on American life, and it shows 
that overwork and its consequent fatigue 
predisposes the body to attack. It also 
shows the evil effect of long hours upon 
the morals of the individual and upon 
the general welfare of society. Con- 
versely, it shows that shorter hours have 
made for greater efficiency in every re- 
spect, from the standpoint of health and 
citizenship as well as industry. 

At the outset, the brief declares that 

"the outstanding fact regarding national 
health and mortality rates in the United 
States is the extraordinary increase both 
relative and absolute in the so-called de- 
generative diseases, that is, diseases of 
the heart, blood vessels and kidneys. 

"While the death-rate from diseases 
such as tuberculosis and typhoid fever 
has been steadily declining, and the high 
mortality from diseases of infancy and 
childhood have been noticeably de- 
creased, the mortality from the degen- 
erative diseases shows steady and marked 
rise. This record of the breakdown of 
the most important organs of the body 
discloses a menace to American vitality. 

"While the reason for the extraordi- 
nary prevalence of the degenerative dis- 
eases is still in part obscure, it is clear 
that one important contributing factor is 
the stress and strain of the American 
way of living and working." 

Elsewhere it is shown that "at ages 
over 45 the death-rate in the United 
States is increasing and not decreasing 
as at earlier age periods. ... It is 
not a necessary and inevitable increase, 
for in England and in Sweden the death- 
rates at all ages are decreasing." 

Following this deeply significant state- 
ment, we may summarize some of the 
chief points of the brief: 

"It has long been recognized that 

73 



74 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 15, ipi6 



workers in certain occupations, clearly 
subject to special dangers, succumb to 
special forms of disease and premature 
death. 

"Obviously, workers in the dangerous 
trades who are over-fatigued and ex- 
hausted, are more readily attacked by oc- 
cupational diseases. Fatigue intensifies 
all the special dangers and lessens all 
the chances of escaping the peculiar haz- 
ards of the trade. It was formerly sup- 
posed, therefore, that only in occupations 
subject to such special risks was special 
protection needed for the workers. 

"More recent investigations show that 
not only in the dangerous trades, but in 
all industries, a permanent predisposition 
to disease and premature death exists in 
the common phenomenon of fatigue and 
exhaustion. This is a danger common 
to all workers, even under good working 
conditions, and all manufacturing indus- 
tries, as distinguished from the special 
hazards of particular occupations. 

"In ordinary factory work, where no 
special occupational diseases threaten, 
fatigue in itself constitutes the most im- 
minent danger to the health of the work- 
ers because, if unrepaired, it undermines 
vitality and thus lays the foundations for 
many diseases." 

Besides these general injurious fac- 
tors, other dangers of environment are 
found to be common to large numbers of 
trades. It was formerly supposed that 
injurious substances in the air, threaten- 
ed the health of the workers in only a 
few dangerous occupations. It is now 
known that so great is the number of 
trades involving the presence of some 
injurious substance or other, that they 
not only constitute hazards in a few spe- 
cial trades, but are common to most of 
the important branches of manufacture. 
"In practically all manufacturing in- 
dustries, the physical environment of the 
workers may constitute a hazard to 
health. Among these general industrial 
hazards the most important and the most 
prevalent are bad air, humidity, extremes 
of heat and cold, noise, bad lighting, vi- 
bration, etc. Not all these injurious fac- 
tors are ordinarily found in conjunction 
in the same work place; but one or the 
other is operative in nearly every manu- 
facturing industry. They are not con- 
fined to the so-called 'dangerous trades,' 
but are common to occupations usually 
considered non-hazardous. 

"Cotton manufacture, for instance, is 
not usually held to be a 'dangerous 
trade'; yet workers in cotton mills are 
subject not only to the danger of inhaling 
injurious substances such as cotton dust 
and fluff, but are subject also to com- 
bined heat and humidity, great noise, lack 
of ventilation, vibration of machinery, 
and nauseating odors. 

"Investigation has proved that these 
general incidents of factory life affec- 
tively predispose to the more rapid onset 
of fatigue. They thus undermine the 
workers' powers of resistance and are 
with fatigue concurring causes of pre- 
mature decay." 

Fatigue itself is shown to be a chem- 
ical process, and prolonged fatigue is 
definitely the result of poison. 



"An overtired person is literally a 
poisoned person, poisoned by his own 
waste products. These wastes are the 
poisonous impurities arising from the 
chemical processes of cellular life. They 
circulate in the blood, poisoning brain 
and nervous system, muscles, glands and 
other organs until normally burned up by 
the oxygen brought by the blood, re- 
moved by the liver or kidneys, or elimi- 
nated through the lungs. 

"When these waste products accumu- 
late in the blood, fatigue ensues. When 
they exceed their physiological or normal 
amount, exhaustion results and health is 
impaired. After excessive labor there is 
also a consumption of energy-yielding 
material, essential for activity. The pro- 
cesses of disassimilation are in excess of 
those of assimilation." 

THERE has already been a great 
deal of legislation regulating hours 
of work for men. The brief shows that 
thirteen states and Alaska have the eight- 
hour day in mines, and eight states and 
Alaska have it in smelters, reduction 
works, etc. Even more surprising is its 
extent in miscellaneous private business, 
as in electric light and power plants in 
Arizona; coke ovens in Alaska, Arizona 
and Colorado ; in blast furnaces in Ari- 
zona and Colorado; in plate glass works 
in Missouri ; in work under high air 
pressure in New York and New Jersey. 

It states that statutory limitations of 
working hours to ten in twenty-four are 
found in saw and planing mills, bakeries, 
brick yards, and drug stores, in Arkan- 
sas, New Jersey, New York and Cali- 
fornia, respectively. 

Railroads and street railways have 
long been subject to legislative restric- 
tion upon the working hours of their 
men. Work done in private business 
for national, state or municipal gov- 
ernments has been subject to similar 
laws, while public employes enjoy in 
some cases a regular working day of 
seven hours. 

In previous cases covering restric- 
tions upon the working day, the argu- 
ment has hinged upon health and safety 
and, in some degree, upon morals. The 
present brief does not confine itself to 
injuries and benefits to health. It brings 
to the attention of the court the supreme 
importance of citizenship. 

"The welfare and safety of democracy 
rests upon the character and intelligence 
of its citizens. For the exercise of the 
elective franchise is determined by the 
mental and moral equipment of the 
voters. Under the conditions of modern 
industry, for the development of morals 
and intelligence, leisure is needed. 
Hence leisure is a prime requisite for 
good citizenship. 

"If a democracy is to flourish, the edu- 
cation of the citizen must not end at the 
fourteenth birthday, when wage-earning 
ordinarily begins. It must be a continu- 
ous process, to enable men to under- 
stand great issues as they arise, to dis- 
cuss them and reach decisions upon them. 

"In the interest of the state, therefore, 



industrial labor must be limited: first, so 
that some leisure may be provided out- 
side of working hours; second, so that 
the worker shall not be too much ex- 
hausted to make use of his leisure." 

In America there is an especial need 
of maintaining a schedule of work that 
will not leave the body so exhausted at 
the day's end that the mind has no 
chance. America is the land of the im- 
migrant. 

"In 1910 13,000,000 Americans over 
ten years of age were foreign-born. Al- 
most 3,000,000 or one in every four, 
could not speak English. There were 
between 6,000,000 and 7,000,000 foreign- 
born white males over twenty-one years 
01 age, of whom more than half (55 per 
cent) were not naturalized. 

"Between 1911 and 1914 the additional 
immigration aggregated about 3,000,000. 
A large proportion of these millions are 
employed in industry, especially in the 
great manufacturing centers, such as the 
iron and steel mills, munition plants, tex- 
tile factories, etc. 

"Throughout the country there is in- 
creasing recognition that the prime neces- 
sity for the immigrant is Americaniza- 
tion, that is, opportunity for acquiring 
the ability to speak and read the English 
language, and to become acquainted with 
American institutions. 

"No man can become a naturalized 
citizen unless he can speak English. 
Learning English is, therefore, the key to 
citizenship and to a participation in the 
life of the community. Ignorance of the 
English language is the greatest ob- 
stacle to industrial advancement and to 
distribution of congested immigrant 
populations. Inability to speak and read 
English also increases the dangers of in- 
dustrial accidents, injuries and occupa- 
tional diseases, owing to the immigrants' 
inability to understand orders or hygienic 
regulations printed or orally given in 
industrial establishments. 

"The growing recognition of the 
need of Americanization has resulted in 
a country-wide movement to provide 
evening schools to teach English and 
give special instruction on American 
institutions. Federal, state and city au- 
thorities are urging increased appro- 
priations for these special facilities. 

"Obviously, this whole program of 
Americanization is impossible unless 
sufficient leisure is provided after work- 
ing hours to enable the workers to take 
advantage of the opportunities offered. 

"The task of teaching adult foreign- 
ers a new language is rendered almost 
hopeless unless they can come to be 
taught with some freshness of mind. 
The project of Americanization is de- 
feated when working hours are so long 
that no evening leisure is left, or the im- 
migrant workers are too much exhausted 
to make use of it." 

This brief, like its predecessors is logi- 
cal, and overwhelming in its evidence. 
By its presentation of the world's record- 
ed experience it makes an irrefutable 
argument for better work, better living 
and better thinking, on the basis of 
enough rest every day to make those 
things possible. 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 15, 1916 



75 





Social Agencies 





MAKING RURAL SCHOOLS 
COUNT IN OREGON 

ONE of the features of the Pana- 
ma-Pacific Exposition that at- 
tracted the closest attention of 
hundreds of educators who journeyed to 
San Francisco was the exhibit of Ore- 
gon's rural schools. For several years 
the educational leaders of that state have 
been working hand in glove with a sturdy 
public demand for better rural education. 
At the request of The Survey, J. C. 
Muerman, specialist in rural education 
for the United States Bureau of Educa- 
tion, has writtten briefly of the progres- 
sive system that has been attained by 
Oregon. 

"Over one-half of Oregon's popula- 
tion" writes Mr. Muerman, "live in rural 
communities. Seventeen counties are 
entirely rural. Those most interested in 
the rural schools have for some time 
recognized their needs, and a system of 
rural supervision has been provided. 
These supervisors, by devoting their en- 
tire time to the field work and working 
under the direction of county superin- 
tendents, have greatly aided efiforts for 
rural school betterment. 

"The improvement in the rural schools 
of Oregon has followed four distinct 
lines: (1) apian for standardizing school 
buildings and grounds; (2) parent- 
teacher associations in the rural and 
village schools; (3) the boys' and girls' 
clubs and school fairs; (4) the play- 
ground and supervised play. 

"In 1910 Polk county began an en- 
ergetic campaign for better rural schools 
by adopting a definite plan for standard- 
izing schoolhouses and grounds. This 
plan proposed ten or twelve points to be 
obtained. These were afterward in- 
creased to fifteen so that although a 
school might be of the standard plan 
for 1912, it would have to make ad- 
ditional improvements to conform to the 
demands for 1913. Among these points 
were proper lighting of the schoolhouse, 
proper heating and ventilation, an 
average attendance of more than 92 per 
cent for the year, also a school term of 
not less than eight months. 

"This plan or a modification thereof 
was soon followed by five other counties 
and has led to a state-wide regulation to 
which all rural schools must conform if 
they wish to be standard. The present 
state regulations for the standarization 
of rural schools contain thirteen points 
as follows: flag, schcolhouse, equipment, 
heating and ventilating, rooms, standard 
picture, grounds, sanitation, outbuild- 
ings, teacher, library, attendance, length 
of term. 

"Not only did this plan receive the 
approval of the state superintendent but 



it received the hearty support of a strong 
public sentiment which was created 
through public meetings, parent-teacher 
associations, and kindred organizations. 
The aim of every earnest school man in 
Oregon was, 'Let the patrons of the dis- 
tricts know what we want and why we 
want it.' 

"Under the general head of parent- 
teacher associations are included all 
organizations for school and county bet- 
terment. The legislature of 1915 au- 
thorized the use of the schoolhouse for 
community gatherings or as civic centers. 
There are now more than 300 well-or- 
ganized parent-teacher associations in 
the school districts throughout the state. 
Not only have they supported the school 
boards in securing new buildings and 
sites, improving old ones, and beautify- 
ing the school grounds, but they have 
been invaluable in securing the close co- 
operation of all efforts to better school 
conditions, thus making doubly effective 
the work of such organizations as the 
boys' and girls' industrial clubs and 
kindred associations. 

The boys' and girls' industrial clubs 
enroll 12,000 children between the ages 
of 10 and 18. These clubs, as is shown 
by the club project for 1914, are divided 
into ten different organizations, which 
embrace corn growing, potato raising, 
girls' canning and preserving, girls' cook- 
ing and baking, boys' and girls' poultry 
raising, girls' sewing, boys' pig raising, 
boys' and girls' gardening, dairy herd 
record keeping, and manual arts. 

"The organization of these clubs is 
truly co-operative and the co-operation is 
brought about by the united effort of the 
state superintendent of public instruction, 
the Agricultural College of the state, and 
the United States Department of Agricul- 
ture. 

"An annual appropriation of $6,000 is 
given the state superintendent to carry 
out his part of the program. This special 
fund secures the employment of two ex- 
cellent assistants who devote their entire 
time to the field, organize clubs, hold 
community meetings, and act as judges 
at local industrial fairs. Each assistant 
is provided with a stereopticon and a full 
set of slides illustrating the actual work 
done in different localities of the state. 

"The second co-operative influence is 
the Oregon Agricultural College which 
prepares special bulletins describing each 
project and enrolls the name of every 
member of the club in the extension de- 
partment of the college and provides him 
with appropriate bulletins, incidentally 
making the agricultural college and its 
work familiar to the farm boys and girls, 
trusting that the time may come when 
each member" of the club will enroll as a 
resident student and continue his work in 
the college. The third co-operative agent 
is the United States Department of 



Agriculture whose beneficial work is 
well known in every state. 

"The beautiful forest trees that grow 
in western Oregon seem to invite the 
boys and girls to enjoy the shade of their 
friendly branches. They also attract the 
parents to bring their lunch-baskets and 
enjoy the kind of community gathering 
that, in ye olden time, was called a 
'school picnic' In the counties of Oregon 
where the sun fails to make its daily 
appearance unhampered by clouds, and 
where the 'mists' fall with more or less 
frequency, play-sheds have been built 
where young and old can enjoy to the 
fullest extent the free air and where they 
can defy the elements. 

"The superintendent of public instruc- 
tion has issued a bulletin called A Practi- 
cal Recreation Manual for Schools. This 
not only gives valuable information con- 
cerning games, playgrounds, and equip- 
ment, but standardizes and organizes 
play. It cannot be said that the play- 
grounds are as well supervised as they 
might be, nor will they be until the 
teachers universally take a greater in- 
terest in this important part of their 
work. 

"To answer the question so often 
asked, Are parents and patrons interest- 
ed in Oregon's schools, the report of the 
state superintendent for 1915 and the 
bulletins issued from his office give the 
following answer : In two years Oregon 
has increased the length of her school 
term more than ten days; the average 
length is now five days less than eight 
months. 

"In the best dairy sections of Oregon 
dairying is taught in each rural school 
and these schools are supplied with the 
Babcock milk tester; three times a 
month children bring samples of milk to 
be tested and all records are kept by the 
children. From the results of these 
three average days, monthly estimates 
are made and the pupils must keep the 
record of not less than two cows from 
the farm herd at home. The fact that 
there are 19,000 dairies in Oregon and 
175,000 dairy cows shows the necessity 
for such instruction in the rural schools. 

"One hundred and ten local school 
fairs were held in 1914 and one boy who 
won the state corn prize of the previous 
year, this year sold seed corn to fifty 
boys throughout his county, and each of 
these boys planted from one-eighth to 
one-fourth of an acre of this corn. This 
boy also sold enough seed corn to the 
farmers of his community to enable him 
to pay all of his expenses for a year in 
high school. 

"Oregon still has many rural school 
oroblems that claim attention. The 
salaries of rural teachers, for example, 
are not always sufficient to attract and 
hold manv who are best fitted for rural 
work. There has been no sudden or 
great revival of interest in Oregon 
schools, but rather a gradual develop- 
ment along sane and conservative lines. 
The school authorities have implicit con- 
fidence in the people providing they are 
well-informed concerning the needs of 
the rural districts, and through well- 
organized and well-directed efforts of 
local organizations they hope to continue 
the work thus so well begun." 



70 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 15, 1916 




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ASSOCIATETOUmiES DAY 



DO YOUR SHARE O HELP THE 

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LOOK FOR THEl 

ASSOCIATED O/AK/T/iS DA 



SATURDAY 

FED 1<3 



IN LETTEl S A 100T HIGH SO THE MAX WHO RUNS MAY READ 



ASSOCIATED CHARITIES DAY 
IN CLEVELAND 

NEARLY everybody in Cleveland, 
from a fancy grocery house to an 
illuminated sign c impany, helped the 
Associated Charities of that city raise 
funds fi r its winter relief work on As- 
sociated Charities day, February 26. 

The fancy grocer}' house joined with 
the printers of theater programs to put 
advertis ng in those programs. The il- 
luminated sign company erected the 
sign shown o:i this page at one of the 
important street-car crossings of the city. 
A bill-pesting company donated twenty- 
six 25-foot billboards. A big department 
store paid for advertising space in all 
street-cars. The Chamber of Com- 
merce gave office space for campaign 
headquarters and both telephone com- 
panies gave free service. No "tagging" 
or soliciting of any sort was done, but 
6,000 collection boxes were placed in 
stores, factories, theaters, clubs, groceries, 
moving-picture theaters, and other places 
throughout the city. A committee of 
200 representative citizens organized the 
campaign and exerted widespread in- 
fluence. 

A total of $10,400 was raised toward 



the goal of $25,003. The collection boxes 
contributed $5,900 of this amount, and 
unsolicited checks coitril uted $4,500. 
Two years ago street-car fare box day, 
held the day before Thanksgiving, netted 
$17,476. "1 he street-cars were not avail- 
aide this year. 

"In spite of the diminished and really 
disappointing financial returns," said 
Junes F. Jackson, superintendent of the 
Associated Charities, "I think Associated 
Charities day this year was the most 
effective thirg we ever did in proportion 
to the expenditure of energy and money. 
Next year we hope to repeat the plan, 
with even stronger publicity." 

ROUTFS OF ARMENIAN 
DEPORTATION 

TO answer the question, Where are 
the Armenians today? the American 
Committee for Armenian and Syrian Re- 
lief, which has headquarters at 70 Fifth 
avenue. New York city, has prepared 
this map. 

"In January. 1915," says William W. 
Rockwell, a member of the committee, 
"there were between 1,600.0 10 and 2 000.- 
000 Armenians living in Turkey. Within 
a twelve-month it is estimated that half 




A MAP WHICH ANSWERS THE QUESTION, WHERE ARK THE ARMENIANS TODAY f 



of them perished through disease, starva- 
tion or massacre. Of the survivors 310,- 
000 are refugees in the snow-bound Rus- 
sian Caucasus; a large number are 
stranded in Persia, 4,000 are in Port 
Said, Egypt, and perhaps 300,000 to 500,- 
030 are still in Turkey. 

"The rcutes of the deportation were as 
follows : From Constantinople a railway 
runs diagonally across Asia Minor to a 
point near Adana. Most of the exiles 
were shipped in freight cars like cattle 
down this road, and where there was a 
junction or where there was a section 
still under construction they had to walk 
or be driven to or from a concentration 
camp. Today there are refugees in the 
Salt desert in central Asia Minor, in 
camps between Adana and Aleppo and 
elsewhere, in towns and villages on the 
railway that runs south from Aleppo 
through Damascus to Median in Arabia, 
and along the sections of the Bagdad 
railway not shown on this map, which 
extend via Ras el Ain to Mosoul. Some 
of the furthest po'nts they are known to 
have reached are the regions of Jerusalem 
beyend Jordan, Ras el Ain, and Deir el 
Zor on the Euphrates." 

ONE WAY OF SUGARCOATING 
THE GAS BILL 

A PLAN of co-operaticn between 
business and benevolence has been 
initiated by the Cleveland Federation for 
Charity and Philanthropy and the Cleve- 
land Electric Illuminating Company. 
The company has put at the service of 
the federation its mailing and collection 
service, so that each of the 75,000 il- 
luminating company subscribers receives 
each month with his bill a printed slip 
explaining some phase of the work of 
the federation and its 56 constituent phil- 
anthropies. 

The lisdit bill contains a space for a 
contribution to the federation, which 
may be forwarded along with the pay- 
ment of the bill. Without deduction of 
any kind, the contributions thus received 
are transferred by the company to the 
federation office, whence acknowledg- 
ment is made to the donor. 

The only cost to the federation is the 
relatively small one of printing the in- 
serts. It is said that in ro other way 
could 75.000 people be reached so eco- 
nomically, nor could collection be hand- 
led with so little trouble to the donor 
and expense to the federation. It is 
hoped that the results will be found 
worth while not only financially, but also 
in an educational way. 

MEETINGS TO DISCUSS 
FEEBLEMINDEDNESS 

TO FURTHER the medical and psy- 
chological study of feebleminded- 
ness, a group of psych physicians 
and others in New York city have recent- 
ly arranged for frequent meetings with 
papers and discussions. R. G. Wood- 
worth, professor of psychology at Colum- 
bia Universitv, Dr. Thomas W. Salmon 
and Or. Morris Karpas constitute the 
organization committee. The classifica- 
tion of mental defectives and their care 
and treatment will be particular subjects 
pursued. 



"The Four Ages of Woman" 

A brief symposium of rebuctal to the series of articles by John Martin bear- 

ing this general title and published in The Survey February 26, 

March 4, March 11, March 18 and March 25 



C O N T R I B U TORS 



Elsie Clews Parsons 
Alice Stone Blackwell 



Caroline Bartlett Crane 
Anne O'Hagan Shinn 



Charlotte Perkins Gilman 



Together with a Grist of Communications from Survey Readers and a Rejoinder by 

the Author of the Series 



BY ELSIE CLEVv S PARSONS 

THE Martin articles seem to me 
hardly arresting enough for contro- 
versy. Why did you publish them? 

The only point is that women suffer in 
industry. (So do men.) Upon that suf- 
fering you can base only a plea for the 
betterment of industrial conditions, no: 
for the exclusion of women (or men) 
from industry. 

Women suffer in the home. (So do 
men.) Upon that plea you can base only 
a plea for the betterment of home con- 
ditions, not for the exclusion of women 
(or men) from the home. 

If our will to power were to spend it- 
self upon bettering economic conditions 
and less upon controling other human be- 
ings, don't you think we'd all, including 
Mr. and Mrs. Martin, be a happier lot ? 

BY CAROLINE BARTLETT 
CRANE 

MR. MARTIN erects a woman of 
straw and christens it "femin- 
ism." After misquoting numerous femin- 
ists (for distorted use of their words to 
misrepresent their views is misquotation) 
he exclaims : 

"Home-keeping mothers are a disgrace 
to their sex, it appears, and a menace 
to humanity, so subdued to their own 
shame that they are unaware of it." 

He proves that this is the feminist 
position by quoting from Olive Schrein- 
er's book, Woman and Labor, certain 
passages concerning undoubted woman 
parasites, together with her cry to such 
women to rouse themselves to demand 
some work to do in the world. Yet 
Miss Schreiner in the opening chapter 
of her book is at pains to say that she 
does not want anyone to think that 
woman's domestic labor in her own 
home "should not be highly and most 
highly recognized and recompensed." 
Miss Schreiner adds: 

"I believe it will be in the future, and 



then when woman gives up her inde- 
pendent field of labor for domestic or 
marital duty of any kind, she will not 
receive her share of the earnings of the 
man as a more or less eleemosynary 
benefaction, but an equal share as the 
fair division in an equal partnership." 

President M. Carey Thomas makes 
mention of the obvious fact that women 
are entering industrial life in ever-in- 
creas'ng numbers; and Florence Kelley, 
speaking with tragic force of the evils 
of industrial life, says: 

"Girls marry with the knowledge that 
as wives they will have to work for 
wages, and accept it as the will of God 
or the curse of nature when in their 
families babies die." 

These statements are construed by Mr. 
Martin as triumphant announcements 
that the blissful goal of feminism will 
presently be reached when no woman 
anywhere who is to be held worthy of 
the name will find her occupation or 
pleasure within the four walls of a mere 
home. 

Why are Mr. Martin and a fast-dimin- 
ishing number of men so terribly exer- 
cised over the fate of "the home." Were 
I to give way to my feelings, I would be 
tempted to ask. Who made the home, 
anyway, and reply that woman made the 
home, and that she made it for her chil- 
dren. If primitive man had had his 
way, he would not have made a home ; 
he would have made a harem. But 
woman demonstrated the desirability of 
the home, and admitted the man on con- 
dition that he do his part, which part 
has become, in process of evolution, to 
support the home from the outside. 

Now, granted that there are a few 
ultra-feminists who advise women to 
delegate their domestic and maternal 
duties in large measure and join man in 
the outside support of the home, this 
attitude is without doubt fathered by in- 
dustrial conditions which often make it 
impossible, unaided, to support a family, 



and mothered by the age-long industrial 
subjection of women which Mr. Martin 
is so anxious to perpetuate that he would 
leave little to chance. Which reminds me 
of \Y. L. George's closing concession in 
his none too complimentary series in the 
At antic Monthly, on The Intelligence of 
Woman : 

"But if the world is to be remoulded 
I think it much more likely to be re- 
moulded by woman than by man, simply 
because that as a sex he is in power, and 
the people who are in power never want 
to alter anything." 

"Every woman should find some man 
to support her," is the plain and simple 
teaching of Mr. Martin. It is to him 
monstrous that women (women teach- 
ers, for example) should receive promo- 
tion and increased salary for length and 
excellence of service "as if there were a 
deliherate purpose to present the maxi- 
mum temptation to spinsterhood." He 
favors permitting young teachers to teach 
with but slight promotion "for a maxi- 
mum period of five to ten years," after 
which they are to be discharged — whether 
they marry or not. If they marry, and 
are good, they are to be allowed, when 
their youngest child is fourteen or so, to 
return to service "in the highest teach- 
in? positions available to women." 
(Note those last two words. Also, that 
Mr. Martin fails to disclose the source 
of his information that women who wish 
to be reinstated as teachers will quit 
having babies when their youngest is 
fourteen.) 

Men get rusty in a score or more of 
years in which they have totally neg- 
lected their professional specialty for 
something else. Women are supposed 
to find in maternity and housework the 
continued elixir of educational life, not- 
withstanding the fact that nothing is 
changing so rapidly as our ideas and 
technique of school education. 

Mr. Martin would approve of warning 
"the regiments of bright young women 



77 



78 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 15, 1916 



engaged at a salary in social and philan- 
thropic institutions that they would not 
be retained beyond a few years," and 
quotes with approval the director of one 
association who annually engages a few 
of the most brilliant graduates of the 
women's colleges, for three years only, 
with the notice that he expects them to 
marry by that time. 

Is there indeed a men's union to sup- 
plement their natural attractions with 
this device of taking women's already 
underpaid jobs away from them entirely? 
Such a regime would surely mean near- 
starvation to many a woman who refused 
to be coerced into dependence on her sex 
functions for a living even though this 
dependence took the outward form of 
marriage. To other women of feebler 
resistance, it would doubtless mean : 
Find a man to support you as a wife — 
or . 

One would suppose that teachers and 
social and philanthropic workers make no 
contribution, as such, to the welfare or 
the increase in numbers of the future 
generation; that Julia C. Lathrop, for 
instance, wickedly encouraged in spin- 
sterhood by more than a three-year ten- 
ure of office in the Federal Children's 
Bureau, is uselessly engaged in saving 
the lives of thousands of babies, instead 
of having one or two of her own. 

Here is a fact that Mr. Martin, in his 
haste, may have overlooked : George 
Washington was the father of nothing 
but his country. ■ 

If marriage cannot compete for women 
with outside attractions, why does it not 
occur to "humanists," such as Mr. 
Martin, to remove "economic depend- 
ence" and other age-long stumbling 
blocks out of the way of marriage? Why 
not give women participation with men 
in the obvious right to regulate their 
social and domestic affairs as best suits 
them ? 

Women are no longer greatly con- 
cerned with the reactionary attitude of 
a few good men like the writer of these 
articles.. They comfortably reflect that 
they possess the respect and confidence 
of the great mass of men ; for, be it re- 
membered, it is by the votes of these 
same men that women are rapidly be- 
coming enfranchised and given full poli- 
tical equality, with all that that implies, 
over the civilized world. 

Mr. Martin represents feminists as 
being deaf to the humanistic appeal that 
as potential mothers of the race they 
should not subject themselves, in indus- 
trial pursuits, to conditions which injure 
their maternal functions. The citations 
he makes prove, I think, not that femin- 
ists contend that women shall enjoy pre- 
cisely the same facilities for injuring 
themselves and "for getting drunk" as 
men, but that men must cease legislating 
for and governing women, even in the 
name of protection. It is a fact that in 
New Zealand and our western states, we 



find enfranchised women leading the 
world in legislation to protect wage- 
earning women and their maternal func- 
tions as well as to protect children. 

A word, in closing, about Mr. Martin's 
conception (which is the conventional 
conception) of woman in social service — 
the "gray-haired matron" who has raised 
her family and is not under the neces- 
sity of going back into industrial life. 
The best social service of the future will 
not be done for some mothers by other 
mothers any more than the best political 
condition can be created by some men 
for other men or by all men for all 
women. We want an aristocracy of age, 
wealth and social security patronizing 
from afar and doing things for other 
women, no more than we want the old 
and vanishing sex aristocracy. 

Insofar as mature women of leisure, 
by their experience, can actually enter 
into the lives and needs of women in 
general and help them to help themselves 
— first to be free, and then to use their 
freedom in a solution of the thousand 
and one problems that used to seem 
individual and are now seen to be com- 
munal and political and, above all, 
economic — the "woman in the autumn of 
life" can be of service, and will prob- 
ably be of great and increasing service. 
Should she undertake, however, to lay 
upon the rising generation the laws and 
customs of the passing one, she will fall 
into the same category as certain men 
whose "good lives after them" and evil 
fortunately, "is interred with their 
bones." 

BY ALICE STONE BLACK- 
WELL 

FEMINISM simply means woman's 
rights. Advocates of woman's 
rights differ widely among themselves in 
their views on industrial questions, in- 
cluding the advisability of married 
women becoming wage-earners. There- 
fore, when Mr. Martin says that femin- 
ism wants all women to be economically 
independent, he ought to say "certain 
feminists." 

Most feminists of my acquaintance be- 
lieve that in an ideal state of society 
all fathers would be able and willing to 
earn the living for their families. But, 
as things are, a great and growing multi- 
tude of women, both married and single, 
must be bread-winners. 

Feminists, therefore, urge that they 
should be as well equipped as possible ; 
that they should be relieved of all arti- 
ficial handicaps, including sex prejudice; 
and that the women themselves should 
have a vote in the laws that regulate 
their industrial environment. 

Mr. Martin draws a dark picture of 
the deplorable conditions prevailing 
among working women, and says that 
this state of things is due to feminism ! 
He should rather say that it is due to a 
greedy industrialism, developed under 



laws in which women have had no voice. 

Feminism is supposed to have gone 
furthest in the equal suffrage states. 
Yet the census shows that the proportion 
of wage-earners among women is smaller 
in those states than the average for the 
country at large. 

All the suffrage states have passed 
mothers' pension laws, while many of 
the non-suffrage states have neglected 
to do so. The very first mothers' pension 
law originated in Australia, where 
women vote. A much larger proportion 
of the suffrage states than of the non- 
suffrage states have minimum wage laws 
for women. 

Of the eleven equal suffrage states, 
five have an eight-hour law for women 
— Washington, California, Colorado, Ari- 
zona and Wyoming. Of the 37 states 
where women have not equal suffrage, 
not one has this law. 

Louis D. Brandeis, a suffragist, drew 
the brief which led the United States 
Supreme Court to uphold the constitu- 
tionality of the eight-hour law for 
women. Josephine Goldmark, a suffra- 
gist, helped him to compile his material. 
Justice Brewer of the United States 
Supreme Court, another suffragist, wrote 
the decision. 

On the other hand, the official organ 
of the National Association Opposed to 
Woman Suffrage, in its issue for De- 
cember, 1913, described California's 
eight-hour law for women contemptu- 
ously as "a law urged by suffragists," 
and published an article bitterly attack- 
ing the whole principle of putting any 
limit upon women's hours of labor. It 
said : 

"No more stupid law was ever enacted. 
Women have as much right to 
work as men, and are perfectly com- 
petent to fix their own working hours. 
A healthy woman can work with im- 
punity as many hours as a healthy man, 
in work suitable for women to perform." 

Unquestionably, present industrial con- 
ditions are largely destructive to the 
health and welfare of the workers, and 
more destructive to women than to men. 
Home conditions are often destructive 
too, i. c, the home conditions of the aver- 
age woman, who is the poor woman. 
Everyone familiar with tenement house 
life knows this. Yv omen are being 
ground up, both in the home and in the 
factory ; and doubly ground up where 
they have to work in both. What is to 
be done about it? 

Mr. Martin offers no practical solu- 
tion. He says the father's wages should 
be raised. This would be welcomed with 
joy by all women; but is there # any pros- 
pect of it? Everywhere the cost of liv- 
ing is going up faster than the rate of 
wages. He would have women for- 
bidden to serve as clerks in stores, or to 
work in factories and mills : and he 
draws a pleasing picture of the result? 
of such a prohibition — millions of "pale- 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 15, 1916 



79 



faced women coming out into the sun- 
light." But he does not tell us how they 
are to get anything to eat. 

The few occupations which he con- 
siders womanly would not begin to ab- 
sorb all the women who have to earn a 
living. Such talk is purely academic. 
It is a condition and not a theory that 
confronts us. 

Only far-reaching industrial changes 
can go to the bottom of the difficulty; 
but in the meantime factories and work- 
shops should be so regulated by law that 
they will neither break down the health 
of women and girls, nor leave the father 
worn out and unfit for work by thirty- 
five, after which his wife and children 
must support the family. Hours should 
be shortened and sanitary conditions im- 
proved. 

Mr. Martin's idea that wage-earning 
is necessarily hurtful and hateful to 
women is all moonshine. If you want to 
see a picture of ruddy health, look at the 
"pit-brow lasses" of England or the fish 
wives of Scotland. And, if every 
woman hated to teach, boards of educa- 
tion would not have to strain their in- 
genuity to make all teachers quit when 
they marry. 

No one has set forth more forcibly 
the ill results of forcing young mothers 
into the labor market than Jane Addams, 
Florence Kelley, Lillian D. Wald and 
Julia C. Lathrop — all of them prominent 
suffragists. Under present conditions it 
is generally a misfortune when the 
mother of a young family is obliged to 
become a bread-winner — generally, but 
not always. This is a question for each 
woman to decide for herself, in view of 
her family circumstances ; and no out- 
sider is entitled to lay down a cast-iron 
law for her on the subject. 

There is a growing tendency to try to 
secure for the poor woman's children, 
by collective effort, some of the advant- 
ages which the rich woman buys for her 
children — kindergartens, supervised play- 
grounds, etc. Incidentally, these give the 
mother more leisure. 

The process of specialization and sub- 
division of labor is also bound to go on, 
whether we approve of it or not. Just 
as inevitably as the spinning and weav- 
ing have passed out of the home, the 
laundry work, the cooking and the dish- 
washing are bound to follow. When they 
have gone, the problem of overfatigue in 
the household will be largely solved. 
There is big money waiting for the man 
or woman who succeeds in sending in 
good hot meals' to families at moderate 
rates, to be eaten in their own homes — 
a plan already in use in some foreign 
cities. Then the servant question will 
lose its terrors; and the problem of 
economic independence will be in a fair 
way to be solved too. When the average 
woman has a number of hours at her 
own disposal every day, with the knowl- 
edge that the children are safe and that 



the dinner will not suffer, she can, if 
she chooses, put in that time doing some- 
thing that will bring in money. 

As women have so much larger part 
than men in the important work of re- 
production, they will probably never take 
as large a share as men in the other work 
of the world; but with a proper adjust- 
ment of hours, there is no reason why 
most women could not do some wage- 
earning work, with far less fatigue than 
they suffer from the present long hours 
of miscellaneous housework. Nor need 
this keep a mother from nursing her 
baby. 

New Zealand already requires a rest 
period for women after every 4*/ 2 hours 
of work ; and in time the rest periods 
may be made still more frequent. 

Mr. Martin suggests that a wage-earn- 
ing woman could not afford to pay an- 
other woman a dollar a day to straighten 
up her flat. But four neighbor women 
could each pay a fifth woman 25 cents a 
day for that service. 

It is impossible in this limited space 
to review all Mr. Martin's statements. 
But one of his ideas must be unquali- 
fiedly condemned — that opportunities for 
permanent employment, and for promo- 
tion, as social workers, etc., ought to 
be closed to women, in order to put pres- 
sure upon them to marry. Arguing 
against giving women good pay, Mrs. 
John Martin said at an anti-suffrage 
meeting in New York on April 2, 1914, 
as reported in the New York Times: 

"In every high salary paid to men, 
society is the gainer. But with women 
it is the reverse — every raise in salary 
makes her less likely to marry." 

This means, of course, less likely to 
marry for money. When she has a 
chance to marry for love, the daughter 
of a multi-millionaire accepts it as de- 
lightedly as the poorest factory girl. A 
loveless marriage is a sin. To seek to 
drive women into such unions is not only 
a crime but a blunder — a blunder because 
it is so utterly unnecessary. 

The danger is the other way. As Alice 
Henry points out in her admirable new 
book, The Trade Union Woman, the 
present excessive strain of industry not 
only breaks down young women's health, 
but often drives them to marry any kind 
of a man, without the least love for him, 
merely as an escape from intolerable con- 
ditions. 

Mr. Martin lays down the rule that no 
woman who is not a mother should be 
allowed to be the head of a woman's 
college. This would have robbed Wel- 
lesley of Alice Freeman Palmer, and 
Mt. Holvoke of such rare educators as 
Mary E. Woolley and its founder, Mary 
Lyon. It is a sample of the unwisdom 
of allowing cast-iron rules to be laid 
down by anyone — and especially by an 
anti-feminist. 



BY ANNE O'HAGAN SHINN 

DURING the past month I have be- 
come strongly imbued with the 
desire to ask your leave to set forth my 
reasons for urging the abolition of 
steam, gasoline and electrically driven 
vehicles and the re-installation of the 
horse-drawn stagecoach as the general 
means of transportation. My grounds 
for undertaking this great reformatory 
movement are many. I urge it — 

First, in the interest of sacred nature. 
Surely not even the all too prevalent 
speed maniac will deny that the horse 
is more natural than the engine. Can we 
defy nature and hope to escape the price 
of that defiance? 

Second, in the interest of human prob- 
ity. It is a notorious fact that much 
corruption in our public life is due to the 
disgraceful activity of railroad director- 
ates among dishonest legislators. Can 
any opponent of stagecoachism point to 
similar black pages in the history of the 
stagecoach? 

Third, in the interest of the comfort 
and security of widows and orphans. 
Railroad stock-juggling has reduced and 
sometimes rendered entirely worthless 
the shares of railroad stock which have 
formed the sole capital of the aforesaid 
widows and orphans. When was it ever 
possible to fling such an accusation at 
stagecoaches? 

Fourth, in the interest of human life 
and health. It is necessary to make but 
the briefest reference to the calamitous, 
often fatal, accidents due to trolley-car 
collisions, to the telescoping of trains, to 
misplaced switches, to temporarily de- 
ranged signal systems, and to reckless 
motoring. You will find more vehicular 
disasters recorded in a single Monday 
morning paper now than you will find in 
a whole decade of stagecoach history. 

Apart from the spectacular and im- 
mediate dangers of railroad wrecks, joy- 
rides and the like, there is the more 
gradual, more insidious, peril to health. 
Consider a single trip to Chicago with 
the inevitable jarring upon the spine and 
the consequently inevitable increase of 
nervous disorders. Consider the pre- 
destined physiological and psychological 
reaction of the speed, the tension, the 
general high pressure of modern travel 
— the eye-strain, the acridity of soft coal 
fumes, the nauseation of gasoline. 

Contrast these with the incidental re- 
sults of stagecoaching — with its leisure 
and peace, with its aesthetic satisfac- 
tions, with its opportunity for deep- 
breathing. Can anyone, sincerely making 
that contrast, deny that the health of the 
race demands the restoration of the 
stagecoach, especially for women, the 
mothers and potential mothers of that 
race? 

The opponents of stagecoachism (I 
know their habit of mind, at once mud- 
dled and impatient!) will doubtless op- 



8o 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 15, i 9 i6 



pose to my demand for the abolition of 
machine locomotion, futile pleas for its 
improvement. They will blasphemously 
declare that the horse is no more natural 
than the creations of man's genius in 
mechanics ; they will say that an edu- 
cated, conscientious and consequently 
patriotic public will in time destroy cor- 
rupt alliances between railroad director- 
ates and legislatures ; that speed mania 
may be checked by adequate penalties ; 
that machinery will improve and danger 
lessen, and that already the record of 
railroad disasters in certain other coun- 
tries shews that human life need not be 
sacrificed as it is here. But I say, why 
temporize? Why try to reform admitted 
evil? Why not abolish it altogether? 
Why not practice stagecoachism? 

That this is perfectly feasible, that the 
stagecoach with the jolly, inspiriting 
notes of the horn replacing the awful 
honk of the motor car and the ear- 
piercing blast of the steam locomotive is 
a possibility is abundantly attested by 
the fact that in the spring season several 
tally-hos, driven by expert amateur 
whips, ladies and gentlemen, run between 
the Colony Club in New York city and 
Ardsley-on-the-Hudson. 

I confess, Mr. Editor, that I should 
not have hoped to obtain a hearing for 
my views from you, had I not, during 
the past month witnessed your hospitality 
to certain opinions of John Martin. I 
should have feared that you considered 
your space too valuable to be given to the 
intellectual offspring of Mrs. Partington, 
forever trying to stay the cosmic tides 
with household mops. I should have 
feared that you woidd send my exposition 
of stagecoachism back to me (a stamp 
being enclosed!) with the comment that 
so-called civilized society had been for 
a century and a half or thereabouts in- 
creasingly a mechanical and not an agri- 
cultural one. 

But you are, it seems, liberal to all 
comers. You have not sent this gentle- 
man's contributions back to him with the 
statement that they were irrelevant to 
modern problems since he had failed to 
note the circumstance that we were liv- 
ing in an industrial era and not in a 
patriarchal ; and that even in a patri- 
archal, the thoughts and the capacities 
of the great majority of women were 
by no means so concentrated upon their 
sex function as he would have them now 
become; that instead of centering solely 
upon the physical and sentimental aspects 
of wifehood and maternity, they were to 
a very great extent the clothiers, feeders 
and doctors of the society in which they 
lived, and almost exclusively the teach- 
ers of the young. 

You would have told Mr. Martin that 
labor as well as sex has always been the 
field of woman, and that it behooved 
public-spirited citizens to see to it that 
in the modernized industrial world she 
did not lose the wholesome privileges 



tnat had been hers when every house 
was a shop, a school and a hospital as 
well as that roseate nebulosity, a Home ; 
you would have told him that it was as 
r.ght and proper for all the present-day 
Nausicaas to labor in steam-laundries as 
it had been for the Homeric maidens to 
wash their household clothes by the banks 
of the legendary stream; that it was, in 
fact, impossible for the world to go on 
without their toil today, as always; and 
that the part of the progressive and 
sympathetic was not to deny all depart- 
ments of labor to women but to keep 
their conditions wholesome. 

But you didn't, Mr. Editor! You 
printed Mr. Martin's bleatings about 
marriage for all women at twenty-three 
years, about the three children apiece, 
about the prohibition to women of all 
activities except those centering around 
their personal and individual maternity. 
And so I feel encouraged to hope that 
you will give space to my plea for the 
restoration of the stagecoach. At any 
rate, that movement does not require for 
its success, as does Mr. Martin's "human- 
ism" (Heaven save the mark!) the 
harem, which is becoming obsolete even 
in the East under the pressure of modern 
conditions, and polygamy, which is a 
crime upon the statute books of civilized 
communities. 

BY CHARLOTTE PERKINS 
GILMAN 

MR. MARTIN is a clever and sharp- 
penned writer; sometimes bril- 
liant, sometimes flippant — as when he 
speaks of women as finally entering 
upon their long denied privilege of col- 
lege education "with loud huzzas." He 
has also an easy skill in buttressing his 
argument by using carefully welded 
facts, figures, and quotations, which is 
often convincing to one who reads hast- 
ily and does not stop to question as he 
reads. 

Since the very range of reference so 
used shows wide acquaintance with the 
literature and statistics on this subject, 
and since only those quotations are 
given which in any way support Mr. 
Martin's views, or tend, as unrelated ex- 
cerpts, to reflect discredit upon their au- 
thors, we can choose between two opin- 
ions: cither he is incapable of seeing 
anything save what agrees with his 
position, or he is capable of so selecting 
as definitely to exclude from his mind 
and withhold from his readers opposing 
material which he does not see. Only 
such unconscious disability, or conscious 
disingenuousness can account for the ar- 
ray of selected quotations and statistics 
here offered, to strengthen a case of 
hopeless weakness. 

Mr. Martin's position is simple and 
clear. It is the old one, the easy one, 
the ultra-masculine one. It sees in 
women only femininity, and sees femi- 
ninity, as excluding all human qualities. 



He has chosen to claim for himself 
the term humanist, while attacking the 
position of the feminist. Yet in a true 
view of the discussion we see the femin- 
ist upholding the human qualities and 
responsibilities of woman, while this 
self-styled humanist harps continually on 
her femaleness. 

There is a deceiving ease in the pro- 
cess of reversion. It is no effort at all to 
thinK in the same wav that all men have 
thought for thousands of years; to find 
phrases that shall strengthen convictions 
already held for ages; to gratify read- 
ers who admiringly say: "That is just 
what I have always believed ! How- 
well he says it !" 

Facilis descensus Averni! It is be- 
cause of this slippery reversion in idea 
that Mr. Martin, who is in some ways an 
able and always an entertaining dispu- 
tant, has been betrayed into statements 
which carry meaning he omitted to note; 
and some which even an "anti" might 
see to be erroneous. 

"A man may be terribly overworked 
without affecting his power for paterni- 
ty," says Mr. Martin. This is accredit- 
ing the human male with a Jove-like 
power, an immortal prepotence, a sub- 
lime capacity for fulfilling his special 
function regardless of any interfering 
conditions. 

With other animals we know this is 
not the case; the valuable "sire" is not 
"overworked;" if he is it affects his 
"power for paternity" most sharply. 
And in spite of Mr. Martin's reverence 
for the unassailable vigor of his sex, the 
same is true of the human father. One 
of the most evil consequences of over- 
work among wage-earning men, even 
while their wives have nothing to do 
but fulfill their supposedly appropriate 
and wholly harmless domestic func- 
tions, is in the deterioration of the stock 
due to the exhaustion of the father. 

Legitimate work, for reasonable hours, 
does not injure either paternity or ma- 
ternity. The evil effects of unsuitable 
and unduly prolonged labor are shown 
on both men and women, and the long 
list of trade diseases, affecting all labor- 
ers without regard to sex, are perfectly 
well known to Mr. Martin, who was once 
a Socialist. 

Yet in these little articles he seeks to 
show that all extra-domestic labor in- 
jures women, light work or heavy work 
— he makes no exceptions. The only 
occupations which should be encouraged 
as a temporary makeshift for young 
women are such as "domestic service in 
a good home under an intelligent, sym- 
pathethic woman, who would encourage 
the servant in keeping company," or 
such as are, "like nursing, preparatory 
for domestic life." 

Note the saving clause, "a good 
home," indicating that he well knows 
domestic service in most homes is by 
no means "preparatory for domestic 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 15, ipi6 



81 



life," but cuts off the girl from oppor- 
tunities for marrying. No such modifi- 
cation is made as to "a good factory," 
shop, or office. He assumes the bad 
conditions of extra domestic labor to be 
permanent and unavoidable, and further 
assumes good conditions in domestic 
labor as equally certain. Yet in the 
very figures he gives to show the danger 
of wage-earning for mothers, a sad 
light is thrown upon domestic conditions. 

In one investigation he quotes to us, 
it was found that homeworking mothers 
lost 146 babies cut of a thousand, and 
factory-working mothers 209 — "an ex- 
tra death toll of 63 per thousand due to 
the mother's economic dependence." As 
he previously stated that the factory- 
working woman was also a houseworker, 
having to care for her home ana family 
besides doing the day's work 111 the 
mill, these figures really exhibit a 
"death toll" of 146 per thousand due to 
home industry alone, and only 63 more 
due to both. 

The allowed space of this brief criti- 
cism is insufficient to expose in detail 
the many fallacies of Mr. Martin's 
presentation. The most fruitful answer 
is to state the case as it really is. 



A normal woman is not only a female, 
but a member of society. She shouiu 
serve society through her personal func- 
tion as a mother, and also through her 
social function as a worker. 

The present labor conditions of the 
world are made by men for men, and 
arc not adapted to motherhood. The 
entrance upon industry of women, who 
will always for the most part be 
mothers, must modify those conditions 
so that they will no longer be injurious, 
as now, to both men and women. 

The development of the individual 
woman, through specialized labor, will 
in prove her motherhood, both through 
here ty and 1 etter child culture. 

The complete segregation of women to 
('nines ic and sex-relationsip, as seen in 
long unquestioned custom in Oriental 
Ci untries, does not result in an improved 
society. 

The lowest grades of wage-earners, 
now so handicapped by being forced to 
work in man-made conditions both in- 
dustrial and domestic together, will lie 
the mest benefited by bringing to bear 
their specialized and organized powers 
up')n the improvement of the factory 
and the home. 



COMMUNICATIONS 



To the Editcr: In th: name of com- 
mon sense and the United States Census 
Office, what is the matter with John Mar- 
tin ? He seems to he convinced that the 
most complex social situation in the his- 
tory of the world is as simple as A. B. C. 
It is all the result of one factor, and like 
Adam of old, he finds that factor to he 
woman. The remedy consists in "hu- 
manism," and humanism consists in 
bringing up girls to get married. For 
every Jill there waits her Jack; let her 
go forth and find him, get married, and 
live happily ever after. 

That's all there is to it. No question 
of homes that are unable to teach the 
girl the things he demands; of the dis- 
parity in numbers between men and wom- 
en in eliffcrent sections of the country — 
does he propose to establish a national 
matrimonial bureau, or polygamy? — of 
the fact that the girl, according to our 
conventions, canrot go out and seek her 
mate, she must wait to be sought, and 
men have never, in this country at least, 
been distinguished for choosing wives 
upon their ability as housekeepers. 

In a civilization where, from the na- 
ture of the case, women must remain 
unmarried by the tens of thousands, and 
where these women must depend upon 
their own exertions for their daily bread, 
how in the world could you organize any 
trade or profession upon the presumption 
that everv woman in it would marry 
before thirty? 

As to Mr. Martin's statements about 
the deleterious effects of industry upon 
women, he tells only a half story. For 
instance, why does he not quote the 
sentence immediately fol'ozuinq the one 
he docs ouotc from Robertson's Birm- 
ingham Report? That sentence reads 



"Poverty has, however, a much more 
deleterious influence; and if by employ- 
ment poverty can be removed or lcssen- 
i' . s t 11 employment is by far the lesser 
of the two ci'ils." 

And why doesn't he quote Dr. Mor- 
to s paper in the same congress from 
which he quotes Robertson? She con- 
cludes, after a most exhaustive study, 
that "with properly regulated hours of 
work and recreation, outside of the phy- 
sical lahor referred to in this paper" 
(prolonged and unnecessary standing, 
pushirg heavy trucks, carrying heavy 
ve'ghts, etc.) "women may work in prac- 
tically any field of modern industry, and 
not only retain but increase their stand- 
ard of health." 

"Women may work" ! When haven't 
women "-pr^cd? The time is not very 
far behind us, in the history of the race, 
when they did it all, and the men, in the 
Iv guage of the Australian Bushman, 
"hunted, fought and sat around." In 
the light of biology and anthropology, the 
feminist demand for labor is not s<? 
ridiculous as it seems to appear to some 
of the humanists. History also throws 
some light upon the cmestion, even his- 
t^rv so recent as that of industry in the 
Un-'*-ed States. 

Now, I am not a feminist — to my 
kvowdedge, at least. I had rather sup- 
posed I was a humanist, but if human- 
ism crns's'-s in shutting your eyes to 
facts and advocn f ing an impossible social 
program with an impossible Utopia at the 
end of it, I can't be a humanist. 

But I am interested in the education 
of girls, and I see more and more clearly 
every day the complexitv of the prob- 
lem, not alone in its social aspects, but 
in its psychological implications as well. 



It will never be solved in any such 
wholesale fashion as Mr. Martin indi- 
cates, and we may as well shake our- 
selves free from preconceived notions 
and face matters squarely. We must 
listen to the psychologist as well as to 
t e sociologist and the social reformer, 
and we must be satisfied to make a good 
n a y "trials a"d errors" before we reach 
even a tentative conclusion. 

I hope these articles will stir up dis- 
cussion en Loth sides. I am not sure but 
that they are subtly des'gneel for that 
very purpose, and they ought to prove 
effective stimuli. 

Wixifred Richmond. 
[Clark University.] 

Worcester, Mass. 

To the Editor: It has been good to 
read John Martin's arguments in favor 
tines for women vs. eco .omic inde- 
pendence, like most people, however, 
he eems to think the question is a mat- 
t< r'of choice for all women. Only a few 
th'nkcrs have analyzed the situation to 
the extent of leanvng that women can't 
help themselves. Under present condi- 
tions eco lomic independence is thrust 
upon them. 

But I'd fne seems to put forth the 
theory that women can change those con- 
ditions so as to make it possible for each 
woman to have a home. It is up to 
women. They may finally insist on 
Plato's idea expressed in his Republic — 
that sex is a mere incident, that men 
and women arc alike except for the 
mere difference in bearing or begetting 
c 1 ildren, that their bodies and minds are 
capable of the same exert'ons and the 
same responsibilities, that therefore they 
should be given exactly the same educa- 
tion even to military training. 

In fines of war women shoulder guns 
and go off to fight with the men. As 
for homes,, there aren't any. Marriages 
are arranged at yearlv Hvmeneal festi- 
vals; the purpose accomplished, men and 
women have no further tie and scatter 
prom'scuously to their various pursuits. 
Children when born are taken from the 
mother to be reared by the state, girls 
and boys alike. 

Mr. Martin's theory is the opposite. 
He believes the men ought to shoulder 
the work in the world and take care of 
the women, the women repaying by mak- 
ing it easier and pleasanter for the men, 
and thus increasing their proelucing ca- 
pne'ty. The net results might he the 
same, the men producing more than if 
women put their efforts in producing 
directly themselves. In order adequately 
to help men, women should have the 
awakening and understanding a proper 
use of the ballot mav bring. If a woman 
actually increases the output of a man, 
can she be called a parasite? 

But Mr. Martin's recommendation of 
homes for women cannot be brought 
abrut until, first, women increase the 
number of men, and second, train their 
boys to grow up with the idea. 

.As for the first, statistics over the 
whole world prove that nature provides 
p'rptv of men. Darwin, in the De c cent 
of Man. quotes a ratio of 106 for 70.000,- 
010. But women let their boy babies die 
off faster than girls, for infant mor- 



82 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 15, 1916 



tality statistics prove more deaths of 
male than female babies. As further 
proved by still-births, the survival of the 
male child is more difficult to accomplish 
than that of the female child, being ap- 
parently more dependent upon the moth- 
er's health. 

But is it not "up to women" to over- 
come these difficulties and see that na- 
ture's plan of plenty of men is carried 
out? Furthermore, wars and other evils 
depleting the stock of men may be abol- 
ished by women pulling together. 

If society is truly to provide homes 
for women, it will also be necessary for 
women to make that an attractive propo- 
sition to the men and bring up their 
boys to that view. Mothers must see 
that their sons expect to treat every 
woman as they would like every man to 
treat their sisters. Though women must 
enforce this attitude on men, it will re- 
sult almost automatically with an in- 
crease of men. 

Homes for women, then, may be possi- 
ble only when there are an equal or 
greater number of men, and when 
women make the proposition sufficiently 
advantageous. 

Constance Drexel. 

New York 



To the Editor: Most heartily I con- 
gratulate you upon publishing in The 
Survey the splendid articles by John 
Martin on Humanism vs. Feminism. 

If the strong influence of The Survey 
can be brought to bear upon the two 
gravest dangers that threaten our be- 
loved land, military preparedness and 
feminism (as Mr. Martin uses the term) 
it may mean the salvation of our coun- 
try. 

„ ~ , C. E. B. Neill. 

Buffalo. 



To the Editor: The Martin anti- 
feminist articles printed in The Survey 
would be much more amusing if they ap- 
peared in an anti-suffrage periodical. 
They are a misfit in The Survey and 
many of your readers have been sur- 
prised to see The Survey open its 
columns to such rubbishy material, and 
fill a good many pages too. 

For every reader who takes the 
trouble to write you formally in protest, 
there must be a great number, who pro- 
test silently. 

The Survey has not benefited itself 

by the Martin articles. As to the benefit 

or harm done the feminist movement, 

the movement is now so strong as to be 

harmed by almost nothing and benefited 

by almost everything. 

_ Alice Park. 

Boston. 



To the Editor: A reader of your 
yaluable magazine naturally expects to 
find varying views expressed therein, and 
points of difference among even acute 
thinkers on economic subjects. But it 
does seem reasonable to ask that a single 
writer keep the same point of view in a 
single article. John Martin's article on 
Woman's Work Before Marriage shows 
such confusion of thought that I am sur- 
prised at its place in your publication. 

Mr. Martin says: 

"Women are less fitted for industrial 
work than men, as is shown by their fail- 



ure in private employment to command 
the same salaries as men." 

A half column further on we read: 

"As is demonstrated by the outstanding 
fact that men's wages average double 
women's wages in private employment, 
the supply ot women able and willing to 
fill industrial positions open to women is 
greater than the supply of men." 

The same fact is thus cited as a proof 
of two different theories of wages. If 
the standard of work determines wages, 
the supply and demand do not ; and vice 
versa. Numbers do not prove ineffi- 
ciency. Let Mr. Martin choose one 
theory and adhere to that one. 

(Mrs.) Flora W. Seymour. 

Chicago. 



To the Editor: Mr. Martin has form- 
ed an erroneous opinion of women in his 
articles. To begin with, women are more 
than six years of age, and collectively 
should not be treated as children. Wom- 
en are brainy, capable, efficient, logical 
and quite as capable of mental and phy- 
sical development as men. Men know 
this and are becoming alarmed less they 
be outstripped in the race. Now, of 
course, competition is keen everywhere 
and man must awake from stupor and 
keep pace mentally, morally, and physi- 
cally, if he would not be outdistanced. 
Nor will mere words aimed at women 
serve to keep women down or force them 
out of industry. 

Of course, women are now underpaid, 
but not always because she is an inferior 
creature, and incapable of grasping busi- 
ness or mastering the situation. She is 
underpaid for various reasons: first, she 
is a woman ; second, she has no labor or- 
ganization ofttimes for her protection; 
third, she has lacked the experience or 
business training (which her more for- 
tunate brother has been privileged to 
enjoy), simply because (as a male) so- 
ciety will allow training for boys in busi- 
ness, but would deny this to a girl. In- 
stead, they would try to make her take 
up domestic duties whether she wills it or 
not. 

It is remarkable how many women 
when given a chance to demonstrate their 
ability in the business or professional 
world will grasp a situation quickly, and 
adapt themselves very readily to any con- 
tingency. What is society to do with the 
rapidly increasing number of unmarried 
women, clever, ambitious, talented, with 
the same mental or physical capacity as 
men ? Shall they all become parasites, 
living off the earnings of another, or 
should society award them according to 
their efficiency? Justice demands that 
it should, and partiality should not be 
shown simply because a man is fortunate 
enough to be born free and is a man, re- 
gardless of capability or efficiency. 

Is it a fair deal to expect a woman to 
work the same hours, do the same work, 
with even better efficiency and speed, 
alongside of men in a skilled trade, anil 
then be obliged to accept only one-fhir I 
the wages? Surely wearing skirts ex- 
acts an awful penalty. Tlvs was my ex- 
perience. If Mr. Martin had been placed 
in such a position, and many other men, 
he never could have stood it. But this 
is one situation of thousands of capable 



women who are unwilling to sit idle. 

When the school teachers in New York 
demanded equal pay there was a hard- 
fought, bitter fight, they won, but oh ! 
what severe demands are now exacted 
of them to pay for their liberty. When- 
ever you see a woman getting a high 
salary, make up your mind that she is 
giving twice value received, or they 
would put two men in the place and give 
better wages. Single men get as good 
wages as married, so it is not always to 
support a family that men get good 
wages. Young men often waste their 
money where a woman would save it; 
therefore, why favoritism on account of 
sex? 

Efficiency should then be the keynote 
in the world, and if the employe or poli- 
tician be a woman and renders the best 
service to her employer or the public, 
she should be awarded accordingly and 
given a chance to take her place in the 
human race, be allowed a voice in voting 
and a voice in the making of laws which 
protect home and society. 

Eleanor J. Chadeayne. 

Buffalo. 



To the Editor: In John Martin's 
article on The Industrial Subjugation of 
Woman in The Survey for February 
26, he calls for scientific investigation of 
the effect of different industries on 
women. The Galton Laboratory for 
National Eugenics at the University of 
London has made an exhaustive study 
along this line and Mr. Martin will 
doubtless be much relieved to find he 
was quite mistaken as to the relative im- 
portance of a mother's work outside the 
home and other factors in her life, as 
for instance, the father's occupation. 

I will quote from Karl Pearson's, The 
Academic Aspect of the Science of Na- 
tional Eugenics, published in 1911: 

"Elaborate inquiries have recently 
been made officially, and a certain as- 
sociation, far less than was anticipated, 
has been found between infantile mortal- 
ity and the employment of the mother 
It is about the degree of resemblance be- 
tween a man and one of his great-grand- 
fathers. The mother's age produces 50 
per cent more effect than her employ- 
ment on the death-rate of her infant. 
Shall we restrict, therefore, the ages at 
which a woman shall be allowed to have 
children? 

"The occupation of the father, whether 
he is a general laborer, a factory hand, 
a skilled laborer, or a shookeeper, has 
just 100 per cent more influence on the 
mortality of the infant than the em- 
ployment of the mother. Are you go- 
ing to legislate as to the father's occu- 
ption ? 

"The infantile death-rate is 20 per 
cent more closely associated with the 
food in the home than with the mother's 
employment. Shall we legislate as to 
the food the mother may take? Further 
that food is associated with the drinking 
of the mother, and her drinking with the 
infantile death-rate. It is quite possible 
that legislat ; rn with regard to the drink- 
ing of mothers might lower the death- 
rate more than restricting their employ- 
ment. More important than the mother"? 
food is the baby's food. The manner in 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 15, 1916 



83 



which, when the baby is not breast-fed, 
the milk for the baby is stored is 90 
per cent more important than the em- 
ployment of the mother. 

"Now, turn to the nature of the house 
in which baby i$ reared. The cleanliness 
of the house is 20 per cent more influen- 
tial than the employment of the mother; 
the proper ventilation of the house, its 
dampness and its lighting are about 
double as influential as the employment 
of the mother. Overcrowding produces 
just 130 per cent more influence on the 
infantile death-rate than the employ- 
ment of the mother. 

"As another illustration let me refer to 
the manner in which the baby is fed — 
bottle or breast feeding; this has 170 per 
cent more influence on the infantile 
death-rate than the employment of the 
mother. Would it not be more effective 
to legislate on how the baby is to be 
fed? Nay, if we allow for the manner 
in which baby is fed we actually find 
that the employment of women is asso- 
ciated with a lower infantile death-rate, 
i.e., of those women who breast-feed 
their children, the employed women 
have fewer infants who die than unem- 
ployed women. » 

"Lastly, let me give another striking 
illustration. There is a thing called a 
'dummy-teat' or 'baby-pa^ifier' — an india- 
rubber tantalizer and bacilli-collector 
pushed between baby's lips, at which it 
sucks ineffectually and indefinitely. Out 
of 2,000 Rochdale babies 1,500 use these 
dummies. Well, now, how does a dum- 
my-teat compare with an employed 
mother? The former is 110 per cent 
more closely related to the infantile 
death-rate than the latter. Now, 1 ask 
you how you can possibly legislate with 
regard to employed mothers, who if they 
breast-feed their infants show better re- 
sults when employed than when not em- 
ployed and neglect those baby-paci- 
fiers?" 

Margaret Morse Nice. 
Amherst, Mass. 

To the Editor: Mr. Martin in his 
article Woman's Work 3efore Marriage, 
published in The Survey for March 4, 
attempts to sentimentalize upon woman 
as wife and mother, but succeeds only in 
degrading her. For he discounts all 
other abilities she may possess and de- 
nies her all pursuits outside this sphere. 

During the period between her exodus 
from school and the assumption of du- 
ties as wife and mother, he offers only 
one field — and that narrowly interpreted 
— in which woman may exercise her tal- 
ents and attain her development. In the 
light of his words, motherhood, instead 
of becoming an added attainment, can be 
viewed only as a limitation — all industry 
not bearing directly upon it, consciously 
being excluded from woman's life for a 
period of six to nine years before her 
marriage, which time is denominated by 
Mr. Martin as the "stop-gap" period, im- 
plying a vacancy in woman's life when, 
in her maturity, she is not actually en- 
gaged in breeding. 

First, there are two classes of women 
who live through this "stop-gap" period. 
They are the women wio later marry, 
and the women who do not marry at all, 
or who, for any reason, soon return to 



the self-dependent state. Mr. Martin 
considers only the former class, regard- 
less of the fact that no woman knows 
during these years whether they are for 
her the "stop-gap" period, or, perhaps, 
the time when she should be laying the 
foundations of her whole economic ex- 
istence, including a profitless old age. 

But if we accept such a class and con- 
sider it, not economically, but with the 
ultimate good of society at heart, the 
point of difference with Mr. Martin 
arises over the question, Are occupations 
bearing directly upon home-making and 
children the best pursuits for a woman to 
follow prior to her marriage, regardless 
of her personal taste and ability? 

We do not believe any period of life 
is a "stop-gap." If, however, the pres- 
ent condition of society has introduced a 
period which may seem to be such, how 
then can woman best be occupied during 
these years. We are deeply in accord 
with the sentiment expressed in the 
words : 

"God make us wise to know 
How strong the stalk must grow 
That rears so fair a flower." 

So we at once agree that woman shall 
do nothing to decrease, but all possible 
to increase, her potentiality as the future 
wife and mother during the years under 
discussion. Mr. Martin's recipe to that 
end, broadly stated, is as follows: 

"In anticipation of their coming high 
duties, the best occupation for them 
would be connected with children and 
home-making." 

Were he really sincere, this statement 
would satisfy any woman : she would 
still be granted unlimited choice of occu- 
pation, for all forms of work bear a 
strong, and (except those which drain a 
woman's physical powers) a beneficial 
relation to children and home-making. 
The degree to which the work is bene- 
ficial depends upon the needs of the in- 
dividual and her power to assimilate the 
good which may be so obtained. 

But this generous interpretation of du- 
ties connected with home and children 
does not seem to be Mr. Martin's ideal. 
Rather, he means literally "occupations 
connected with children and home-mak- 
ing." He carries a specific relation from 
the tasks of this period to the tasks of 
the later years, saying: 

"A conscious adaptation of work dur- 
ing this interlude to work in after life 
will come only when the adolescent girls 
and their mothers — and society — exhibit 
a better appreciation of the significance 
and difficulty of the home queen's du- 
ties." 

Are, then, the duties themselves a 
greater test of the home-keeper's effi- 
ciency than the spirit which, through 
character, she brings to the duties? 
Quoting from Young Working Girls by 
Woods and Kennedy, Mr. Martin says 
that "few girls have a forehanded in- 
terest in cooking." This he seems to re- 
gret, and well enough he may, but it 
does not follow that the girl who sells 
ribbons, the stenographer, the one who 
studies "law or preaching" is less well 
equipped to meet the myriad demands 
which will be made upon her as wife 
and mother. There will be demands up- 



on her judgment, her patience, her 
thrift — upon all her characteristics in 
fact. Ability to cook, wash, sweep and 
sew, while very important indeed do not 
in themselves constitute the qualities 
which make for the highest type of 
womanhood. 

Who is competent to say that a knowl- 
edge of law, or of business methods, may 
not have as great compensation in the 
later period as may come through skill 
in the culinary arts or even through 
ability to teach school. The patience 
learned at the typewriter desk, the self- 
control learned back of the ribbon coun- 
ter, may be the very fortification need- 
ed by the future mother. 

Since this "waiting period" is, in many 
cases, the only time during a woman's 
life when she may have first-hand con- 
tact with life, it is then the very period in 
which she may develop the side of her 
nature which is awakened by that con- 
tact, and add to her character the lessons 
which are so forcibly learned in the busi- 
ness world. To just the extent women 
are restricted in choosing which occupa- 
tion shall be the medium for develop- 
ment, to just that extent will the de- 
velopment itself be limited. 

The fact that it is not economically 
possible for all women to choose for 
themselves what they shall do, or that 
some women, given the opportunity, will 
not do so, does not justify a course 
which would affect those with power and 
desire to choose. Rather, we should be 
working on a theory which would banish 
the economic difficulties and develop the 
intellect of the indifferent that they too 
might gain the greater independence and 
development. 

For the woman who knows her tastes 
and abilities and wishes to choose in all 
this world what work she shall do, all op- 
portunities, which civilization holds, 
should be hers. The effect upon her 
future state can only be beneficial 
through such a course. That "talents 
differ" applies to women as well as to 
men. Any pursuit (except, again, the 
physically injurious) which has greater 
attraction and stimulus for a woman 
than all others, will probably produce a 
greater development than any other, and 
will react beneficially upon her future 
life, even though that occupation may 
be construed as one not bearing a direct 
relation to children and home-making. 

The reasons for thinking a woman 
will attain a greater development under 
these conditions are almost axiomatic. 
One usually chooses to do what one en- 
joys. Preference for a certain work 
brings increased results in that work. 
One task well done is an asset to bring 
to a new task, however different in kind 
the tasks may be. Vastly better for 
husband and children if the woman ap- 
plied herself sincerely to a pursuit in 
which she had talent and interest, prior 
to her marriage, even though the pur- 
suit had no direct relation to home and 
children, than that she had stifled per- 
sonality and ambition in an effort to ac- 
quire proficiency in the "home queen's 
duties" as interpreted by Mr. Martin and 
others who like to paint attractive word 
pictures on the door, which shuts women 
into imaginary homes and discourages, 



84 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 15, 1916 



or actually prevents, progress into any 
of the avenues outside. 

Myrtle Keegan. 
Lincoln, Neb. 



To the Editor: Why give space to 
Mr. Martin and his Malinism? It was 
probably a similar effusion which called 
forth from the bard of Avon: "I am Sir 
Oracle, when I ope my lip let no dog 
bark." 

Harriet Lloyd Doane, M.D. 

Fulton, N. Y. 



To The Survey : I have never be- 
fore criticized an article in The Survey 
because I believe that all opinions ought 
to be represented in a magazine of its 
character. 

I do protest, however, as a social 
worker of some years' experience, as a 
club woman and a suffragist, against the 
articles by John Martin now appearing. 
They seem to me to lack every quality of 
fairness to women and of understanding 
of the subject which the writer is at- 
tempting to discuss. 

I know many of the readers of The 
Survey in Des Moines, and I have yet 
to. hear a favorable comment on these 
articles. Flora Dunlap. 

Des Moines, la. 

To the Editor: I have been told that 
the feminist protest on the Martin series 
is "illiberal" and due to a desire on our 
part to "slam the door" in the face of the 
opposition. This, I believe, is unjust and 
based upon a misunderstanding of the 
protest. Most of us regard the anti- 
feminists as our greatest allies whose 
propaganda wins us many converts. 

As I have heard the matter discussed, 
the question is really one of Mr. Martin's 
proper place, which we think is in the 
home of anti-feminism, the Woman's 
Protest, and not in a progressive and up- 
to-date magazine. 

The trouble is that we have taken too 
much for granted with regard to The 
Survey. While you have never publish- 
ed feminist articles as such, most of us 
attributed it to the- fact that you did not 
need to convince your readers that 
women like Miss Addams, Miss Wald, 
Mrs. Kelley, Mrs. Nathan, Miss Van 
Kleeck, Miss Richmond and other of 
your women contributors are really peo- 
ple. The fact, too, that your appeal as 
an educational and constructive journal 
is to social workers in whose ranks are 
so many women who have passed the age 
of twenty-three, remained unmarried and 
still served their communities made it 
seem almost unthinkable that you would 
give space to arguments like those of Mr. 
Martin. 

We have believed that, with the New 
Republic, Harper's Weekly, the Literary 
Digest, the Independent and other maga- 
zines of opinion, you accepted the woman 
movement as part of the forward move- 
ment of democracy, worthy of serious 
treatment. As far as I know the only 
magazines which are publishing anti- 
feminist propaganda at the present time, 
except The Survey, are the "organs" of 
the academic-antis and the trade journals 
of the brewers. 

Had you announced a symposium, giv- 
ing both sides, with your editorial eulogy 



of "humanism," it might have offered 
hope that you were not in hearty accord 
with its tenets. Although in our cam- 
paigns we no longer debate whether 
women's place is in the home, we would 
not have thought that you had gone com- 
pletely over to the opponents of women's 
progress. 

It seems to me that the discussion is 
complimentary to the history of The 
Survey which led us to suppose that such 
phases of the woman movement as labor 
legislation for women, vocational train- 
ing, equal pay, women in the professions 
and women's service to the community 
other than as wives were established with 
you. 

Florence Woolston. 

[Editor Woman Voter.] 
New York. 



To the Editor: I have been suffer- 
ing in silence from the inanities of 
John Martin's style in the confidence 
that if The Survey saw fit to publish 
his articles on the woman problem, 
there must be more in them than was ap- 
parent to my "autumnal mind." But now 
they are concluded, I find that that organ 
does not glow any fresher for the sun- 
light poured upon it by the articles, and 
that, on the contrary, I am stirred to a 
pitch of petulance (the matter does not 
merit full-grown wrath) which is not 
good for "autumnal" placidity. 

Might I suggest that you follow these 
articles by a series by Everit P. Wheeler? 
We women should not speak for our- 
selves. 

I am not sure how much more of such 
twaddle I can stand, but knowing that 
your position on suffrage really is sound 
in spite of this evidence against it, I do 
not fear that a loyalty which stretches 
back over the period of The Survey's 
whole existence in this and previous 
states will snap just yet. Only please do 
not abuse its elasticity too far. 

Ruth M. Starrett. 

New York. 



To the Editor : I, too, am a new sub- 
scriber, and it was a great disappoint- 
ment to find the archaic drivel of John 
Martin featured in your paper. We had 
all hoped it was buried forever in the 
New York Times. 

Like all men of his type, Mr. Martin 
extracts paragraphs from feminist litera- 
ture and twists them to suit his views. 
As a feminist, I beg to say he is un- 
truthful, illogical and a menace to any 
human justice. He has been answered 
and corrected in his statements so often, 
it seems a waste of time to do so again. 

We hope, when his little Mann-Martins 
reach the age of twenty-three, he will 
walk the streets to lind some one to 
marry them, etc. In the meantime, un- 
less you carry out what your list of as- 
sociates promise you can count me out on 
renewing my subscription. 

Jean Cowdrey Norton. 

Hempstead, L. I. 

To the Editor: I wish to protest 
against the reactionary movement of 
The Survey in the publication of the 
articles by John Martin, entitled The 
Four Ages of Woman. I speak not only 



for myself, but in the name of at least 
four other women subscribers of your 
magazine. 

It is hardly possible that the medieval 
mind of Mr. Martin will grasp the fol- 
lowing, but I would like to suggest to 
him that the door of opportunity has 
been opened to women, and it will never 
again be closed. It is also recognized 
bv men — whose mental processes are not 
those of the anthropoid ape — that women 
have an economic value to the state aside 
from that of child-bearing. 

Lillian H. Moore. 
Topeka, Kan. 

To the Editor: John Martin's incon- 
sistencies are quite amusing. He says, 
"The doctrine dinned into the ears of 
bright, ambitious college girls deflects 
their mind from home-making and often 
turns the balance against it." 

My observation has been that the col- 
lege woman makes the best home, especi- 
ally if the income is small, and she is 
not the woman who sues for divorce. 

Immediately after this remark about 
"dinning into the ears of college girls," 
he says, "The working women by the ten 
thousands who toil, for wages of five to 
ten dollars a week are not prone to this 
deception. They look forward to mar- 
riage as a release from drudgery." I 
supposed women married for love, not 
to escape drudgery. 

Then Mr. Martin becomes sentimental 
and says, these working women "expect 
their husbands' wages to be handed to 
them for disbursement." How many 
husbands meet this expectation? 

Then he goes on to say that these 
working women would not earn enough 
to pay for some one to attend to their 
household. I do not think women advo- 
cate a woman who can earn only small 
wages leaving her home and going out 
to work, unless her husband whom she 
has married "to escape drudgery" does 
not earn enough to support the family 
or does not spend what he earns for the 
support of the family. As a physician I 
have found that the women who go out 
to work and leave home and children, 
go because it is a choice between neglect 
of home and children or seeing their 
children suffer for food and clothing. 

Who robs "the rosy cheeked girl in 
three months" of her morals? Mr. 
Martin quotes thus, "A doctor testifies 
that 40 per cent of married women who 
have been factory or shop girls come 
under medical attention for pelvic 
troubles." First, note it is married 
women ; second, I would ask Mr. Martin 
to look uo the statistics given by surgeons 
as to what percentage of the major 
operations on women for pelvic disease 
is due to venereal disease. I think he 
would find there were other causes than 
work in factory or shop. 

Mr. Martin also implies that there is 
the necessity for rest each month. I 
could refer him to a most scientific phy- 
sician, the head of a school of gym- 
nastics, who has made a study of this 
supposed necessity and whose conclusions 
are directly at variance with Mr. Mar- 
tin's idea. 

Adelaide Lambert, M.D. 

New Haven, Conn. 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 15, 1916 



85 



IT IS a significant fact that most of 
the ladies who have protested 
against the views expressed in The Four 
Ages of Woman have assumed that 
any criticism of industrial feminism is 
inimical to woman suffrage. Nothing 
was said in the articles about "votes for 
women," that sacred cause which no 
profane hand may touch. Yet, with the 
notable exception of Alice Stone Black- 
well (whose placid reasoning is always 
a welcome variety amid the usual hyper- 
fervid suffragist advocacy), nearly all 
the objectors assume that industrial 
feminism, equally with woman suffrage, 
is sacrosanct. It is an illuminating ex- 
hibition of the tendency of suffragists 
to embrace the more radical parts of 
feminist doctrine. 

Were it the case that, as Mrs. Crane 
avers, there are but "a few ultra-fem- 
inists who advise women to delegate 
their maternal and domestic duties in 
large measure and join man in the out- 
side support of the home," there could 
hardly be so marked a preponderance of 
the protestants to whom "to join man in 
the- outside support of the home" is so 
holy a prerogative that they threaten the 
editor with reprisals for even allowing 
it to be discussed. 

What is the issue? It is pungently 
expressed by "Militant" in the last Un- 
popular Revieiv, quite in conformity 
with the teachings of the many femin- 
ist writers whom I have before quoted: 

"May the day soon come when every 
wife will be ashamed to be supported by 
her husband, for then she will secure 
for herself an independent income — 
then and then only will wives be free. 
Political freedom, economic freedom, 
free motherhood — these are the trinity 
of woman's emancipation. Without 
either she is a dependent and a depend- 
ent cannot be free — the terms are a con- 
tradiction." 

Is that a desirable ideal? Does wage- 
earning for wives bring freedom? Are 
mothers, whose work is entirely in the 
home "parasites"? Shall we agitate and 
struggle to get ever more women into 
industry, delusively styling wage- and 
salary-earning emancipation; contend- 
ing, with Mrs. Gilman, that "the develop- 
ment of the individual woman, through 
specialized labor, will improve her 
motherhood"; or shall we strive toward 
the "ideal state of society" which Miss 
Blackwell refers to with approval, in 
which "all fathers would be able and 
willing to earn the living for their fam- 
ilies." The two ideals are antagonistic. 
Industrial feminism approves the one; 
humanism the other. 

A number of suffragists, of whom 
Miss Blackwell is a noble type, stand 
fast at suffrage, recognizing that "un- 
questionably present industrial conditions 
are . . . more destructive to women 
than to men" and that "women are 
doubly ground up where they have to 
work in both home and factory." Re- 
specting such views nothing antagonistic 
was written in the original articles. 

But the tide of feminism has swept 
past these stalwart veterans. Such 
patriarchal doctrine as that "all fathers 
would be able and willing to earn the 
living for their families" is to Anne 
O'Hagan Shinn as obsolete as stage- 



A REJOINDER 

By John Martin 

coaches ; she has no patience with such 
efforts "to stay the cosmic tides with 
household mops" for the sake of "that 
roseate nebulosity, a home." And hers 
are the views upheld in the main by 
those organs of feminist opinion which 
Florence Woolston sets up as an ex- 
ample to The Survey. For fathers to 
earn the living for their families means 
the domestication of mothers. It means 
"back to the home." But, in last week's 
Independent, Martha Bensley Bruere 
exultingly records that "all sorts of for- 
ward cries are coming from these women 
in the course of their undomestication, 
but among them all not the most appre- 
hensive ear can detect the faintest whis- 
per of 'back to the home !' " 

Mrs. Shinn avers that marriage for 
women "requires for its success" "the 
harem . . . and polygamy." Con- 
stance Drexel concludes her sanely con- 
structive and suggestive letter: "Homes 
for women may be possible only when 
there are an equal or greater number of 
men." In this matter, as in so many 
others, a special Providence seems to 
have cared for America. In the United 
States among the adult pooulation, twen- 
ty-one years of age and over, there are 
110 males to every 100 females. The 
total excess of adult males, according 
to the census reports of 1910, is 2,443,397. 
And the natural opportunity for the 
high-grade white woman to marry one 
of her own kind exceeds the natural 
opportunity of the Negress. 

Yet it is proven beyond cavil that of 
our women college graduates, the fine 
flower of feminism — educational, poli- 
tical and industrial — one-half do not 
marry and a quarter of those who do 
marry never have a child. Such is one 
outcome of their pursuit of "political 
freedom, economic freedom, free moth- 
erhood — the trinity of woman's emanci- 
pation." 

Miss Blackwell objects to an assertion 
of my wife's that high salaries for 
women make them "less likely to marry," 
and she points out that "the chance to 
marry for love" is accepted delightedly 
by millionaire and factory girl alike. 
How does she account for the spinster- 
hood of half the women college gradu- 
ates? Are they inherently less capable 
of inspiring and of feeling romantic 
love than their sisters? Are they less 
attractive than their sisters? I trow not. 

Seeing that, in point of fact, nearly 
three-quarters of college women pursue 
economic independence and we know in- 
dividual instances in which budding love 
has not blossomed because it would in- 
volve sacrificing a salary, may it not be 
that a high salary for women is proving, 
often, a deterrent to marriage? Rarely 
does a grand passion sweep over either 
man or woman, upsetting in its course all 
prudential considerations. More com- 
monly love dawns gradually and may be 
stiflled by social or family factors, by 
fear for the future and by absorption in 
profession or salary-earning. 

Does the childlessness of the most fav- 
ored women tend to social regeneration 
or to social destruction? As that type 
of higher education and of feminist 



teaching which is resulting so disastrous- 
ly is further extended what will be the 
effect on society, on the race ? For the 
sterility of the picked women of the na- 
tion is a disaster, unless it be a fact that 
the Boston Brahmin is no more valuable 
to the race than the low-browed degen- 
erate, the progeny of Jonathan Edwards 
no better worth creating than the prog- 
eny of the Jukes family. It is no crime 
against womanhood to consider whether 
a trend so powerful as the woman's 
movement is sweeping toward the Isles 
of the Blest or toward Niagara. Mat- 
ters of motherhood are the supreme so- 
cial interest. Can we admit, especially 
we who have been taught by The Sur- 
vey to take a social point of view, that 
salary vs. motherhood is a question for 
"each woman to decide for herself" with- 
out due consideration of the social con- 
sequences of her choice and her ex- 
ample? 

We don't allow each woman to decide 
for herself whether she shall work at 
night, whether she shall rest from fac- 
tory labor before and after her confine- 
ment, whether she shall work twelv<e 
hours a day or whether she shall emulate 
man in toiling underground. All of 
which is a state denial of Mrs. Parson's 
naive logic that because both men and 
women suffer in industry, therefore 
they both suffer alike and no distinction 
should be made concerning them. 

Miss Blackwell rightly boasts that in 
New Zealand women are compelled to 
rest after every A l / 2 hours of work; 
though Dr. Adelaide Lambert objects to- 
my recommendation of a rest each 
month. Everv such limitation is, by so 
much, an exclusion of women from in- 
dustry. But the exclusions do not keep 
pace with the industrial subjugation of 
women. I proposed, in the name of hu- 
manism, that every industry should be 
scientifically investigated to determine 
whether it is suitable to women, that the 
precautions should be taken before and 
not after one or two generations of 
women have been devitalized. "Therein 
have I offended." 

All the industrial regulations for wom- 
en, actual and proposed, are predicated 
on the fact that the mother's share in 
reproduction is much more exhausting 
than the father's. Overwork of the 
father, though deplorable in itself and 
never td be condoned, has a less disas- 
trous effect on offspring than overwork 
of the mother. Compared with the 
mother's prolonged physical drain for 
her child's sake the father's physical 
contribution to the child is casual. Un- 
less that be recognized discussion is im- 
possible. As well try to discuss the law 
of gravitation with one who denies that 
an apple will fall from the tree to the 
ground. 

If child-bearing and child-training is. 
a simple, unexhausting duty, then it of- 
fers no excuse for the father earning 
the family living. But if motherhood be 
as exacting as it is noble, if every mate- 
rial interest is less important to the na- 
tion than the rearing of healthy, happy, 
bright-eyed children, then the national' 
aim should be to exempt mothers from 
the burden of outside wage-earning, to 
put that first among the rights of women. 




Editorials 



EDWARD T. DEVINE 

JANE ADDAMS 
GRAHAM TAYLOR 

Associate Editors 



PAUL U. KELLOGG 
Editor 



HERE'S a pretty how-d'ye-do. Three years ago 
The Survey published on its cover the photo- 
graph of a remarkable sculptured group by Miss 
Eberle. It showed the undraped figure of a little girl on 
the slave block, with commercialized prostitution repre- 
sented in all its reality and grossness in the person of the 
auctioneer. The cover brought down a sheaf of pro- 
tests and discontinuances from a minority who did not 
want to drag the social evil out into the light of day where 
it could be grappled with, if doing so must acquaint young 
and innocent minds of its existence. 

Since then, as before, we have published matter which 
has cost us circulation, contributions, friends. But for 
volume and tenseness, we must go back to the white slave 
cover for anything to compare with the reactions which 
the publication of John Martin's series of articles on The 
Four Ages of Woman have provoked. Certain readers 
wanted them suppressed after the first instalment. Others 
ordered the magazine stopped short shift. One suggested 
the possibility of getting fifty friends to discontinue alto- 
gether. Another saw in the series, and in our publication 
of the results of the investigations of the National Child 
Labor Committee in the beet fields of Colorado, a sinister 
conspiracy on the part of the anti's to turn the vote in 
Iowa. A suffrage journal gave up a column to "mascu- 
lism" in The Survey and the likable policy of a contem- 
porary, so that the blossom end of its editorial nosegay 
was for another, the pin end for us. 

Apparently here, in this other group of readers, at the 
far pole in social point of view from those who protested 
the white slave cover, is as quick reprisal for a journal 
which ventures the inclusion of what is to such readers 
heterodox. Apparently, in our breaking away from the 
old laissez faire philosophy of the last century, we are in 
danger of losing its great corollary of freedom of thought, 
that tolerance which gives the other fellow a chance to be 
heard. But with the women's movement, as with all the 
great social uprisings, much of the mental tautness signi- 
fies merely the strain in bursting old bonds. The way 
toward liberality, like the way toward liberty, is emanci- 
pation — educational, political, economic. 

THE misconception of The Survey's relation to Mr. 
Martin's series affords an opportunity to call atten- 
tion to an integral factor in our working scheme as a co- 
operative journal. The Survey is not an editorial broad- 
side. Our unsigned material is analogous to the news 
columns of a daily paper. The position which The Sur- 
vey takes on the righting issues in its field are brought out 
in the editorial columns ; and herein the very fact that we 
are a journal of social exploration carries with it the 
premise that we are for progress, for experiment and for 
the broadening horizons of life. But one of the clear func- 

86 



tions of The Survey corresponds, in the practical field, 
to the function of the academic journals in the theoretical 
field — as a meeting-place for contributors of articles who 
come at their subject matter from different angles. We by 
no means under-write all the manuscripts we publish over 
signatures. In the field of industry, for example, the labor 
press and the trade journals present their varying creeds. 
In The Survey employers and employes can exchange 
points of view. That the editor does or does not agree 
with an article is not the touchstone which includes or ex- 
cludes it, nor do we feel that the ability of Survey read- 
ers to weigh things for themselves is at so low an ebb 
that it is necessary to do that for them in whole or in part 
in accompanying judgmatic editorials. If we should at- 
tempt such editorial apron strings, there are pages which 
would have to be foot-noted like this : 

*Statistics cited correct, but generalization loose and un- 
convincing. 

+For contrary opinion by a writer of equal standing, see 
Oliver: Dangerous Trades, page 23. 

°We dissent, beginning with line 17, first column, to line 42, 
column 3. 

^Final judgment on this point must await further scientific 
study (i. e., we are open-minded or wobbling as the reader 
pleases). 

**"Fast" — it is difficult from the context to tell whether, as 
applied to women, the author means diet, locomotion, or morals. 
If the implication, however, is that they are to be tied that 
way to the hitching post of custom, we break with him out- 
right. 

As a matter of information, we often describe in an 
introductory editorial note, who the writer is, the general 
bearings of the problem he discusses, the special back- 
ground of experience which entitles him to a hearing, and 
the slant with which he takes up his subject. 

This was the practice applied in Mr. Martin's case. The 
articles were not solicited. He offered them. The ques- 
tion was not whether we would prefer to publish articles 
with a different perspective, but whether we would bar 
out a writer with his experience and his perspective. 

Like One of our critics, we perhaps assumed too much, 
namely that such editors and regular contributors as Miss 
Addams, Miss Wald, Mrs. Kelley and a hundred others 
made it unnecessary to re-convince our readers as to where 
The Survey stood editorially. 

THE subject matter which primarily brought these 
articles within the field of The Survey was their 
discussion of issues affecting the life and labor of the 
women of the wage-earning population. Mr. Martin's 
generalization as to feminism found place merely as re- 
vealing his approach to these issues. 

The reader will have a curious index to the processes of 
his mind by taking the citations in his rejoinder on page 85, 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL i 5 , ipi6 



87 



and following them back to their sources on neighboring 
pages. His glaring failure to do justice to the passages 
from which they are taken is a sufficient commentary on 
his failure to do justice to the general literature and leader- 
ship of the woman's movement. An arraignment, similar 
to his, could be made against democracy ; and editorially, 
it is perhaps sufficient to subscribe here to faith in both. 
We suppose nobody would say that the change in the sta- 
tus of women during the last generation is all to the good ; 
no change ever is, not even giving up the feudal system or 
stagecoaches; but we do not believe Mr. Martin's plan 
would result in repairing the damage. We naturally reject 
the ascription to feminism, as we would reject the ascrip- 
tion to democracy, of all the evils which a half socialized 
industrialism have thrust upon us. The counts made 
against his argument by various contributors — with a lati- 
tude of individual judgment arguing less for fundamental 
cross-purposes than for healthy differences of leadership 
— are telling and explicit and need no repetition here. We 
have in process an answer more compelling than all argu- 
ments, in the lives lived by two generations of freer women 
in the educated and professional groups reflected in these 
writings, and in their concern for the organized up-building 
of the common life of the great body of women. Mr. Mar- 
tin dwarfs the achievement of the one, he would cramp the 
opportunity of the other, when he insists that the sole jus- 
tification and gamut of life for half the race is to be 
summed up in breeding. 

That is the crashing discord of his symphony of human- 
ism. 

Exaggerating his failure to grasp the meaning of life 
is a habit of treatment calculated, as one reader points out, 
to stir one to a pitch of petulance rather than full-grown 
wrath. Metchnikoff, in one of his books, deals with the 
unexplored potentialities of middle age. Compare his stir- 
ring passages with Mr. Martin's reveries of "the autumn 
of life" [The Survey, page 750] in which he sees "aging 
matrons," "pensioners from the home," especially those 
"with doting husbands who have sheltered them from the 
world's roughest blasts," creating "salons in which the 
art of conversation may be revived ;" and with "gentle 
patience" "warning enthusiastic virgin feminists of the 
perils of love's journey." Small wonder, that metaphoric- 
ally, he has his ears boxed. 

THESE habits of mind make it difficult to disentangle 
and hold up for examination some practical sugges- 
tions which enter into his program for wage-earning 
women. Thus he writes that 

"No industry is suitable for any woman nor should be open 
to her, which overstrains her female organs, drains the vitality 
which she will need at her supreme moment or so denatures 
her as to make motherhood distasteful." 

In a writing on health and industry, such a statement 
would elicit support, but here we find it put forward in a 
chapter strangely suggestive of the appropriative specula- 
tion of a farmer on finding a setting hen. 

After describing the general over-work, under-pay and 
devitalizing conditions under which young women are em- 
ployed, his solution is that their wage-earning be limited 
to a brief period of years with the exception of marriage 
at the close. If one were looking for a prescription to 
perpetuate a great, if changing body, of poorly paid, 
monotonous-tasked individuals, this is the way he would 
go about it. All our investigations of wage-earning women 
go to show that in each vocational group they are pre- 
ponderantly in the unskilled levels, kept down by this very 



"futurelessness," and always competing with a glut of 
newcomers, equally untrained, equally without expecta- 
tion of industrial advancement. 

He builds up his program for the married woman of 
the wage-earning group, regardless of the fact that it pre- 
supposes that she will find in the dwindling activities of a 
tenement or factory town home food for the larger growth, 
the keener disciplines, the invigorating forward impulses 
which we may anticipate from the spread of education and 
the ampler income which are the goal of the working 
classes themselves. Rightly he says that a 

"shortening home work-day is as necessary for the mother as 
a shortening factory day for the father. Eight hours for the 
man should not be accompanied by sixteen hours for the 
woman." 

But how do we know what is the final equilibrium 
which should be struck between child-rearing and love- 
making, recreation, vocational work inside and outside the 
home, and the other elements in a normal life, until we 
have eliminated much of our present social waste and un- 
employment, have spread training and efficiency, have 
lifted and stabalized incomes and have, as Mrs. Gilman 
urges, carried one tithe of the invention in equipment and 
service which we take for granted in the factory over into 
the homes about the factory? 

In the third place, Mr. Martin would radically extend 
governmental control over the conditions of women's 
work. He would make a survey of all industries as a pre- 
liminary and would "permit no industry to engage female 
workers unless licensed by a medical and scientific board 
as "non-deleterious — may safely be taken in doses as set 
forth in the license." He would couple with these pro- 
posals as to women's work various forms of social compul- 
sion as to their scheme of life in general. 

His is here, unconsciously, the most expansive argument 
for the extension of woman's suffrage that we have seen 
advanced in recent years. In any such scheme of inter- 
ference with individual freedom by which either men or 
women of the passing generation undertake to lay then 
laws and customs upon the rising one, we are, as Mrs 
Crane points out, conjuring a new aristocracy and a new 
tyranny. Such proposals, no less than the overhanging 
industrial and social evils for which they are offered as 
solution, are business for the women concerned. 

WITH the philosophy of what Olive Schreiner calls 
the "dried-up duck-pond," Mr. Martin has a neatly 
fitted program for women in relation to industry, every 
part in joint with his scheme of familyism, but many of 
them out of joint with the individual and common life of 
which the family is a part. 

The existence of such a program, however, cannot fail 
to show the need for an industrial program by the woman's 
movement itself, less consistent, perhaps, but truer to the 
actualities of life. Exceptional service in the economic 
field has been done by a growing number of women. 
Suffrage states, of which California is perhaps the lead- 
ing example, have shown the pioneering and prowess 
which we can look for, once women who have come to 
challenge things as they are in the field of political rights, 
bring fresh eyes to the life and labor about them. But 
as a whole, the organized forces of the woman's move- 
ment have still squarely to face and think through the 
stubborn intricacies of the livelihood problem. They have 
still to throw their united weight, with anything like the 
fervor they have shown in their political campaigns, into 
the scales for constructive industrial advance. 



:88 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 15, ipid 



ARMENIA 

MUST BE HELPED. 

SO MUST 

PERSIA, PALESTINE, SYRIA. 

FOOD, CLOTHING and MEDICINE are being 
furnished to the STARVE G, DESTITUTE and 
DISEASED by American missionaries and 
consuls. 

ONE DOLLAR FEEDS ONE 
REFUGEE FOR ONE MONTH 

YOUR BENEVOLENCE IS NEEDED NOW. 

Every cent goes for relief. A member of the 
Committee pays all expenses. All contributions 
should be sent to 

CHARLES R. CRANE, Treas.. 

Armenian and Syrian Relief Committee 

70 Fifth Ave., New York City. 

James L. Barton, Ch. Samnel T. Dutton, Secy. 

Beware of Solicitors. 



Classified Advertisements 

Advertising rates aret Hotels and Resorts, 
Apartments, Tours and Travel, Real Estate, twenty 
cents per line. 

"Want" advertisements under the various head- 
ings "Situations Wanted,*' "Help Wanted," etc., five 
cents each word or initial, including the address, 
for each insertion. Address Advertising Depart- 
ment, The Survey, 106 East 22d St., New York City. 



SITUATIONS WANTED 

MAN, executive, fifteen years' experi- 
ence, boys' club, probation and associated 
charities work, seeks opening in larger city. 
Address Social Service Bureau, Richmond, 
Indiana. 

WANTED — Position with civic society or 
chamber of commerce by college graduate, 
student at N. Y. School of Philanthropy 
with experience as foreman and paymaster; 
investigator of institutions and philan- 
thropic societies; Business Manager of 
weekly newspaper, and in magazine circula- 
tion work. Address 2302, Survey. 

WANTED — Position as employment di- 
rector or director of welfare work with 
large industrial concern. Have had experi- 
ence as paymaster and settlement worker. 
Address 2303, Survey. 

FOR THE HOME 

RITI 1 FTIN^. "Five-Cent Meals," 10c; "Fool) 
DULLE.UNJ. Values," 1 0c; " Free-Hand Coolc 
ing," 10c; "The Up-To-Dato Home, Labor Savins Ap- 
pliances," 15c: "The Profession of Home-Making,' 
Home Study, Domestic Science Courses. 100 pp. free. 
American School of Home Economics. 519 West 69th St.. Chicage 

MISCELLANEOUS 



DEPARTMENT FOR SOCIAL 
WORKERS 

of the 
Intercollegiate Bureau of Occupations 

An employment exchange 
The only national clearing house for social 
workers. Organizations desiring workers are 
invited to register their needs. 

Address, Kmma P. Hirth, Manager, 
130 Bait 22nd Street New York City 

The Haven Country Club, Inc. 

Nyaclt-oo-Hudson, New York 

For Professional Women 

Luxurious country house open all the year. Tennis, 
motoring, boating etc. Screened porches. Vegetable 
gardens. Jersey cews. Guest rates moderate, special 
For week-ends. WriU for Booklet, 



JOTTINGS 



Public Comfort, a National League for 
Insistence for Proper Provisions for the 
Common Decencies of Life, is being pro- 
moted by Cressy L. Wilbur of the State 
Health Department, Albany, N. Y. A 
membership card is sent on receipt of a 
postal card request. There are no dues or 
duties. 



Great Britain's economies do not include 
restrictions of health service. The Local 
Government Board has overruled the ob- 
jection of some councilmen that work 
among children belongs to charitable rather 
than to municipal institutions, and is en- 
forcing the regulations regarding measles — 
including a penalty of £100 for non-com- 
pliance and £50 a day for continued neglect. 
Health visitors are shortly to be appointed 
to aid in carrying out these infant-conserva- 
tion plans. 



For a long time the Negroes of St. Louis 
have had no opportunity to receive instruc- 
tion in social service. The St. Louis School 
of Social Economy has recognized the need 
and projected a course of twenty lectures 
in two series. One deals with the con- 
crete methods of social service, the other 
discusses general social problems with par- 
ticular reference to the Negro. A group of 
twenty-five Negroes enlisted from the pro- 
fessional men and women of the city 
have enrolled. The school also announces 
a course of lectures on subnormal children 
by J. E W. Wallin, director of the psycho- 
pathic clinic of the St. Louis public schools. 



According to announcements from the 
American Society for the Control of Can- 
cer, measures adopted in Portsmouth, Eng- 
land, for public education on the subject 
of cancer are already taking effect. These 
measures were adopted in 1913. In that 
year there were recorded 230 deaths from 
this disease in the city. The annual report 
for the year 1914 just published states that 
there were only 197 deaths during the year. 
This decrease is regarded by the state sani- 
tary authorities as justifying their efforts to 
reduce the death-rate from cancer by urg- 
ing early treatment. The methods adopted 
include the monthly publication of articles 
in local newspapers ; printing and distribu- 
tion of a circular by the health department ; 
lectures to mid-wives, nurses and social 
workers in the city, and provision by the 
health department for free microscopic ex- 
aminations and reports of suspected 
growths to aid physicians in diagnosis. 



Nearly 2,000 schools, representing half as 
many separate communities, have already 
arranged for a pageant or dramatic per- 
formance in commemoration of the three 
hundredth anniversary of Shakespeare's 
death, according to figures compiled by the 
Bureau of Education of the Department 
of the Interior. Although the actual anni- 
versary occurs in April, 1916, celebrations 
are to be held throughout the year. Many 
elementary and secondary schools will this 
year devote their entire commencement pro- 
gram to a Shakespeare pageant or play; 
and a number of the summer schools will 
take advantage of the opportunity to give 
outdoor performances of plays by Shake- 
speare or about him. 

In order to assist schools and colleges in 
planning celebrations, the Bureau of Educa- 



tion, in co-operation with the Drama 
League of America, has issued a bulletin 
giving practical suggestions as to kinds of 
celebrations, type performances, lists of 
dances, and designs for simple costuming 
for Shakespearian plays. 



Readers who were struck by the sketch 
A Mother of France, published on the 
cover of The Survey for March 4 may be 
interested to know that the artist, the late 
Louis O. Roty, was the ranking medalist of 
Paris at the time of his death in 1911. 
This sketch was published through the 
courtesy of Victor D. Brenner, whose 
plaques and medals were reproduced in 
The Survey for October 2, 1915, and who 
was ten years ago a student of Roty's in 
Paris. The sketch was made in working 
out the design for a prison reform medal 
which bore on its face the figure of a 
convict and on its back those of the wife 
and child. 



What apparently marks an important 
change of policy on the part of the Turkish 
government in respect to war relief within 
Turkish territory is contained in a cable 
recently received from Constantinople by 
the American Red Cross. This message de- 
clares that the Turkish government "au- 
thorizes American Red Cross, co-operating 
with Red Crescent, to conduct relief work 
for civilians of all races." 

The message declares that there is great 
suffering throughout the country, particu- 
larly at Constantinople and suburbs along 
the shores of Marmora, at Adrianople. 
Bruss and Smyrna. Five hundred thousand 
persons, not comprising Armenian refugees, 
are said to need bread. 

Heretofore, since the outbreak of the 
war, the Turkish government has declined 
to permit any foreign agency to undertake 
the distribution of relief within Turkish 
territory. 



For a dozen years, the schools of this 
and of other countries have set aside May 
18 to commemorate the opening of the first 
Hague peace conference May 18, 1899. This 
year, instead of disregarding peace day be- 
cause half the world is at war, the Ameri- 
can School Peace League is urging teachers 
in all parts of the United States to lay 
special stress in their classrooms May 18 
on the significance of arbitration, mediation, 
and conciliation in preventing destructive 
warfare. 

In a celebration of peace day the league 
would include a description of the perma- 
nent court of arbitration at The Hague and 
show the effectiveness of the court in set- 
tling the fifteen important cases taken be- 
fore it since 1902. It would point out the 
influence that The Hague tribunals have ex- 
erted on the present war — for example, the 
sensitiveness of belligerents to charges of 
violations of international law and the pub- 



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THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 15, 1016 



89 



THE PROBLEMS OF YOUR CITY 

Principles and 

Methods of Municipal 

Administration 

By William Bennett Munro 

'Professor of Atunicipal Government in Harvard 
University 

Professor Munro's new book 
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one is or should be vitally inter- 
ested. In clear and non-technical 
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protection, public lighting, school 
management and municipal finance. 
These subjects are treated in such a 
way that the book cannot fail to 
arouse and stimulate a desire for 
better government and a knowledge 
of how to obtain it. 



At all bookstores, or by mall, $2.25 



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Reason and Passion 

Each has its place in the 
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is a magazine that represents both 
the reason in the hard clear light of 
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anger, of poetry, of joy and griel, that 
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The Masses will give you, in its pictures, its 
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commentaries on passing events, help and 
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What the Catholic Church 
Has Done to Mexico. 

Read What the Catholic Church Has Done to Mexico 
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Send ten cents in silver to the Latin American News 
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This booklet of 32 pages (second edition) is a historical 
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copies were distributed in less than two months. 
Special rates on lots of 100 and 1000. 



lication of reasons for declaring war by 
every warring power, according to The 
Hague convention. Most of all, the league 
would emphasize that the first Hague con- 
vention marked the starting-point of inter- 
national progress and that the re-establish- 
ment of this common tribunal offers the 
only hope to war-stricken Europe. 

Appropriate material for the observance 
of peace day may be obtained from Fanny 
Fern Andrews, secretary of the American 
Peace League, 405 Marlborough street, Bos- 
ton. 



PAMPHLETS 



What Should be Done for Chicago's Women 
Offenders? Recommendations and report 
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The Anti-Protiibition Manual. A summary 
of facts and figures dealing with prohibition. 
1016. National Wholesale Liquor Dea era 
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Unmarried Girls with Sex Experience. Bul- 
letin 1. Price 25c. Bureau for Social Re- 
search, Seybert Institution, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Commission on Building Districts and Re- 
strictions. Tentative Report. March 10, 
1916. Board of Estimate and Apportion- 
ment, Municipal Building, New York city. 

Community Sickness Survey. Rochester, 
N. Y., September, 1915. By Lee K. Frankel, 
sixth vice-president, and Louis I, Dublin, 
statistician, Metropolitan Life Insurance 
Company, New York city. Price 5 cents. 
Government Printing Office, Washington, 
D .C. Reprinted from Public Health Reports. 

Free Municipal Clinics for School Chil- 
dren. A review of the work of the school 
children's nose and throat clinics in New 
Y'ork city and conditions which necessitate 
such institutions. By .1. II. Berkowltz. Re- 
print series No. 41, February, 101(5. Bureau 
of Public Health Education, Department of 
Health, corner Center and Walker streets, 
New York city. 

Disinfection as a Factor in the Control of 
Communicable Diseases. By B. F. Knause, 
M.D. Reprint series No. 4:t. March, 1916. 
Bureau of Public Health Education, Depart- 
ment of Health, corner Center and Walker 
streets, New York city. 

Kindergarten Training Schools. By Nina 
C. Vandewalker, head of kindergarten de- 
partment. State Normal School, Milwaukee, 
Wis. Department of the Interior, Bureau 
of Education. Bulletin, 1916, No. 5. Price 
10 cents. Government Printing Office, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

A Clinical and Sanitary Study of the Fur 
and Hatters' Fur Trade. By Louis I. Har- 
ris, M.D., chief, division of industrial hygiene. 
Monograph series. No. 12. December, 1915. 
Bureau of Public Health Education, Depart- 
ment of Health, 139 Center street, New 
York city. 

A Brief for the Keating Owen Bill. By 
Thomas F. Parkinson, Legislative Drafting 
Bureau, Columbia University. Price 50 
cents. National Child Labor Committee, 105 
East 22 street, New York city. 

The Inspection of Weights and Measures in 
Baltimore City. Report No. 1. January 
31, 1916. Bureau of State and Municipal 
Research, 728 Equitable Building, Baltimore, 
Md. 

Farm Mortgage Credit in New Hampshire. 
By Guy C. Smith, department of Economics. 
Arts and Science Research Bulletin, No. 2. 
New Hampshire College, Durham, New 
Hampshire. 

Why the Smith-Hughes Bill (S. 703 — H. R. 
11250) Now Before Congress Providing 
Federal Aid to Vocational Education 
Should Receive Your Support. Distributed 
by the National Society for the Promotion 
of Industrial Education, 140 West 42 street, 
New York city. 

The Evolution of the Training of the 
Worker in Industry. By Charles A. Pros- 
ser, former secretary, National Society for 
the Promotion of Industrial Education, 140 
West 42 street, New York city. Reprinted 
from the Proceedings of the Department of 
Superintendence of the National Association. 



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V 





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APRIL 22, 1916 





A State Aged 1 00 

Glimpses of Social Progress in Indiana 

During One Hundred Years 

By Alexander Johnson 



imiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiKiiiiiiifiiiiiiiii 



frs 



PRICE IO CENTS 



VOL. XXXVI 



NUMBER 4 




Slllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllis. 



CONTENTS/or APRIL 22, 1916 The gist 0/ it 



BEULAH KENNARD 
FRANK A. MANNY 



VOL. XXXVI NO. 4 

77/£ COMMON WELFARE 

To Control Venereal Disease - 

For a State Housing Experiment - 

Gary School Plan Extended in New York - 

Pioneer Society With a New Program 

Better Living For Southern Mountaineers 

Health Centers As an Aid to Democracy - 

"Up and Down the Liberty Pole" - 

Ten Thousand Children in Industry - 

Swinging Around the Circle Against Militarism 
CONTRIBUTED ARTICLES 

A State Aged 100. Glimpses of Social Progress in Indiana During One 
Hundred Years ------ Alexander johnson 

Wouldn't You Think, a poem - charlotte perkins gilman 

BOOK REVIEWS ------------ 

EDITORIALS 

Who's Who Among Barbarians -------- 

The Civic Martyrdom of Dr. Sachs - graham taylor 

In Memoriam, a poem ------ edith s. reider 

COMMUNICATIONS - - - - 

CALENDAR OF CONFERENCES - - ... 



91 
91 
92 
92 
92 
93 
93 
94 
95 



97 
101 
102 

105 

105 

107 
108 



SURVEY ASSOCIATES Inc. PUBLISHERS 

ROBERT W. de FOREST President 
ARTHUR P. KELLOGG Secretary FRANK TUCKER Treasurer 

PUBLICATION OFFICE WESTERN OFFICE 

105 East 22d Street New York 2559 Michigan Ave., Chicago 

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only upon request. Copyright, 1916, by Survey Associates, Inc. Entered as second class matter 
March 25, 1909, at the post office at New York, N. Y., under the Act of March 3, 1879. 




Always in the van! It's 
our move — on April 22. 
Swapping dark corners 
for sunshiny windows. 
The latchstring is out. 



THE SURVEY 

New Address: 112 East 19 Street, New York 
Same Telephone: Gramercy 490 



WITH PUBLIC HEALTH work as the 
channel of effort, a new scheme of neigh- 
borhood work is to be tried out. The plan 
has grown out of the experience and ideas 
of Mr. and Mrs. Wilbur Phillips who are 
the secretaries of the National Social Unit 
Organization, launched last week with half 
of a three years' budget of $135,000 already 
raised. Page 93. 

THE PROBLEM of happier living in the 
mountains of the South must be solved 
through industrial education, co-operative 
marketing, rural hygiene and sanitation, and 
good roads. The Southern Mountain Work- 
ers are grappling with it. Page 92. 

STARTING WITH a great mass meeting 
in Carnegie Hall, New York, the forces 
opposed to militarism invaded the middle 
West, the character of the meetings varying 
according to the relation of each city's trade 
to the business of war. Page 95. 

THIRTY-FIVE SALESWOMEN, includ- 
ing one grandmother, danced "Pop goes the 
Weasel," while an authority from Columbia 
University looked on and had more fun 
than he had had for months. Incidentally 
a boy of thirteen saw his mother compete 
for honors in his own field — which seems 
to have a physiological bearing on women 
in industry. Page 93. 

HEIGHTS AND WEIGHTS of 10,000 
children who marched from school into in- 
dustry are analyzed. Page 94. 

"SUCH SUPREME devotion to a cause as 
the Jewish religious spirit can beget, such 
self-sacrifice as the Russian oppression of 
the Jew incites, such idealism as only the 
Orient inspires, such sensitivity as the her- 
itage of suffering weaves into the very 
texture of the soul, such humanitarian 
achievement as is possible only in America 
—all combined to make the achieving life 
and the tragic death of Dr. Sachs profound- 
ly impressive," writes Graham Taylor. Page 
105. 

100,000 MORE SCHOOL children in New 
York are to have the benefit of Mr. Wirt's 
Gary school plan. Page 92. 

ALEXANDER JOHNSON tells the story 
of Indiana's century of social progress — in 
which his own life played a far bigger part 
than the article indicates. Telling the yarn 
is only one of his ways of renewing his 
youth. Page 97. 

FREDERIC ALMY of the Buffalo Charity 
Organization Society is the choice of the 
nominating committee for president of the 
1917 National Conference of Charities and 
Correction. The committee also nominates 
Joseph Lee for first vice-president. Julia C. 
Lathrop for second vice-president, and 
1 Emil W. Leipziger for third vice- 
president. The committee on a change of 
name asks for suggestions, which should be 
sent to the chairman. Graham Taylor. 955 
Grand avenue, Chicago. 




TO CONTROL VENEREAL 
DISEASE 

A YEAR ago the authorities of Cleve- 
land set aside the former nurses' 
home at City Hospital to be remodelled 
for venereal disease wards, and the work 
was begun but not completed. This mat- 
ter was discussed at a recent conference 
upon practical measures for the control 
of venereal disease, held in the Chamber 
of Commerce under the auspices of the 
Cleveland Department of Health, and 
with representatives from the medical 
professions, health department, women's 
clubs and other civic bodies. 

The conference appointed a commit- 
tee to interview Mayor H. L. Davis and 
request the completion and operation of 
these venereal wards; and further, to re- 
quest the mayor to provide medical as- 
sistance so that the health department 
might institute advisory service, means 
of free laboratory diagnosis, and also 
social service work for patients suffer- 
ing from venereal disease. 

Another committee was appointed to 
confer with the Board of Education and 
other bodies regarding facilities for sex 
education adapted to all classes of peo- 
ple. As a result, the city administra- 
tion has promised that these wards in 
City Hospital should be opened as quick- 
ly as possible, undoubtedly by August, 
1916. 

Dr. W. F. Snow, general secretary of 
the American Social Hygiene Associa- 
tion, told the conference of measures for 
controlling venereal disease instituted in 
various parts of the country. Dr. R. H. 
Bishop, health commissioner of Cleve- 
land, showed the present need of the 
health department in order to deal ade- 
quately with venereal disease. 

"The significance of this conference, 
however," writes Dr. Snow, "depends 
not so much on what was done as upon 
the fact that the audience was very 
largely composed of women, with a wom- 
an, Mrs. Wilbur Warner, as chairman ; 
and that these women discussed the sub- 
ject frankly as a public health matter, 
urging the mayor to consider as a public 
policy the appropriation of $40,000 or 
more annually, to provide for this work." 

Volume XXXVI, No. 4. 




'T^HE statue of Gloria Victis, a fa- 
vorite of Dr. E. L. Trudeau, whose 
autobiography is reviewed on page 103 
of this issue, was the creation of 
Mercie, the French sculptor. The sort 
of victory the sculptor tried to im- 
mortalize represented to Dr. Trudeau 
the struggle of his sanatorium pa- 
tients against tuberculosis. It shows 
a young gladiator who has received 
his death blow while facing the 
enemy. As he falls, Victory with 
outstretched wings catches and bears 
him upward. 



FOR A STATE HOUSING 
EXPERIMENT 

TWO propositions of a character 
new in this country are now pend- 
ing in the Massachusetts legislature. If 
enacted into law they will initiate state 
undertakings in providing homes for citi- 
zens and teaching agriculture to families. 
Both are sponsored by the Massachusetts 
Homestead Commission. 

Authorization for the state to take land 
and develop housing for the relief of 
congestion was secured through an 
amendment to the constitution approved 
at the last election by a vote of 384,968 
to 95,148. The amendment had received 
a large favorable vote at the previous 
sesson of the legislature. 

The bill now under consideration car- 
ries out the purpose of this amendment 
by providing $50,000 for homesteads or 
small houses with plots of ground for 
mechanics, laborers and others in the 
suburbs of cities and towns. If the plan 
is put into operation these homesteads 
are to be sold outright on some suitable 
amortization plan yet to be adopted. In 
carrying out the undertaking the com- 
mission will, according to the measure, 
formulate terms and conditions, subject 
to the approval of the governor and his 
council and subject to the provision that 
no land shall be sold for less than its 
cost. The commission counts costs to 
include for each lot a proper proportion 
of all overhead expenses. The appro- 
priation will make possible, in the esti- 
mation of the commission, "a moderate, 
conservative, carefully conducted experi- 
ment or demonstration, in order that ex- 
perience may show what the Common- 
wealth may do along these lines with 
safety to itself and benefit to the public." 

The bill has received a favorable re- 
port from the Committee on Social Wel- 
fare and is now pending in the Com- 
mittee on Ways and Means. 

The second bill authorizes any city to 
acquire land for the purpose of teaching 
agriculture to its inhabitants, including 
school children, adults and family groups. 
The commission sees a possible danger 
to the homestead movement if many per- 
sons inexperienced in farming or garden- 



91 



9 2 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 22, ipi6 



ing fail to "make good" when enabled 
to settle on the land. The bill is designed 
to prevent such failure. 

If the bill is passed by the legislature 
it would take effect in a city or town 
only after a favorable vote by the citi- 
zens. The work thus authorized would 
be carried out by the local school com- 
mittee subject to the approval and super- 
vision of the state board of education. 
This bill has already passed the legis- 
lature, but after reaching the governor 
was recalled from him for some perfect- 
ing amendments. 

The commission believes that these 
two measures will do much to promote 
the "back to the soil" movement in 
Massachusetts. That there is a desire 
on the part of people in the congested 
parts of the larger cities to escape to 
suburban or rural life is evident, the 
commission feels, from the results of a 
canvass of 500 typical tenement families 
in Boston. No less than 168, with chil- 
dren numbering 896, were anxious to 
make the change. Two insurmountable 
obstacles confront them — lack of the 
knowledge necessary to conduct any 
agriculture venture and lack of the cap- 
ital to carry the family over to the time 
of production. The carrying out of the 
purposes of the two measures now pend- 
ing in the legislature would help to over- 
come these obstacles, the commission be- 
lieves, and would start this country to- 
ward progress along lines in which suc- 
cess has been attained by practically 
every European nation, as well as Aus- 
tralian states and some South American 
countries. 

GARY SCHOOL PLAN EX- 
TENDED IN NEW YORK 

A NOTABLE victory for the Gary 
plan of duplicate schools was won 
in New York city last week when the 
board of education voted unanimously, 
though not without strong initial oppo- 
sition by a minority of members, to ex- 
tend this plan or an adaptation of it to 
100,000 more public schools pupils. 
Adaptations of the plan carried out 
under the direction of Superintendent 
William Wirt, of Gary, Ind., have al- 
ready been extended to 50,000 pupils. 

The action of the board will bring the 
work-study-and-play curriculum evolved 
by Superintendent Wirt to congested 
school districts in many parts of the city. 
Between 140,000 and 150,000 pupils are 
attending school on part time now be- 
cause of insufficient accommodations in 
existing buildings. It is estimated that 
the extension granted last week, which 
bore the approval of Mr. Wirt and of 
the board of superintendents, will, if it 
goes into effect next fall, eliminate ap- 
proximately two-thirds of the part time 
that would otherwise exist then. 

The plans call for the expenditure of 
$3,847,695 on new buildings, and altera- 



tion, repair and equipment of present 
buildings. 

PIONEER SOCIETY WITH 
A NEW PROGRAM 

ELEVEN years ago Dr. Prince A. 
Morrow founded the first society in 
this country for the spread of sex edu- 
cation, or sex hygiene as it was then 
called. He and his associates were criti- 
cised and ridiculed. But public opinion 
has changed. Societies for sex educa- 
tion exist everywhere. In 1913 the 
American Federation for Sex Hygiene 
combined with the American Vigilance 
Association and formed the American 
Social Hygiene Association, which has 
since waged a nation wide campaign for 
more light on sex matters. 

A new advance in this warfare against 
silence was made last week when the 
society founded by Dr. Morrow out- 
lined an enlarged program for the com- 
ing year. First it changed its name from 
the New York Society of Sanitary and 
Moral Prophylaxis to the New York 
Social Hygiene Society. Then it named 
definite things that it hopes to accom- 
plish. 

"Our work will be twofold," said Mrs. 
Frederick H. Whitin, who has been ex- 
ecutive secretary of the society for three 
years. "One will be the public health 
aspect, the other the educational. The 
public health work will be directed at 
the care and treatment of venereal dis- 
ease. First we want to reorganize and 
standardize clinics for the treatment of 
venereal disease. Out of 27 clinics 
visited last year only 7 could be ap- 
proved. Again we want to secure the 
establishment of pay clinics. These are 
vitally necessary for the man or woman 
of moderate income. Wealthy people 
with venereal disease go to specialists. 
The clinics that exist are free and are 
patronized for the most part by the poor. 
The man of moderate income goes today 
chiefly to the quack. We want to replace 
the quack with the pay clinic. 

"We intend also to try to strengthen 
the educational and follow-up work of 
clinics. There should be social service 
work in connection with every venereal 
disease clinic. If cures are to be effec- 
tive, the patients must be followed up 
and induced to come back to the clinic 
repeatedly. Moreover, if a man be mar- 
ried, his wife should be subject to in- 
spection. If the wife is infected, the 
children ought to be examined. All this 
means continuous and tactful visiting 
by a trained social service worker. 

"Why should not the question of ven- 
ereal disease be considered in the parol- 
ing or release of women prisoners? If 
such prisoners are in a contagious state, 
perhaps they ought not to be paroled. 
If they are diseased but not contagious 
they ought to be compelled to undergo 
treatment and to report periodically to 
the paroling authorities until cured. 

"On the educational side our object is 
the wider presentation of social hygiene 
before the schools, the churches, the 



forums and the homes of the city. 

"We shall lay stress also upon a cam- 
paign for further legislation. Part of 
this will be in the direction of controlling 
venereal quack advertising." 

Mrs. Whitin will take charge of the 
educational phase of the society's work 
and Frank Osborne, public health officer 
at Orange, N. J., has been engaged as 
joint executive secretary and will take 
charge of the public health work. 

BETTER LIVING FOR SOUTH- 
ERN MOUNTAINEERS 

THE social needs of the dwellers in 
the Southern Highlands were con- 
sidered at the recent fourth annual Con- 
ference of Southern Mountain Workers 
held at Knoxville, Tennessee. Much of 
the discussion followed along lines set 
forth in a pamphlet, published as a re- 
sult of the previous conference, giving 
the views of those who have studied 
conditions first hand. 

Almost all these observers stressed as 
fundamental the need of industrial edu- 
cation which would fit the mountain folk 
to develop their agricultural resources, 
co-operate in marketing fruit and vege- 
tables, and make a happy living out of 
their region. In addition many urged the 
necessity for better rural hygiene and 
sanitation, made possible by the ap- 
pointment of "full time" health officers 
and visiting nurses. The pamphlet 
brings out the isolation of these moun- 
taineers, their consequent lack of edu- 
cational resources, and their strong in- 
dividualism. A way to bring about a 
richer social life, suggested over and 
over again in the pamphlet, is the build- 
ing of good roads. Over these, it is held, 
the way leads to the school, the church 
and wider social contacts. 

A committee was appointed by the 
Conference with power to select a com- 
mission to make a survey of the 
mountain field and to report its findings 
at the next annual meeting. 

At the meeting were representatives of 
fourteen denominational boards, the 
Rural Organization Service of the U. S. 
Bureau of Education, Departments of 
Education and Health of Tennessee, the 
Town and Country Nursing Service of 
the American Red Cross, the Southern 
Industrial Educational Association. Y. M. 
C. A., the Russell Sage Foundation, as 
well as teachers and ministers from 
mountain schools and colleges. 

Community service was the general 
topic of the Conference. Its purpose and 
spirit — namely, co-operative action to 
meet recognized needs, without the sac- 
rifice of anything that the various de- 
nominations and agencies deem essen- 
tial — were well reflected in the address 
of Dr. William Goodell Frost of Bcrea 
College: "In What Way? May Chris- 
tians of Different Denominations Co- 
operate in a Rural Community? Other 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 22, 1916 



93 



addresses of especial importance were by 
Cora Wilson Stewart,, founder of the 
Moonlight Schools, and Dr. E. C. Bran- 
son, professor of rural sociology, Uni- 
versity of North Carolina. 

John C. Campbell, secretary of the 
Southern Highland Division of the Rus- 
sel Sage Foundation, Asheville, North 
Carolina, was named chairman of the 
executive committee and presiding officer 
of the next annual conference. 

HEALTH CENTERS AS AN AID 
TO DEMOCRACY 

HEALTH center experiments in half 
a dozen cities are the latest mani- 
festation of the district idea in social 
work which has distinguished the settle- 
ment movement, district relief, district 
nursing associations, etc. The National 
Social Unit Organization which was 
launched last week in New York is a 
large scale experiment of this sort. The 
district problem is of course on the one 
hand, to bring to bear in a given neigh- 
borhood the whole philanthropic, sani- 
tary and civic resources of a city; and 
on the other hand, to create a focal 
point through which the initiative and 
social interest of the dwellers round 
about can express itself. The central 
bureaus, through which charities have 
been organized reflect the first of these 
aims; the neighborhood work of the set- 
tlements, the second. 

The promoters of the National Social 
Unit Organization believe that the time 
has come for a trying out, with larger 
resources and a more coherent program 
than heretofore has been available, a 
third plan which would have the neigh- 
borhood relations of the settlements, but 
would center in the hands of a local staff 
the various lines of activity which are 
now carried on by the representatives 
of perhaps a dozen city organizations 
visiting a local district. They believe 
that such a center could gather complete 
and current social statistics — on infant 
mortality, for example — more quickly, 
dependably, and serviceably than any 
bureau of health ; and that by organizing 
service groups (such as the doctors of 
the neighborhood who take maternity 
cases), professional standards could be 
raised, and a new and more democratic 
organization of the vocational and social 
forces in the community would result. 

The genesis of the plan lay in the work 
of Wilbur C. Phillips, several years ago 
under the New York Milk Committee, 
and later in his work with Mrs. Phillips 
in the district organization carried out 
in Milwaukee under the Child Welfare 
Commission. For the last two or three 
years Mr. and Mrs. Phillips have been 
spending their time in promoting the idea, 
and the meeting at the home of Mrs. 
Willard Straight, at which half of a 
three years' budget of $135,000 was an- 
nounced, is a result. 



The officers of the association are as 
follows: President, Gifford Pinchot, 
Milford, Pa.; First Vice-President, 
Oliver P. Newman, Washington ; Second 
Vice-President, George W. Coleman, 
Boston ; Treasurer, John Joy Edson, 
Washington; Chairman Occupational 
Council, Henry W. Bruere, New York; 
Vice-Chairman Occupational Council, 
Dr. George M. Kober, Washington ; 
Chairman, General Council, Mrs. J. 
Borden Harriman, Washington; Vice- 
Chairman, General Council, Mrs. Charles 
Tiffany, New York ; Secretaries, Wilber 

C. Phillips and Elsie La G. C. Phillips, 
New York. 

A number of national advisory com- 
mittees are being organized, the chair- 
men of which will make up an occupa- 
tional council. These committees, with 
their chairmen, include : Health, Dr. 
S. S. Goldwater, former Health Commis- 
sioner, New York city; Nursing, Lillian 

D. Wald, head-worker Henry Street 
Settlement, New York; Relief, Porter R. 
Lee, New York School of Philanthropy; 
Children's Work, C. C. Carstens, secre- 
tary and general agent, Massachusetts 
Society for Prevention of Cruelty to 
Children; Recreation, Rowland Haynes, 
secretary of Committee on Recreation 
New York Board of Estimate and Ap- 
portionment; Neighborhood Organiza- 
tion, John Elliott, head-worker, Hudson 
Guild; Statistics, Dr. Cressy L. Wilbur, 
former chief of Bureau of U. S. Census, 
now Register of Vital Statistics New 
York State Health Department ; Hous- 
ing, John Ihlder, Ellen Wilson Homes 
Company, Washington. 

There are special advantages in de- 
veloping the work in the District of Col- 
umbia, both because of its national bear- 
ings, and because Washington has no 
ordinary ward or municipal organization; 
and such a plan would, if successful, 
bring into the life of the capital new 
types of civic activity in which the whole 



citizenship could participate. The plan, 
however, is still open to cities through 
the country with the understanding that 
the work will be undertaken in the com- 
munity which shows strongest interest. 
With respect to the organization, Mr. 
Phillips says: 

"The purpose of the new organization 
is to finance and encourage in some 
American community the development 
by that community, with the counsel and 
advice of national social experts, of a 
model program for community organiza- 
tion, the approach being made through 
the channel of public health with the 
child as the point of attack. 

"The plan grows out of the convic- 
tion which has been increasing among 
social experts within the past few years 
that no social problem — so-called — can be 
solved in isolation — that a merging of 
effort is necessary, and that this can best 
be accomplished through intensive and 
democratic organization on a district 
basis. 

"In its relation to the community in 
which the experiment is undertaken, the 
National Social Unit Organization will 
serve in an advisory capacity, making 
available for the work the best of the 
nation's social experience. This will be 
achieved through the creation of na- 
tional advisory committees; of statis- 
ticians; relief workers; doctors; nurses, 
and so on." 

Mr. Pinchot's interest in the program 
lies in the fact that it links up with his 
work on "conservation." "Conservation 
has never in my mind been limited to 
questions of forestry and water-power," 
he says. "Hugely important though they 
are, their importance lies not in them- 
selves but in the fact that they are a 
means of life. The conservation of 
human life in terms of health and happi- 
ness is the real goal, of course, and this 
program has appealed to me as construc- 
tive in concentrating many forces upon 
that fundamental end." 



44 Up and Down the Liberty Pole' 

By Betdah Kennard 

NEW YORK DEPARTMENT STORE EDUCATION ASSOCIATION 



THE scene last night was a gym- 
nasium, the actors thirty-five 
saleswomen from one of our New 
York department stores and they were 
exercising in order to overcome the 
special evils and weaknesses incident to 
that occupation. It was the "open night" 
for visitors but the program of the even- 
ing was carried out as usual. 

First the girls marched in the usual 
way showing a spring and vitality hardly 
to be expected after standing nearly 
nine hours behind a counter. Next they 
spread out in ranks on the floor for the 
"mat" exercises. In this relaxed posi- 
tion they flexed and extended their 
knees and pointed their toes gracefully 



and rhythmically to music. Next a sit- 
ting posture in rows facing each other 
one girl grasping firmly the toes of her 
opponent who swayed back until she 
touched the floor and up again without 
moving her folded arms. The mat exer- 
cise ended with deep breathing. Then 
springing to their feet they swung 
through an English contra dance, "Pop 
goes the weasel," whose mazes were too 
intricate for a casual visitor to follow: 
Up and down the liberty pole, 
The monkey chased the weasel, 
That's the way the money goes, 
Pop goes the weasel. 
When the visitor was out of breath 
watching, however, the real fun of the 



94 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 22, 1916 



evening began. First came German Bat 
Ball in which the teams were divided 
according to weight. The light weights 
won in the fourth inning the score being 
sixteen to ten. Arch Goal Ball was still, 
more exciting and the score three to 
nothing with weight more evenly di- 
vided. There was no need for silence in 
this game. Verbal assistance was offered 
to each contestant who failed to get her 
ball into the basket with the first throw. 
As the witty member of the group hap- 
pened to come from the toilet goods de- 
partment the remarks were apt to have 
a cosmetic flavor. 

"Why didn't you get it over the way 
you sell soap" or "She sells the best 
hair tonic in New York." The play 
seemed such an excellent antidote for 
labor in that "stop gap" period preced- 
ing marriage that I was shocked to hear 
the instructor announce after a particu- 
larly sportsmanlike throw. "This lady 
is a grandmother." Then to our amaze- 
ment she continued — "Five members of 
the class are mothers and three have 
their children in the room watching them 
play." It was not a suitable time to ask 
the ages of the class members but I 
learned afterward that only three were 
under the fatal line marked "twenty 
three," one had been in that store twenty- 
five years and several others were ap- 
proaching the autumn of life which the 
before-mentioned grandmother had 
reached. 

Many questions were in my mind as 



I watched them play. Was the son-in- 
law at home with the baby while baby's 
mother watched grandmother play arch 
goal ball? On the other hand if the 
baby's grandmother is able to play goal 
ball, should she spend her autumnal days 
playing with the baby and giving advice 
to the younger generation while son-in- 
law pays her bills? It is perplexing. 

Again what effect does it have on a 
thirteen year old boy to see his mother 
competing for honors in his own field? 
As a great moral and social problem I 
give it up but it certainly has a physio- 
logical bearing on women in industry. 
One of the three men present was an 
authority from Columbia University who 
said first that he had not had so much 
fun for months and second that the class 
beat the average college girl in posture 
and in goal throwing. 

At ten o'clock, after an hour and a 
half of constant activity one of the girls 
who was asked if she were not tired 
said "No indeed I always come tired 
but this rests me." 

The one question asked by the author- 
ity from Columbia was "Are not these 
women in exceptionally good health ?" 
They are but how much of their vitality 
is due to good wages which mean good 
food and comfortable homes, how much 
to exceptionally sanitary conditions in 
the store, how much to the daily exer- 
cises which many of them take under 
direction and how much to the prophy- 
lactic value of play"? Who knows? 



Ten Thousand Children in Industry 



By Frank A. Manny 



ACCORDING to Ruskin "In great 

/\ states, children are always try- 
X A. ing t0 remain children, and the 
parents wanting to make men and women 
of them. In vile states, the children are 
always wanting to be men and women, 
and the parents to keep them children." 
He does not attempt in this connection 
to label the state in which both genera- 
tions and economic conditions urge chil- 
dren into industry at the earliest age the 
law permits. 

Drs. Lee K. Frankel and Louis I. Dub- 
lin have accomplished an important serv- 
ice in a study of ten thousand children 
who took out working papers in New 
York city between July, 1914, and April, 
1915/ 

The authors call attention to the limi- 
tations of this study of early specializa- 
tion which needs for comparison a rec- 
ord of an equal number of New York 



'Heights and Weights of New York City 
Children 14-16 Years of Age; A Study of 
Measurements of Boys and Girls Granted 
Employment Certificates, by Lee K. 
Frankel, Ph.D., and Louis T. Dublin, Ph.D., 
Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, 
1915. 



city children who have an opportunity 
for a more prolonged period of growth 
before assuming the responsibility of self 
support. But certain facts stand out 
very definitely : 

53.7 per cent of the 10,043 children are 
boys. 

46.3 per cent are girls. 

The group of English, Irish and 
Scotch furnishes the highest proportion 
of boys — 61 per cent, next comes the 
native born of native parentage 57.4. 
The Italians send the highest percentage 
of girls to work — 52.4. 

About three-eighths of the children are 
in the first half-year of age, 14 to 14^4, 
about one-fourth in each of the next 
two half-years and a little more than 
one-eighth range from 15^ to 16 years. 

In school about one-third are from the 
lower seventh grade, nearly another 
third are elementary school graduates 
and the remaining third are distributed 
among the other school years including 
about 6 per cent from the high schools. 

59.2 per cent of the boys and 56.2 per 
cent of the girls took advantage of the 
first opportunity possible on the basis of 
age and schooling to secure working 
papers. 



When we turn to measurements of 
height and weight the departure from the 
results of standard studies of unselected 
children are evident. Thus members of 
the lower seventh grade are frequently 
taller and heavier than those of higher 
grades. The stronger children in a 
family are evidently chosen first to be 
sent to work while the more delicate are 
allowed to continue in school for a longer 
period. The well established relation- 
ship between physical and intellectual de- 
velopment suggests the added burden 
placed upon the upper school grades by 
this very natural adjustment. 

The Jews make up the largest group 
with 36.6 per cent of the total. As the 
proportion of Jews in the city is only 
about 20 per cent this race furnishes 
nearly twice its normal proportion of 
boys and girls who go to work at an 
early age. The Italians come second 
furnishing 18.3 per cent of the ten thou- 
sand. Third in rank are the native born 
of native parentage with 16.1 per cent. 
The British form 10.9 per cent and the 
Germans 9.5 per cent. The German boys 
are tallest followed closely by the Ameri- 
can with the British as third. The Jews 
keep close to the average for the whole 
group while the Italians run below. 

In weight the Jewish and German 
boys run above the average, the Ameri- 
cans are below for the fifteenth and 
above for the sixteenth years, the Ital- 
ians fluctuate about the average while 
the British run steadily below. 

A most important consideration is the 
growth made during the two years. In 
height the American, German and British 
boys in the order named run above the 
average while the German and Ameri- 
can also run above the average in 
growth in weight. 

In a classification of the Jewish and 
Italian children on the basis of American 
and foreign birth 53 per cent of the 
former and 62 per cent of the latter are 
American born. Among the Jews prac- 
tically in every case the advantage in im- 
provement in height and weight is with 
those born in America. This condition 
is less marked among the Italians con- 
firming the conclusions of Dr. Boas in 
1911 that American city life offers more 
favorable development for the east Euro- 
pean Hebrew than it does for the south 
Italian. 

An appendix is given showing a com- 
parison between the measurements of 
these New York city children and the 
same group in five other cities in the 
state. The up-state children are shown 
to be inferior to those in New York city 
except in the measurements of girls' 
height. 

These are some of the results of the 
study. Many others will appear as one 
reads the entire report. A table is de- 
veloped which furnishes the examiner 
standards of height and weight to be 
used in deciding unusual cases. 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 22, 1916 



95 



Swinging Around the Circle Against 

Militarism 



WHEN President Wilson spoke in 
St. Louis, on his recent tour ad- 
vocating unusual naval and military pre- 
paredness, he put it up to those who dif- 
fer with him to hire large halls and set 
their case before the public. This chal- 
lenge was accepted by the Anti-"Pre- 
paredness" Committee, and on April 6, 
at Carnegie Hall, in New York, it held 
the first massmeeting in a cross-country 
series. The "truth about preparedness" 
and "democracy against militarism" were 
its slogans. 

Two days before each meeting, each 
city has been visited by an advance agent 
in the person of the stupendous but ex- 
tinct armored dinosaur [see The Survey 
for April, page 37] dug up long since by 
the anthropologists and now reproduced 
nr papier-mache and carted about. In the 
wake of the meetings, has been left in 
each city a nucleus of people who will 
endeavor to strike an equilibrium in 
local public opinion against the various 
defense, security and preparedness or- 
ganizations which have spread rapidly in 
the last twelve months. 

The tour marks a new stage in this 
counter agitation. Therefore, the new 
name, the American Union Against Mili- 
tarism, and the new scheme of organiza- 
tion which changes from a small com- 
mittee to a widespread membership 
organization. At the New York meeting, 
the keynote of the tour was struck by 
the chairman of the union, Lillian D. 
Wald, of the Henry Street Settlement: 

"I hardly dare hope that I can convey 
with any degree of adequacy the causes 
for uneasiness, nay, the causes of sor- 
row and unhappiness of men and women 
who see in the military propaganda of 
the day a great peril to the America that 



has the passionate love of its true 
patriots. It is not for rich America nor 
for successful America that its people 
would gladly lay down their lives, but 
for the America of democracy, the 
America of ideals, the America that 
stands for the things essential to a world 
of love and order and law. 

"Under the seemingly reasonable term 
of 'preparedness,' militarism has, In- 
vaded us from every side and even 
marched into our schools, threatening 
by legislative enactment, where exhorta- 
tion failed to establish conscription there. 
It has attempted to substitute the abso- 
lutism of military control for wholesome, 
sane preparedness, for the service of a 
citizen. 

"Extraordinary and unprecedented 
measures have been taken to promote a 
public demand for military and naval ex- 
pansion, and these have brought in their 
train hysteria and the camp-followers of 
self-interest. 

"But the serious cost to the nation — 
nay, to the world — is the cost to democ- 
racy in this sinister reversion to the war 
system which Europe herself is, as we 
hope, on the verge of repudiating. 

"The clamor has confused many right 
thinking people who, in their love of 
country, unconsciously lend themselves 
to this travesty of that which makes 
their country dear ! 

"Because preparedness has been used 
as a synonym for militarism, the emerg- 
ency committee deemed it right to come 
out against that kind of preparedness, 
and to employ their influence in urging 
that people understand that it is in 
reality militarism that is being pressed 
upon us. . . . 

"The committee as such has not even 
suggested or has it stood at any time for 
disarmament or for peace-at-any-price. 

"Were it not significant of the extent 



PLATFORM OF THE AMERICAN UNION AGAINST MILITARISM 



TO FIGHT MILITARISM 

By demanding honesty and effi- 
ciency in our present army and 
navy, while opposing increased 
armament, with its inevitable chal- 
lenge to a coalition of nations 
against us. 

By establishing government manu- 
facture of munitions. 
By keeping military training out of 
the public schools and fighting the 
idea of military and industrial con- 
scription. 

TO BUILD TOWARD WORLD FEDERATION 

By declaring our national intention 
never to acquire territory by ag- 
gression. 
By exposing the exploitation of 



weaker nations by commercial in- 
terests operating under our own or 
foreign flags. 

By establishing a joint government 
commission, representing Japan, 
China and the United States, to de- 
vise a solution of the questions at 
issue between America and the 
Orient. 

By promoting a conference, offi- 
cial or unofficial, of the twenty-one 
American Republics, to devise 
means other than military for pre- 
serving the republican form of gov- 
ernment on the western hemisphere. 
By creating institutions which shall 
provide machinery for the judicial 
settlement of international disputes. 



of the influence of military clamor one 
might find humor in some of its mani- 
festations. Fear has dethroned reason, 
and people are 'seein' things at night.' 
In all sincerity one man declared that 
at two o'clock in the morning he saw a 
company of Germans drilling in Van 
Cortlandt park. Months ago many of 
us were asked to give up our country 
homes for our 'wounded soldiers,' and 
blankets and sheets have been long 
packed in chests ready for use. 

"Yesterday I was told by a Boston 
friend that ladies there are registering 
their automobiles as available to 'carry 
the maidens inland' if necessary. . . . 

"The committee has found, however, 
that great numbers of citizens every- 
where have expressed their fear, not of 
an invading army, but of the danger that 
is close upon us and in our midst. In 
the East and the West, the North and 
the South, public-spirited men and 
women, good and true citizens of the 
great American republic, have voiced 
their desire to be united with those who 
stand for democracy as against militar- 
ism. To accomplish this is the commit- 
tee's essential purpose and propaganda." 

This New York meeting which crowd- 
ed Carnegie Hall may be interpreted as 
an index of the tour and of some of the 
forces which are finding a common plat- 
form and united front against what one 
of the speakers called the "phobia" of 
the eastern seaboard. 

The presiding officer was the Rev. 
Charles E. Jefferson of New York, one 
of the churchmen who have thrown 
themselves into the emergent and mili- 
tant phases of the peace movement under 
the leadership of the Church Peace 
Union. ' 

There was Congressman Oscar Cal- 
loway of Texas, member of the House 
Committee on Naval Affairs, who harked 
back to the days of Sam Houston in 
voicing what, he conveyed, was the large 
skepticism of the central states with re- 
spect to the trepidations of the seaboard. 

"I ain't any pacifist," he said, "I come 
from Texas and you don't raise them 
there. But when I meet a man coming 
down the street with a Winchester and 
two six shooters and a brace of brass 
knucks, I know he's not a brave man; I 
know him for a braggard and a bully. 
Nobody's afraid of a man like that and 
don't want to have any business with him 
either. Nobody is afraid of a nation like 
that and don't want to have any busi- 
ness with it either." 

"I am a pacifist" began Dr. John 
Haynes Holmes of the Church of the 
Messiah and caught up the taunt of those 
who inveigh against them: 

"For the sake of argument I will ad- 
mit for the moment the contention of the 
preparedness propagandists that peace at 
any price is damnable. 

"But what about the doctrine that is 
being preached through the newspapers 
of security at any price? When I learn 
that the price we must pay for the se- 
curity of our republic is the abandon- 
ment of every ideal that makes the re- 
public, I for one refuse to pay the price. 



96 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 22, 1916 



I care not about the sword of Ger- 
many conquering America when the 
spirit of Germany is amongst us." 

In turn came John McSparran of the 
National Grange. "I am -a farmer," said 
he, and when his meaning sank in the 
audience cheered. He is indeed of the 
third generation of farmers who have 
tilled 130 acres in the Lancaster region 
of Pennsylvania. He told of the last 
convention of the National Grange at 
which, when the Committee on Peace 
reported, only one state raised a voice 
for preparedness and that one did not 
stand out against the unanimous senti- 
ment. 

In turn, James H. Maurer, Pennsyl- 
vania Dutch, Socialist, and labor leader, 
voiced the attitude of the more radical 
wing of the labor movement toward mili- 
tarism in all its forms. "What we want 
today," he said, "is to find out who 
profits by war, corral the outfit and lock 
it up. Instead of preparing to fight we 
ought to prepare to help," he said; and 
again "If we want to prepare this coun- 
try against invasion, there is only one 
way : give us of the working classes 
something worth fighting for." The 
speaker went on to a general arraignment 
of the commercial interests which he 
said, want to dragoon the working people 
of the country into their battles for trade, 
and then pay the bill in taxes and in 
blood. "We fight, we die, and we pay — 
and it must stop," he cried. 

To Amos Pinchot's mind, one of the 
worst and most illuminating outcroppings 
of militarism is the Slater-Welsh bill 
before the New York Legislature, pro- 
viding for compulsory military camps 
for schoolboys ; while to the Rev. A. A. 
Berle, the most insidious feature of the 
Chamberlain bill before the Congress is 
that it provides that any man who serves 
six years shall, on examination of three 
of his commanding officers, be admitted 
without further examination into the 
War Department or other civil branch 
of the government. This means, he said, 
that men who have served in the army 



would automatically be railroaded into 
the civil service, and he regarded the 
legislation as nothing less than "a de- 
liberate conspiracy to militarize the civil 
service of the tJnited States." 

The concluding address was by Rabbi 
Stephen S. Wise: 

"Once we were a fearless people," 
said Rabbi Wise. "Are we to become a 
contemptible, fearful people?" 

When the tour reached Buffalo the 
next night, it found a hostile press, but 
a music hall packed with about 3,500 
people. The meeting did not break up 
until after eleven o'clock, and fairly 
surpassed the Carnegie Hall meeting in 
its enthusiasm and anti-militarist char- 
acter. In Cleveland a blizzard turned 
the Central Armory into a cold and 
somewhat cheerless place. It was pretty 
much a socialist and labor audience 
which turned out to hear the speakers. 
The difficulties in getting local publicity 
were explified by the persistence of the 
Cleveland News, in changing the an- 
nouncements of the meeting to read 
"Greys' armory" and thus misleading as 
many people as possible. 

At Detroit the tour came into its own. 
The local opera house was packed and 
a crowd of 2,000 stood in the street for 
two hours and listened to the speakers 
who came outside. Mr. and Mrs. Henry 
Ford occupied an inconspicuous corner 
in a box. At a reference to the vote 
which Mr. Ford had received in the 
Michigan presidential primaries, the un- 
willing "candidate" was compelled to 
rise and bow to the cheers of his neigh- 
bors. 

In Chicago, despite a hostile press, 
about 3,500 people turned out in the' 



Oonahey in Cleveland Plain Dealer 




THE DINOSAURIANS 



Auditorium. Miss Addams, who has 
been ill, quite thrilled her friends by oc- 
cupying a seat on the platform. She did 
not speak, however. 

Minneapolis was the second city which 
demanded and received an overflow 
meeting, partly due to the presence of a 
big delegation from St. Paul. It was a 
vociferous audience and led by Herbert 
S. Bigelow of Cincinnati, it re-captured 
the American flag from the "prepared- 
ness" forces and had a regular Fourth 
of July time of it. 

The des Moines audience was small, 
but representative of the community. 
"Des Moines is saturated with anti-pre- 
paredness," said Harvey C. Ingham, 
editor of the Register and Leader. 
Kansas City turned out a radical crowd, 
big and patient. When James H. 
Maurer, the last speaker on the program, 
attempted to reach his peroration and 
get away to catch his train, the audience 
demanded "more," "more." St. Louis 
had a much more representative audi- 
ence, despite the fact that the local press 
had studiously ignored the meeting. St. 
Louis is a central jobbing point for army 
supplies. 

Cincinnati and Pittsburgh rounded 
out the tour. In Cincinnati the audience 
was even more representative of all 
classes than in St. Louis. Hamilton 
Holt, editor of The Independent, made 
a hit with a succinct analysis of the 
Japanese scare. The Pittsburgh audi- 
ence on the contrary was made up of 
labor and radical groups who were there 
to celebrate their convictions rather than 
to test them. 

Throughout the trip the speakers 
marked the correlation between the char- 
acter of the gathering and the relation 
of the city to the war. Where no large 
local business groups have been interest- 
ed in the war trades, the audience drew 
on all factors in the population. Else- 
where, where "preparedness" has been 
actively agitated, the audience was a 
group of protestants drawn from the 
wage-earning population. 



A State Aged ioo 

Glimpses of Social Progress in Indiana During 

One Hundred Years 

(In two instalments, of which this is the first) 



By Alexander yohnsow 



INDIANA was the last, or almost the 
last, of the frontier states. In those 
to the westward, the railroads came 
first and the settlers followed along the 
iron rails. They had mail and news- 
paper service in their new homes on the 
prairie, almost as efficient as they had 
enjoyed in the states they nad left. In 
Indiana, the pioneers, like the early set- 
tlers of the continent, went on horseback 
or on foot into the wilderness. They 
hewed their farms out of the virgin 
forest. Mails were slow and infrequent, 
newspapers were rare. The settlements 
were small and widely scattered. Each 
family had to be self-provident and self- 
dependent. Only the strong and stout- 
hearted could survive the hardships of 
those pioneering days. 

The sturdy individualism that made it 
possible for the pioneers to conquer the 
wilderness, persisted to some extent in 
their children after the first generation 
had passed away. It is no wonder that 
the social spirit, which is now so well 
marked in the state, was perhaps a little 
slow in showing itself among the self-re- 
liant descendants of the pioneers. It is 
little wonder that practical and even ma- 
terial aspects of life prevailed over those 
theoretical or esthetic. 

To write in briefest outline the history 
of social progress in Indiana during the 
first century of the life of the state, 
would be an attempt too ambitious for 
the author of this paper. All he can hope 
to do is to indicate some of the salient 
points of the story and sketch the prog- 
ress of the benevolent and correctional 
work of the commonwealth, more par- 
ticularly its development since April 1, 
1889, when the Board of State Charities 
was created. 

The first constitution, adopted in 1816, 
was a noble, human document, and in 
many respects in advance of similar 
foundations of law in other states. This 
was notably shown in its declaration as 
to the punishment of crime. The eigh- 
teenth section of the bill of rights reads : 
"The penal code shall be founded on the 

Alexander Johnson was the first secre- 
tary of the Indiana Board of State Chari- 
ties, serving from April 1, 1889 to June 
30, 1893. In the preparation of this paper 
he has been assisted by Laura Greely who 
has been for many years chief clerk and 
statistician of the board. He wishes most 
gratefully to acknowledge Miss Greely's 
invaluable help, without which, in fact, the 
article could not have been prepared. 



principles of reformation and not of vin- 
dictive justice." This was a beach mark 
of progress, set by a high tide which re- 
ceded, as such tides in the affairs of 
men usually do. 

A few far-seeing men there were in 
the country, like the noted Edward Liv- 
ingston in Louisiana, who visualized 
great principles like this, but they were 
so much the exception to the general 
rule, that in Indiana it took 81 years be- 
fore that noble declaration of the con- 
stitution was made actual in statute law 
as applied to serious offenders, and 97 
vears before it was applied to misde- 
meanants. 

Prison Reform 

One of the abiding results of this first 
declaration was that wise theories of 
correction have been recognized and 
given voice by Indiana statesmen, and, 
however slowly adopted, prison reform 
has been a frequent matter of considera- 
tion and comment, especially by the long 
line of wise and high-minded men from 
whom the governors of the state have 
usually been chosen. In Governor James 
B. Ray's message to the General As- 
sembly, 14 years after the birth of the 
state, occurs a fine argument against the 
death penalty. It is based on the prin- 
ciple that the object of punishment is 
not merely to prevent the offender from 
committing other offences, nor only to 
deter others from crime, but includes 
reformation of the criminal. 

After recounting the many possibilities 
o 4 " error and miscarriage of justice, the 
impossibility of certainty in human af- 
fairs, he concludes : 

"Effects are sometimes ascribed to 
causes which never produced them. Mis- 
apprehension and mistake follow. The 
scene closes with one of the primitive but 
barbarous customs of the early and rude 
stages of society, when even witchcraft 
was believed in by legislators and judges 
as learned as Matthew Hale, and life 
taken to appease the superstition of the 
law and the judge." 

Fifteen years later, in 1845, Governor 
James Whitcomb in his message to the 
legislature, thus outlined the system 
which has only just been adopted in 
Indiana by the establishment of a state 
penal farm. 

"The policy of confinement in county 
jails as a punishment for crime may in 
most cases well be questioned. It is not 



only a serious burden on the counties, but 
it is believed to be incompatible with 
reformation, which is the leading pur- 
pose of criminal punishment. The ap- 
plication of the principle of penitentiary 
discipline upon those guilty of minor 
offences ... by means of houses 
of correction is respectfully recommend- 
ed. They should be established with an 
eye to the comfort and . . . em- 
ployment of the inmates, and to the 
exercise of a kindly but firm and steady 
discipline." 

Similar expressions of enlightened 
thought upon public questions might be 
quoted, and when the constitution was 
revised in 1851 many of them were 
adopted in the amendments. 

Although the territorial legislature of 
1792 had authorized the erection of jails, 
yet previous to the admission of the 
state the legal methods of correction 
were chiefly pillories, stocks, 2 the whip- 
ping post and the gallows. Some of thi 
earliest jails were in the cellars of court 
houses, and a few of these remained in 
use until recent days. No doubt most of 
the first jails were little more than rude 
log cabins. A famous two-story log jail 
still exists in Brown county, although it 
is little used as it is not supposed to be 
strong enough to confine modern crimi- 
nals. 

The first Indiana state prison was es- 
tablished by a law of 1821, at Jefferson- 
ville, and was opened November 1, 1822. 
This is on the southern border of the 
state and when built it was fairly central 
as to population. By 1859, it was evident 
that the great growth of the state was 
to be in the central and northern parts, 
and an additional institution, called the 
State Prison North, was built at Michi- 
gan City on the lake. 

In 1897, the sentiment in favor of re- 
formatory treatment of those convicts 
who were supposed to be corrigible led 
to the closing of the southern prison, as 
Reformatory, for male offenders, under 
such, and its conversion into the Indiana 
thirty convicted for the first time; with 
the methods of the indeterminate sen- 
tence and parole as the chief features of 
its system. 

The organic law of this institution was 
said by students of penology to be the 
best in the world, and the reformatory 



'Although authorized by law it seems 
doubtful that pillories or stocks were built. 



97 



98 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 22, 1916 



has earned an enviable reputation. By 
a separate act of the same year, the 
indeterminate sentence was applied to 
convicts in the northern institution al- 
though it remained a prison. 

About the year 1905 the method of 
sterilization, to prevent what was sup- 
posed to be hereditary criminality as well 
as feeblemindedness, was introduced and 
practiced for some time without any au- 
thority of law, but with the consent of 
those who submitted to it. Then a law 
was enacted making it legal as applied to 
incurable idiots and incorrigible crim- 
inals in institutions. This law was not' 
heeded, since those operated on were sup- 
posedly corrigible inmates of a reforma- 
tory. No other institution operated un- 
der the law, although it applied, quite 
positively, to many of their inmates. 

In 1909 at the request of a governor, 
who declared the method unethical and 
the law unconstitutional, the practice 
was discontinued. The law has not been 
repealed, or passed upon by the Supreme 
Court. 

The principle of reformatory treat- 
ment was applied to young male de- 
linquents in 1867, when the House of 
Refuge for Juvenile Offenders was es- 
tablished. The name of this institution 
was changed in 1883 to Indiana Reform 
School for Boys, and 20 years later to 
Indiana Boys' School. Each change of 
name indicated an advance, in purpose at 
least, and methods at first crude and un- 
satisfactory were changed with the 
changing name. 

In 1869, the growing belief in the re- 
formatory principle and the disclosure of 
some grave abuses in the management of 
the state prison, caused the establishment 
■of a correctional institution for women 
and girls. This was in spite of an assump- 
tion, rather felt than expressed, that the 
number of female criminals was so small, 
and the depravity of the few so positive, 
that measures of reformation were either 
useless or unnecessary as applied to 
them. The institution was named the In- 
diana reformatory Institution for Women 
and Girls and was opened October 4, 
1873. It was a combination of a prison 
for women and a reform school for girls . 
the two under one management, in sepa- 
rate wings of the same building; the in- 
mates never mingling, and seeing each 
other only at religious services in the 
common chapel. As was usual in those 
days the reform school received children 
merely dependent and neglected as well 
as those technically delinquent. 

With increasing public attention to the 
state's social economy, increasing faith 
in the efficacy of reformatory disci- 
pline, and chiefly, an increasing sense of 
justice to the unfortunate even if de- 
linquent, this incongruous assembling to- 
gether of adult criminals, juvenile offend- 
ers, and innocent victims of misfortune 
or of others' crimes, was felt to- be a 
grave mistake, and various attempts were 



made to correct it. 

First Board of Women 

I.\ 1877, the management of the insti- 
tution for women and girls was "taken 
from the oversight of an unsympathizing 
board of men and committed to a board 
of women."" It is believed that this was 
the first institution of the kind ever 
placed in the care of a board composed 
exclusively of women. In 1889 the name 
of the institution was changed by the 
progressive legislature of that year, to 
Reform School for Girls and Women's 
Prison, and an effort was made to dis- 
sociate the two parts as much as possible. 
It was felt to be an injustice to the girls 
whose reformation was hoped for to 
have it understood, as was inevitable un- 
der the circumstances, that they had been 
prison convicts. 

At last, by an act of 1903, which, 
however, was not carried into effect until 
four years later, the two institutions 
were separated in fact, the department 
for girls was removed to a country loca- 
tion and named the Indiana Girls' 
School ; and the quarters formerly oc- 
cupied by the girls were made into a cor- 
rectional department for short term 
women convicts, who had formerly been 
held in county jails. 

In 1899, the Indeterminate Sentence. 
and Parole Systems, which up to that 
date were usually the distinctive features 
of a reformatory as opposed to a prison 
(although in Indiana they applied to 
both), were extended so as to apply to 
the prison for women. After another 
period of 14 years, in 1913, the Indiana 
State Farm was established for short- 
term male convicts, previously kept in 
county jails. In everything but the in- 
determinate sentence, 4 this made the re- 
formatory principle apply to misdemean- 
ants, as had been urged by Governor 
Whitcomb in 1845. so that at last the 
noble declaration of the constitution was 
almost completely embodied in statute 
law. 

In 1903, a law created juvenile courts. 
The first step in this direction was taken 
by Judge George W. Stubbs of the In- 
dianapolis Municipal Court in 1901. He 
was '■astounded at the number of children 
brought before him, - ' and without any 
idea of establishing a special court, sepa- 
rated the hearings of the children's cases 
from those of adults. The law of 1903 
applied to every county, and provided for 
paid probation officers. Still there was 
some popular misapprehension. The Ju- 
venile Court was still misunderstood as 
more or less of a criminal court, not 
merely a court for children who by law 
are beneath the age of responsibility 

tract from a report of the Committee 
on Prisons, et the Indiana Yearly 

Meeting of the Society of Friends. 

'The Board of State Charities has urged 

the application of the indeterminate sen- 

t ' ■ the convicts at the Penal Farm. 



and so can.jot be criminal. In 1907 a 
new law made the Juvenile Court the 
sole agency for any legal dealing with 
children : such as making them public 
wards as dependents. 

Early legislation about jails conferred 
full authority as to their management on 
the circuit judges. But the control that 
seemed provided for was not fully, if at 
all, exercised and there were many com- 
plaints of disorder, insanitation and bad 
discipline. The Board of State Chari- 
ties had inspected the jails from the be- 
ginning of its work and under its urgency 
many improvements had been made. 

In 1909, a law was enacted requiring 
the board to make regulations for the 
conduct of jails and if these were not 
complied with to report the fact to the 
Circuit Court. If the court failed to 
act, the board is to notify the governor, 
who may condemn any jail and have the 
prisoners taken to the jail of another 
county. Under the dread of this law 
some officials have acted, who without 
it were inclined to resist the suggestions 
of the board. 

The Indeterminate Sentence 

One more reform in correctional mat- 
ters remained to be made. The theory 
of the indeterminate sentence is that as 
soon as a prisoner may safely go at 
large, his release shall be granted. There 
are some persons convicted who do not 
need even a brief term of incarceration. 
To save such persons from the disgrace 
of the prison, the law of the suspended 
sentence, or probation, was applied ; at 
first to juveniles in 1867; and in 1907 to 
adults, except those guilty of murder, 
rape, arson, burglary, kidnapping or 
treason. 

These various changes for the better 
were not gained without earnest struggle. 
The established order was defended 
against the reformers by many officials 
and politicians, and by some conservative 
citizens who were neither. It must not 
be supposed that those who resisted in- 
novations were all. or always, governed 
by corrupt motives. Prison reform al- 
ways has earnest opponents. Some of 
these are actuated by selfish motives. 
But there is an underlying doubt in the 
possibility of the reformation of a crimi- 
nal ; a belief, often sincere enough, that 
once a thief means always a thief; that 
a criminal woman is beyond hope of re- 
demption ; that criminals deserve no 
sympathy, but are forever beyond the 
pale of decent citizenship. 

These doubts and beliefs are cherished 
by those who have pecuniary interests in 
evil prison methods, as a justification for 
their selfishness. But they are often held 
with tenacity, by men who in other con- 
cerns of life are not unworthy citizens, 
and are the strongest obstacles in the way 
of those who strive for prison reform. 
And again it is only fair to remember 
that some reformers arc impractical, un- 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 22, 1916 



99 





OSCAR C. MCCULLOCH 

One of the men iclin has been largely responsible fo> 
putting Indiana to the front in mailers of state charit- 
able policy. 



TIMOTHY NICHOLSON 

Said a public official years ago : "I -would rather be 
called doii-u bv Timothy Nicholson than praised by 
most men" 



reasonable and even cranky ; that some 
of the sympathy extended to offenders, 
deserves the name, so often given to it, 
of sickly sentimentality; that gifts of 
flowers and delicacies to convicted mur- 
derers, whose deeds have been sufficiently 
exploited in the newspapers to make them 
notorious, are causes of just derision by 
jailers and prison warders. 

In the long drawn-out struggle in In- 
diana for justice, even to the unjust 
the part taken by the Society of Friends 
deserves mention. The society was speci- 
ally strong in the southeastern portion 
of the state, into which there had been 
a considerable influx of Friends from 
North and South Carolina, Virginia and 
other southern states. This movement 
was largely due to the pro-slavery agita- 
tation of the later years of the eighteenth 
and the earlier years of the nineteenth 
century. During this period, the Quak- 
ers as a body, opposed slavery and suf- 
fered for their opinions. They had to 
struggle for both religious and political 
rights. 

In North Carolina many Negroes 
whose Quaker owners had emancipated 
them, were re-enslaved, by ex-post facto 
legislation, because certain formalities 
which did not exist when the enfranchise- 
ment took place, had not been complied 
with. The Quakers realized that they 
could not prosper with free labor in 
competition with slave labor and they 
migrated in large numbers to Ohio first 
and then to Indiana. 

Slavery had been abolished in the 
Northwest territory, of which Indiana 
was a part, by the ordinance of 1787, 
"But there was still much pro-slavery 
sentiment and the final status of the 



State on the question was not determined 
until after a long and vigorous contest, 
in every stage of which the Friends were 
a factor, after they had entered the 
territory. They were a determining 
factor in the campaign of 1810 when the 
anti-slavery forces triumphed in the elec- 
tion of a representative to Congress; 
and expressed themselves by petitions 
and through one of their members who 
was a delegate to the Constitutional Con- 
vention"" which made Indiana a free 
state for all time. 

"Their most immediate labors in behalf 
of slaves were, however, exerted in the 
activities of the underground railroad, 
one Friend having assisted 3,000 Negroes 
northward, and another expressing re- 
gret that he had only had the opportun- 
ity of assisting 2,700 when the emanci- 
pation proclamation was issued. 

The Activity of the Quakers 

It was natural that the religious body, 
which had given to the world John How- 
ard and Elizabeth Fry, should be inter- 
ested in prison reform. In 1867, the 
Representative Body of the Indiana 
Yearly Meeting of Friends appointed a 
committee "to organize a system for the 
reformation of juvenile offenders and the 
improvement of prison discipline." One 
of the first members of that committee 
is still with us, the loved and respected 
Timothy Nicholson who has served as 
chairman of the Friends' Committee for 
many years. His annual reports made 
to the Representative Body, now called 
the Permanent Board, form a compre- 
hensive history of prison and other re- 

5 The Quakers in the Old Northwest, 
by Harlow Lindley. 



form in Indiana, during nearly 50 years 
of wise, patient and patriotic effort. 

The method adopted by the Friends' 
Committee was, by visits and personal 
observation, to learn actual conditions. 
Each meeting was requested to appoint 
a committee of "discreet friends." men 
and women, who should visit the public 
institutions in their respective neighbor- 
hoods and report the facts to their meet- 
ing. Then the members, by petition, by 
influence on the state and county officials 
and the legislature, and especially by in- 
forming the general public, endeavored 
to secure redress of the evils that were 
found; in all cases not merely criticizing, 
but presenting a plan of betterment. 

Among the results obtained by these 
wise and practical means, results which 
were largely, and in some cases almost 
wholly, due to the work of the Friends, 
may be mentioned the establishment of 
the Boys' Reformatory ; the Women's 
Prison and Girls' Reformatory; the cor- 
rection of many abuses in the prisons. 
insane hospitals # and poor asylums; the 
establishment of county orphans' homes, 
by which children were taken out of the 
poor asylum ; the creation of the Board 
of State Charities; and many minor re- 
forms. The influence of the Friends in 
these matters was in much larger propor- 
tion than their number. This fact is a 
testimony to the general respect which 
they gained for uprightness and unselfish 
public spirit. 6 

6 An interesting and unconscious testimony 
to the Quaker character, is found in the 
colloquialism, "Quaker measure," which 
still may be heard in the counties where 
many Quakers lived. It means that the 
Quaker's bushel or peck is heaped high and 
running over. 



IOO 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 22, 1916 



When the law creating the Board of 
State Charities was enacted, Timothy 
Nicholson was one of the first members 
appointed. He became chairman of the 
sub-committee on prisons, etc., and for 
19 years thereafter, until his retirement 
in 1908, full of years and honors, he was 
an active and influential member of that 
board. It is a moderate estimate of 
Mr. Nicholson's work and influence to 
say that for 50 years he has been, in all 
matters of charity and correction, the 
wisest, strongest and most useful citizen 
of the state. To those who have worked 
with him, especially those employed in 
an official capacity by the board, he has 
ibeen a wise, gentle, considerate and un- 
failing friend and advisor. It was said 
sby a prominent state official, to whom 
Mr. Nicholson had given a faithful but 
gentle rebuke, "I would rather be called 
•down by Timothy Nicholson than praised 
by most men." 

The Care of Paupers 

During territorial days, and the first 
few years of statehood, public charities 
were confined to outdoor relief, which 
was given to a very small extent, and 
the farming-out of paupers. The story 
is told of a settler who "bought a pauper" 
for a year, at the annual sheriff's sale. 
He took him home and set him at work 
hoeing corn. The neighbors gathered 
to see the "pauper" and exclaimed in sur- 
prise: "Is that a pauper? Why it's a 
man" ! 

The constitution of 1816 authorized 
county poor asylums. The first statute 
on the subject, in 1821, applied only to 
Knox county. It was repealed seven 
years later and the farming-out system 
resumed. A general poor asylum law 
was enacted in 1831, which permitted 
building by single counties or by county 
groups. Under this law, Franklin, Fay- 
ette and Union counties erected a joint 
poor asylum which was occupied in the 
spring of 1835. 

Before many years each county had 
its poor farm, as they wer'e generally 
called. At first most of these were run 
on the contract system by which the 
superintendent paid the county a rent 
for the farm and was paid a per-diem 
for the support of the inmates. 7 This 
dangerous and often pernicious system 
slowly died out. By 1889, there were 
only 10 of the 92 counties praticing it, 5 
and for many years the sensible, humane 
and business-like method of conducting 
the institution at the expense of the 
county, paying the superintendent a rea- 
sonable salary, and forbidding him any 
other pecuniary interest in the farm, 
has prevailed. Under this plan certain 
counties with productive farms, have 
managed so well that the pauper expense 

'This pernicious method still prevails in 
some states which consider themselves to 
be humane and progressive. 

"The last contract on the per-diem "'in 
expired in September, 1903. 



has been greatly reduced, in some even 
to the extent that the produce of the 
farm has paid the entire cost of the 
asylum, except interest on the invest- 
ment. 9 Similar results have been obtain- 
ed during certain periods in one or two 
other counties. 

In these and many other cases, the old 
reproach that the poor farm is the poor- 
est farm in the county is no longer de- 
served. It is noteworthy that the insti- 
tutions with the best business manage- 
ment are usually those in which the 
standards of comfort and care are the 
highest. 

At the legislative session of 1899, three 
useful laws, bearing on the county poor 
administration, were enacted. One of 
these provided for boards of county 
charities, whose functions are analogous 
to those of the Board of State Charities 
and which work in co-operation with 
that board. 

The second provided for an improved 
system of administration of county poor 
asylums. 

The third regulated the administration 
of outdoor relief by the overseers of the 
poor. This law introduced into the town- 
ship poor system the cardinal principles 
of what is called charity organization, 
and is probably the most complete and 
comprehensive law of that nature on the 
statute books of any state. At the Na- 
tional Conference of Charities and Cor- 
rection held in Philadelphia in 1906, 
Governor Hanly stated that the results 
ot this law and various other reforms 
which led up to it had effected an aver- 
age reduction of more than $300,000 an- 
nually since 1895, without causing any 
increased suffering to the poor and actu- 
ally lessening the amount of pauperism 
in the state. This excellent outcome he 
credited wholly to the Board of State 
Charities. 

As was the rule in most of the states, 
the early poor asylums sheltered a very 
heterogeneous mass of people, old and 
young; senile and dise~sed; epileptics, 
insane and feebleminded: veterans of 
labor disabled by overwork, exposure 
and rheumatism; and veterans of vice 
disabled by dissipation and disease. Many 
of the asylums had a detached cabin, 
often called the jail and strongly barred. 
These were probably used at first for 
prisoners, and when the regular jails 
were built served to confine the more 
dangerous of the insane. 

Effort for Dependent Children 

The modern student of philanthropy, 
if confronted with an asylum with such 
a mingling of inmates as above described, 

"Some years ago in Crawford county, the 
farm not only supported the asylum but 
paid all the other poor expenses of the 
county, including the outdoor relief and 
the salaries of the township physicians. 
Such a condition could only prevail in a 
very poor county, where as is usual, though 
it seems anomalous, there are always the 
fewest paupers. 



and told to select one class to be segre- 
gated from the group and set off by it- 
self, would surely choose the dependent 
normal children. It seems strange to us 
now that these were among the latest 
to be rescued from the mass. It was 
not until 1897, that a law was enacted 
forbidding children being kept in a poor- 
house. 

Early in the century 10 the Catholic dio- 
ceses had erected and supported orphan 
asylums for Catholic children. 11 The first 
private orphanage under lay control was 
the Indianapolis Widows' and Orphans' 
Asylum, incorporated in 1851. A few 
others followed. In 1875, counties were 
empowered to subsidize private orphan- 
ages, and in 1881 to establish county 
orphans' homes. But the movement to 
take all children out of the poor-house 
gained slowly. In 1877 there was one 
small orphans' home in Hendricks county 
and others were established in Henry and 
Franklin counties in 1880 and 1882. The 
plan which prevailed in Ohio was the 
one first copied, the orphans' homes being 
organized by boards of private persons 
who appointed the matron, the counties 
paying a per-diem for each child. 

When the state board began its work 
in 1889, there were orphans' homes in 
42 counties, some owned privately, others 
built by the counties under the law of 
1881, but all supported by the counties, 
in whole or part, on the per-diem plan. 
In theory each county home was intended 
as a training school in decent living and 
a way-station on the road to placing out 
in an adoptive home. But the per capita 
plan had its usual insidious results and 
sometimes children were held for the 
county money they earned, when they 
might have been placed out with ad- 
vantage. 

Placing Out 

A few of these homes had very vigor- 
ous management and the children were 
placed out in large numbers. One joint 
orphans' home, in the northern part of 
the state, beginning by taking children 
from two counties, was broadened out un- 
til it served for ten. This from the first 
was distinctly a placing-out agency and 
took some of its children as far west as 
Dakota and even Idaho, placing very few 
in Indiana. 

During the period from 1857 to 1898 
a great many dependent children from 
eastern states, especially from New York 
and Ohio, and a few from Massachusetts, 
were brought into the state. Many of 
these were placed in excellent homes. 
from which the dependent children of 
Indiana seemed debarred. There is a 
recognized advantage in placing a child 
who has undesirable relatives at some 

"The Catholic Orphan Asylum at Vin- 
cennes was opened August, 1849. 

"It is well known that Catholic orphan- 
ages make no discrimination as to sect, yet 
as a matter of fact, most of their charges 
come from Catholic families. 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 22, 1916 



101 



distance from his former home. Most of 
these imported children were success- 
fully placed and kindly treated, and 
there are today in Indiana men and 
women of character and culture who 
were brought as waifs from New York. 
But some of the work was poorly done 
and carelessly supervised afterwards and 
there were occasional abuses. In 1899, 
a law prescribed the registration of all 
children brought into the state for place- 
ment and required a bond, approved by 
the Board of State Charities, 12 against 
their becoming dependent or neglected. 
In 1897 a beneficent step was taken 
when the state agency for dependent chil- 
dren was established as a department of 
the Board of State Charities. An excel- 
lent system of placing and of after-super- 

,2 Under this law bonds were filed by the 
Cincinnati Children's Home; the New York 
Catholic Home Bureau; the Chicago Indus- 
trial Home for Children; and the New 
York Foundling's Hospital, which are still 
in force. 



vision was installed and since that was 
done many of the county orphan's homes 
have had their population much reduced 
and some of them have been abandoned. 
Yet the total number of dependent chil- 
dren is not much less than it was. In 
fact when it is remembered that children 
are excluded from the poorhouses and 
jails; that dependents are no longer ad- 
missible to the reform schools ; that the 
general population is increasing; and 
that the Boards of Children's Guardians 
are active, it is not surprising that there 
are still many dependent children to be 
placed out and supervised. 

The law creating the county Board of 
Children's Guardians, was among the 
excellent legislation of 1889. This, which 
at first applied only to Center township, 
Marion county, was founded on the prin- 
ciple that the rights of a child to a decent 
life are no less important than his prop- 
erty rights and may equally be defended, 
even against an unworthy parent. This 
law was bitterlv attacked in the courts 



but always sustained. It was gradually 
extended, first to cover the entire area 
of one or two populous counties and later 
to every county of the state. As a rule 
the work of the guardians has been wise 
and moderate and the results have been 
beneficent. 

In 1909, children were further pro- 
tected by a law which places maternity 
hospitals, boarding houses for infants 
(the so-called baby- farms of unsavory 
memory), boarding homes for children, 
and infant placing agencies, under the 
supervision of the Board of State Chari- 
ties. They are required to secure an an- 
nual, written license from the board be- 
fore they may receive any children, the 
license being revocable at any time at the 
discretion of the board. 

As soon as this law became operative 
many institutions promptly went out of 
business and some were closed by the 
board refusing a license to those whose 
methods and practices were unsatis- 
factory. 



[The concluding instalment of Mr. Johnson's review of social progress in 
Indiana will appear in The Survey for April 30.] 



Wouldn't You Think 

Charlotte Perkins Gilman in the Star of Hope, published by the 
prisoners at Sing Sing. 

J/TZ OULDN'T you think, if it is May grow a criminal, of sins so 

right to seize great 

A man, and hide him in a pile of As warrants cruelty or vengeance 

stone; piled; 

Rob him of sunshine, starlight, Wouldn't you think, if crime so 

grass and trees, hurts the State, 

Freedom and friendship ; bottle That State would guard the baby 

him, alone, unafraid, 

An Amputated Man — as where And see that no more criminals 



were made? 

Wouldn't you think, since prisons 
cost so dear; 
Since keeping prisoners all the 
guards degrade; 
Since men imprisoned leave all 
poorer here, 
For lack of each man's service 
in his trade; 
Since prisoners' families the zvolf 
must fear, 
Or tax the State as our tax-pay- 
ers know; 

Born a pink baby, zvholly inno- Since long the lists of legal costs 
cent, appear; 

May grozv up dissolute, fierce. Wouldn't you think — if all these 

tempered, wild, things are so — 

Of mischievous behavior and in- Society would find it less a curse 
tent; To make men better than to make 

If, out of infancy so undefiled, them worse? 



one sees 
A Finger in formaldehyde, to 
show 

The horrible result of some dis- 
ease — 
Wouldn't you think — if 'tis right, 
you know — 

Society, to take such vengeance 
strong, 

Must blame and fear, in him some 
awful wrong? 

Wouldn't you think, if any little 
child, 



io_» 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 22, 1916 





Book Reviews 






Satellite Cities 

By Graham Romeyn Taylor. D. Apple- 
ton & Co. 333 pp. Price $1.50; by 
mail of The Survey $1.64. 

What Mr. Taylor 
has done in this inter- 
esting book is to de- 
scribe and interpret a 
highly significant de- 
velopment of Ameri- 
can economic life. He 
has traced the growth 
of new industrial 
areas and communi- 
ties upon the outskirts 
of old cities, and has 
shown us how great 
manufacturers, harassed by high rents 
and the physical limitations of congested 
districts, have' moved out, as the pioneer 
moved a few decades ago to the frontier. 
Only in this case it is to the city's, not 
to the country's frontier. Empty fields 
have become new cities of factories and 
workmen's dwellings. These satellite 
cities either continue to lead an inde- 
pendent life, as in the case of Gary and 
Fairfield, or are later incorporated in 
the big city as Pullman was incorporated 
in Chicago. 

But, as Mr. Taylor shows, the growth 
of these satellite cities does not by any 
means automatically relieve the evils of 
factory and home life. In the new, as 
in the old cities, there is frequently lack 
of foresight, lack of city planning, and 
instinctive exploitation of the workers. 
The few exceptions do not disprove the 
rule. 

The great value of Mr. Taylor's work 
is that he reduces the problems which 
this new situation creates, from purely 
business, to human, moral and esthetic 
values. He has brought the mind of the 
social observer and the city builder to 
these problems that face the manufac- 
turer, who is at last free from the re- 
straints of the old city. 

Mr. Taylor holds the no longer hereti- 
cal notion that cities are built for men. 
and not men for cities. He believes that 
in these new cities there is no necessity 
for jammed streets, dark workrooms and 
bedrooms, and for the dirt and disease 
which were once held to be inseparable 
adjuncts to industry. He urges that all. 
these evils which were rooted in the old 
industrial city, the city which preceded 
the factory, should not be reproduced 
and perpetuated in the satellite city, 
which is a city made to order and pre- 
sumably adjusted to its industrial needs. 
It is not, perhaps, to be expected or 
desired that the average business man 
will solve these problems upon his sole 
initiative. He is in business primarily 
for profits. During business hours lie is 
not a philanthropist, housing reformer 
or landscape gardener. It is onlv tin- 
exceptional industrialist who is able to 



envisage the larger human elements 
of his business problem. Guidance of 
growth at the city's rim should be the 
concern not only of the manufacturer 
but of the entire community. 

But a hopeful element in the situation 
is that a study of these problems, such 
as that which Mr. Taylor has made, re- 
veals the fact that in these satellite cities, 
with the wide latitude for all manner of 
experiments which they afford, a plan- 
ning of the city with a view to the best 
possible life for the workers, is to the 
real ultimate advantage of the business 
interests involved. In satellite cities, as 
elsewhere, there is a sharp enough clash 
in interest between employers and em- 
ployed. But there is no excuse for a 
planlessness and a blind adherence to a 
vicious routine derived from the more 
refractory conditions of the old in- 
dustrial city. To assure community 
planning, Mr. Taylor urges that there 
must be not only larger co-operation of 
public officials, working people, industrial 
leaders and enlightened citizens, but a 
broader measure of public control over 
city growth. 

Walter E. Weyl. 

The Trade Union Woman 

By Alice Henrw D. Appleton & Co. 
314 pp. Price $1.50; by mail of The 
Survey $1.60. 

American Labor Unions 

Bv Helen Marot. Henry Holt & Co. 
275 pp. Price $1.25; by mail of The 
Survey $1.35. 

"The Spirit of 
Women Workers" 
might have been the 
name of Alice Henry's 
book, for it reveals 
their spirit as perhaps 
no other book has 
done. There is vim 
and fire in it and if 
anyone doubts the 
idealism, the resource- 
fulness, and the grim 
determine tion of 
women wage-earners, he should read 
and be convinced. 

One is reminded of Hauptmann's play, 
The Weavers, in the story of the girl 
striker, who told of the arguments used 
to get her to go hack to work. "The 
boss, he say to me, 'you can't live if you 
no work.' and I say to the boss, 'I live 
not much on 49 cents a day.' " 

Miss Henry tells of the growth of or- 
ganization among women and the great 
moral stimulus that comes from united 
action. In speaking of some of the 
earlier organizations in Chicago, she 
tells how the spirit of co-operation took 
hold, until when a complaint was brought 
forward in a union meeting, the exact 
character of which might be in doubt, 
the question would arise, "Is this your 
kick, or is it all of our kick?" 




No single chapter or section is de- 
voted to the attitude of men toward or- 
ganizations of women, but no one sub- 
ject is found so constantly recurring. 
Men wage earners are spoken of as sus- 
picious of women in the trade union 
movement. It is asserted, and proved 
too, that from the beginning men's or- 
ganizations have given women an in- 
terior place. Even in the organizations 
where the majority of the membership 
is made up of women, as in some of the 
garment workers' unions, the officers are 
men. Xo woman has ever sat as a mem- 
ber of the executive council of the 
American Federation of Labor. 

This attitude of the men is not only 
an unsocial one, in Miss Henry's view, 
it is short-sighted in the extreme. "A 
girl, although she guesses it not, is only 
too frequently made the instrument of a 
terrible retribution, for the poor wage. 
which was all that she in her helpless- 
ness was able to obtain for herself, is 
used to lower the pay of the very man. 
who, had he stood by her, might have 
helped her to a higher wage standard 
and at the same time preserved his 
own." 

The obstacles which stand in the way 
of the improvement of the condition of 
women as wage earners are extremely 
difficult to overcome, and that difficulty 
is increased by the fact that they are 
traditional obstacles. The chief difficulty 
is the possibility of marriage and "the 
exaggerated expectations girls entertain 
as to the improvement in their lot which 
marriage will bring them." This leads 
the girl to feel that she is but a tem- 
porary figure in the industrial world, 
consequently she does not attempt to 
build for the future. The other difficulty 
is the expectation of society, also, that 
girls shall marry and go to housekeeping 
and therefore no adequate industrial 
training is offered them. 

There can be no doubt that women 
have not been sufficiently prepared for 
their work in life, nor about the sense- 
less futility of the theory that marriage 
is the solution of the economic problem 
of women. Doubly handicapped is the 
untrained woman who after the death 01 
her husband must, through the labor of 
her hands, provide a livelihood for her- 
self and her children. Trade unionism 
offers some assistance in the solution of 
this problem. Education is a factor of 
vital importance. It is somewhat sur- 
prising, however, that Miss Henry has 
no word for social insurance as a safe- 
guard against the hazards she mentions 
* * * 

"Labor would rather be free than 
clean" is the way Helen Marot sums up 
the labor attitude toward "social reform- 
ers" in her book published over a year 
ago — a book that ought to be in the 
hands of every social worker if only for 
its first chapter. Philanthropy and Labor 
Unions. It's a book that deserved a re- 
view long ago. 

Reformers irritate trade unionists be- 
cause of a fundamentally different atti- 
tude. "The reformers' formulation of 
the case." says Miss Marot. "is more 
pay. more work, and better returns to 
capital. It may work out that way, but 
it does not sound straight as a union 
proposition. The unionist knows that 






THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 22, 1916 



103 



he does not expect to give more or as 
much ; that the very essence of his fight 
is that he gives too much. If the 
economist can prove to the satisfaction 
of everyone that the capitalist will get 
more out of labor by giving more, well 
and good ; but the unionist is not com- 
fortable in alliance with those who talk 
that way." 

Miss Marot's "reformers" include 
large and small capitalists, the Con- 
sumer's Leagues, the Association for 
Labor Legislation, economists, and 
safety experts. It is a trifle risky to 
generalize about so inclusive a group as 
this. What she says about philanthropy 
and labor is not true by a thousand miles 
of all in this large group. But all that 
she says is true of some part of the 
group. 

The book analyzes the different types 
of American labor unions and sets forth 
candidly what Miss Marot conceives as 
the labor point of view, not as a judici- 
ally minded investigator but, as she 
fran ly puts it, as one who has been a 
"partisan for many years." 

Not all of organized labor would put 
on the shoe that Miss Marot offers, 
nevertheless. A statement that will not 
stand too critical analysis concerns the 
American Federation of Labor and avers 
that "every coercive act is performed 
in the hope of establishing a permanent 
and peaceful partnership," and elsewhere 
we read that the federation bases its 
claim for support "on this proposition 
that the interests of labor and capital 
are identical." 

Of the railroad brotherhoods, Miss 
Marot says that they "have not adopted 
any of the usual union methods which 
arc particularly condemned by the em- 
ploying class." Yet one might be safe 
in assuming that one thing highly con- 
demned by the employing class would be 
any activity that compels them to pay 
such wages as are now paid to the 
brotherhoods. 

The various policies of organized labor 
are discussed, courts and legislative 
bodies receive attention and the attitude 
of labor toward violence, sabotage and 
restriction of output is explained. 

The book is written with a vigor of 
expression that adds greatly to its in- 
terest. Her strong partisanship leads 
the writer into many statements that are 
at least debatable, but her clear under- 
standing of the problems of labor makes 
the book one of unusual value. 

One of the most vigorous and inter- 
esting chapters is the one on Scientific 
Management. Miss Marot finds it full 
of proposals of which labor should be 
suspicious. "Contrast the mental state 
of two carpenters" she suggests! "One 
of the carpenters decides on his tools, 
places them according to his choice, and 
marks off his work. That is the in- 
efficient carpenter. The efficient car- 
penter is assigned a place, handed his 
tools or his hammer and nails, his nail 
holes are marked out. Under the eye of 
a teacher he follows instructions for 
successive hours with intermission pre- 
scribed. This man is not a carpenter. 
He is not a man. He is the dynamo of 
the hammer he holds." 

John A. Fitch. 



Opening the 

Doors 

of Health 



An Autobiography 

By Dr. Edward L. Trudeau. Lea & 
Febiger and Doubleday Page & Co. 
322 pp. Price $2; by mail of The 
Survey $2.15. 

I have tried to 
imagine what this book 
would mean to some- 
one who had never 
heard of Dr. Trudeau 
and his work. I be- 
lieve that such a per- 
son would turn at the 
close of the book to 
every available source 
of information about 
S a r a n a c and i t s 
founder, drawn ir- 
resistibly by the cords of this wonder- 
fully attractive personality and by the 
dominating interest of a life which, given 
up to die, forty years before, lived, in- 
stead, and wrought enduring achieve- 
ments in medical science. 

The autobiography is a swift, simple 
record, written apparently during 1914, 
the last year of Dr. Trudeau's life. 
Emerging once more in the spring, from 
the depression of acute illness, he found 
at St. Regis Lake the desire and courage 
to live. He found even a willingness to 
see in retrospect once more the life he 
had just been so ready to leave, and an 
impulse to write down the memory of it 
all. 

And so with an evenness of style, 
with a tone that never touches the pas- 
sionate heights of his address before the 
Congress of American Physicians and 
Surgeons, perhaps never acknowledges 
the depth of depression from sickness 
and the loss, through fire and through 
death, of what he held dear, he writes 
objectively of his life's experiences, 
viewing them from serene heights of 
victorious struggle. 

The autobiography is a record of re- 
markable friendships. For this man drew 
to himself both great and lowly, and had 
the capacity for infinite loyalty. Like re- 
curring epic formulae read such sen- 
tences as: "Our talk that day was the 
beginning of a lifelong friendship"; "I 
met him and be became one of the 
trustees of the sanitarium." At Tru- 
deau's call a distinguished surgeon 
hastens to the Adirondacks wilderness to 
consult at a distant lake in the case of a 
shotgun wound. Another performs a 
serious cranial operation on a guide 
whose services had secured many a 
happy day in the Adirondacks. And, ap- 
propriately, one of the nublishers of the 
autobiography. C. M. Lea, is in this long 
list of friendships. Trudeau wrote : "He 
was one of the four original trustees of 
the sanitarium, and he and I are the only 
ones now living." 

It was a group of the Adirondacks 
guides who "chipped in" and gave Dr. 
Trudeau a watch ; it was E. H. Harriman 
to whom they intrusted the important 
mission of the purchase. These same 
guides a few years later purchased six- 
teen acres of land because the doctor 
wanted to start a sanatorium there and 
what he wanted must be, even though it 
spoiled a most excellent fox runway, as 
one of them lamented. 



The book is a record, too, of an heroic 
out-of-doors, and the growing conviction 
of its worth in medical science. Dr. 
Trudeau stayed at Saranac for the first 
few years simply because he knew that 
for him the peace and strength of the 
pines had healing, not because he was 
obedient to medical dicta. Indeed, medi- 
cal dicta of that time were sending suf- 
ferers to milder climates and encourag- 
ing them to take exercise in order to 
keep up their strength. Then the belief 
slowly, surely spread, that this climate, 
which had done so much for one sick 
man could do much also for others ; and 
proof multiplied of the need for a sana- 
torium to which those might come who 
could not afford to pay hotel prices or 
rent for themselves a guide's house. 

How loyally the group of friends 
rallied in encouragement and practical 
support of Dr. Trudeau's idea, how cot- 
tage after cottage rose, how the labora- 
tory came to be, is a story which forever 
belongs not only in the annals of medical 
progress but also among the biographies 
of heroism. 

"I wondered as I stood in my little 
laboratory whether perhaps this place 
might not become a school at which 
physicians might study this .dreadful 
disease." The ideal thus so quietly con- 
fessed had already a promise of ful- 
filment before Dr. Trudeau had died. 
It is a memorial such as would have 
pleased him best that a foundation for 
special research in tuberculosis should be 
established at Saranac Lake; and such 
a foundation could bear no other name 
but his. 

Gertrude Seymour. 

The Beloved Physician 

By Stephen Chalmers. Houghton Mif- 
flin Co. 74 pp. Price $1 ; by mail of 
The Survey $1.05. 

It is perhaps hardly fair to this little 
book to place it side by side with the full 
story of the beloved physician himself, 
Edward L. Trudeau. Yet it is high 
tribute to Mr. Chalmers to say that it is 
a worthy introduction to the larger book 
and to the personality with which it deals. 

G. S. 

How to Live 

By Irving Fisher and E. L. Fisk. Funk 
& Wagnalls. 345 pp. Price $1 ; by 
mail of The Survey $1.12. 

Of advice on how 
to live, for others, 
ther* has never been 
a lack; but often those 
who have ventured to 
advise have not been 
much better qualified 
to speak than the rest 
of us. Professor Fish- 
er and Dr. Fisk do 
not belong to this 
class. The former, as 
president of the Com- 
mittee of One Hundred on National 
Health, as an indefatigable writer on 
health problems, and as an organizer 
of national health work, has done serv- 
ice as has perhaps none other in Amer- 
ica. Dr. Fisk represents another group 
equally important in the American health 



Here's to 

Your 

Good Health 



10-4 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 22, 1916 



movement, and has likewise won distinc- 
tion by his personal activities. It was 
he who, as medical director of the Postal 
Life Insurance Company, gave impetus 
to the life extension movement among 
the insurance companies, and who now, 
as director of hygiene in the Life Exten- 
sion Institute, has broadened the scope of 
his methods so as to embrace a larger pa- 
tronage. The one is an author trained 
in scientific method, the other a practic- 
ing physician and organizer whose prob- 
lem has been the practical one of pre- 
venting disease and lengthening the span 
of the individual life. 

As may be expected from such author- 
ship, the work is at once popular and 
sound ; few books, even among the best 
sellers, read more easily. Chapters are 
given to such fundamental matters as 
air, food, poisons, and exercise. A wide 
range of subjects is discussed in a chap- 
ter on general hygienic considerations. 
The final chapters are devoted to sup- 
plementary notes on a variety of topics. 
There is a discussion of foods, of al- 
cohol and tobacco, of the degenerative 
diseases, and finally of eugenics as a so- 
cial force for better health. 

It is impossible to give an adequate 
summary of the contents of this mine of 
information, and the reader is urged to 
examine it for himself. However, the 
following fifteen rules of hygiene will 
at once give the reader the practical 
hints around which the text is developed : 

I. Air 

1. Ventilate every room you oc- 

cupy 

2. Wear light, loose and porous 

clothes 

3. Seek out-of-door occupations 

and recreations 

4. Sleep out, if you can 

5. Breathe deeply 
II. Food 

6. Avoid overeating and over- 

weight 

7. Eat sparingly of meats and eggs 

8. Eat some hard, some bulky, 

some raw foods 

9. Eat slowly 

III. Poisons 

10. Evacuate thoroughly, regular- 

ly and frequently , 

11. Stand, sit and walk erect 

12. Do not allow poisons and infec- 

tions to enter the body 

13. Keep the teeth, gums and 

tongue clean 

IV. Activity 

14. Work, play, rest and sleep in 

moderation 

15. Keep serene 

A careful examination of the text has 
resulted in a discovery of no error of 
consequence. The information given is 
vital ; yet there is nothing out of the 
ordinary in the volume. It is the advice 
that the old-fashioned family physician 
might very well give his patients. No 
fads are exploited, and if any overem- 
phasis is found it is of such a nature as 
to do good rather than evil. This fault 
might be found with the chapter on al- 
cohol, which assumes more than can be 
proved ; but here again the community 
demands the benefit of the doubt in this 
highly controversial question. 

The hook is brief, and as a result dis- 





Tin Plate 

Tariff 
and Labor 





cussions are perhaps too short. The 
reader will often wish for more inform- 
ation than is given. The penalty of lim- 
iting the size of the book is that many 
will consider the discussion more 
academic than practical. In a number 
of chapters the text stops just short of 
the definite information which is likely 
to lead to action. The authors frequent- 
ly content themselves with the enuncia- 
tion of general principles; the reader is 
thus left in the dark as to what he may 
actually do. There is, to be sure, the 
good advice, "Go to your doctor," often 
reiterated, but it is questionable whether 
this has the effect for which the authors 
so confidently hope. 

Louis I. Dublin. 

The Tin-Plate Industry 

By Donald Earl Dunbar. Houghton 
Mifflin Co. 122 pp. Price $1 ; by mail 
of The Survey $1.08. 

This is a compara- 
tive study of the 
growth of the tin-plate 
industry in protection- 
ist America and free- 
trade Wales, and deals 
especially with the 
period since 1890, 
when the McKinley 
tariff put a duty of 2.2 
cents per pound ($44 
per ton) upon t i n 
plate. 

Practically all the tin plate used in 
the United States up to 1890 was im- 
ported from Wales. With a rapidly in- 
creasing domestic market, a growing 
steel industry to furnish the basic raw 
material and a high protective tariff, 
American manufacturers entered upon a 
most promising and what proved to be 
an exceedingly profitable new industry. 
Technical improvements and large-scale 
economies soon crowded the Welsh out 
of our market. 

Low profits of the early years led the 
manufacturers to form an almost com- 
plete monopoly, and this combination, to- 
gether with a favoring tariff, brought 
enormous monopoly profits. 

The labor union movement among tin- 
plate workers was promoted by Welsh 
immigrants who had been connected with 
a strong organization at home. Skilled 
laborers were especially important in this 
industry when it was being introduced, 
so at first the American manufacturers 
treated with the Amalgamated Associa- 
tion of Iron, Steel and Tin Workers. 

But they were soon able to replace 
much of the skilled labor with machinery 
and unskilled labor. After effecting 
their combination, the manufacturers had 
an excess of capacity and shut down the 
most inefficient plants. If a labor 
trouble arose in one establishment, they 
closed it down and shifted the work to 
others. After a few strikes, the labor 
union was disastrously defeated and the 
policy of the open shop established, 
though some of the independent manu- 
facturers, who now produce half of the 
output, do recognize the union and its 
scale of wages. 

The early strength of the union in 
Wales, the adoption of fewer technical 
improvements, the smaller scale of opera- 



tions, the absence of monopoly among the 
manufacturers and the general spirit of 
conservatism have enabled the Welsh 
labor union to hold its own in striking 
contrast to the failure of the American 
union. But the local control of wages 
has been greatly limited by the competi- 
tion of the American product. Ameri- 
can skilled workers get much higher 
wages per day than do the Welsh, though 
the labor cost per unit of product is prac- 
tically the same. The American unskilled 
laborers, many of whom are foreigners, 
form a larger percentage of the total 
than do the Welsh and they too get a 
larger daily wage. All the evidence 
gathered by Mr. Dunbar goes to show 
that the tariff has had no direct effect 
upon wages in this industry. 

The percentage of female laborers in 
the American industry declined from 
17.0 in 1899 to 9.2 in 1909; the number 
of employes under 16 years of age is 
trivial, being 6 per cent of the total in 
1909. In the Welsh industry, in 1906, 
34 per cent of the working people were 
women and children. 

The American tin-plate industry af- 
fords a favorite and frequently cited ex- 
ample of an industry built up under pro- 
tection ; the Welsh of one rehabilitated 
under free trade. 

Roy G. Blakev 

BOOKS RECEIVED 

Industrial Accident Prevention. By David 
Stewart Beyer. Houghton Mifflin Co. 421 
pp. Price $10; bv mail of The Survey 
$10.30. 

The Honey Pot. By Countess Barcynska. B. 
P. Dutton & Co. 324 pp. Price $1.35: by 
mall of The Survey $1.45. 

Consumption and its Cube by physical 
Exercises. By Dr. I'ilip Sylvan. E. p. Dntton 
ft Co. 203 pp. Price $1.25; by mail of Thi 
Survey $1.3.-,. 

Journeys WITH JERRY the Jarvet. By Alexis 
Roche. E. P. Dutton & Co. 318 pp. Price 
$1.35; by mail of The survey (1.44. 

Infant Feeding and Allied Topics. By 
Henrietta Lowenburg. F. A. Davis Co. 382 
pp. Trice $3; by mail of The Survey $3.18. 

Handbook of Athletic Games. By Jessie 11 
Bancroft and W. I>. Pulvormaeher. <VJT pp 
Price $1.50; by mail of The Survey SI 

Why Be Fat. Bv Amelia Summerville. Fred- 
erick A stokes Co. SO pp. Price $.80: by 
mail of The Survey $.85. 

Selected Articles on World Peace. By 
Mary Katharine Reelv. Debaters' Handbook 
Series. The II W. Wilson Co. 256 pp. Price 
$1; by mail of The Survey $1.07. 

Social PROGRESS and THE Darwinian Theory 
By Ceorse Nasmvth. O. P. Putnam's Sons 
417 pp. Price $1.50; bv mail of The Sur- 
vey $1.60. 

Towards a LASTING Settlement. By Charles 
it, Mien Buxton. The Macmlllan Co. 216 pp 
Price $1 : by mall of The survey $1.07. 

The Ocean SLEUTH. Bv Maurice Drake. K IV 
Dutton & Co, 311 pp. Price $1.35: by mail 
of The Survey $1.43. 

Ways to LASTING Peace. By David Starr 
Jordan. The Bobbs-Merrill Co. 266 pp 
Price $1 : by mail of The Survey $1.07 

I'm: DELINQUENT Child and the Home. By 
Sophonlsba P. Breckinridge end Edith Abbott 
Second Edition. Published bv The Survey 
Associates, Inc., for the Russell Sase Founda- 
tion. 355 pp. Price $2. postpaid. 

Through South Americas southland. By 
.1. A. Znhm. D. Appleton ft Co. 520 pp. 
Price $3.50; by mail of The Survey $3.74. 

War \m> Militarism in Turn; Sociological 
Aspects. Vol. X. American Sociological So- 
clety Proceedings. The University of Chicago 
Press 166 pp. l'rice $1.50: by mail of 
The Survey $1.58. 

John Bogardus. By George Agnew chamber 
lain, The Century Co. 344 pp. Price $1.85; 
by mail of the Survey $1.46. 

Trusts Pools ixd Corporations. (H 
edition) By William v.. Ripley. Glnn ft Co 
872 pp. Price $2.75; by mail of The Suf 
vei $2.97, 

English Derivatives. By B. K, Benson. D. 
C. Heath ft Co. 166 pp Price J 44 ; by mall 
nf I mi Si k\ i j $.50. 







Editorials 



EDWARD T. DEVINE 

JANE ADDAMS 
GRAHAM TAYLOR 

Associate Editors 



PAUL U. KELLOGG 
Editor 



WHO'S WHO AMONG BARBARIANS 

THE SURVEY owes all its readers, especially 
those having British and Russian interests at 
heart, correction of an editorial misstatement in 
our issue of February 19 and an explanation of how it 
came to be made. It was based upon a report in an 
American paper of an article by Lovat Fraser. 

Although this report did not name Russia as the source 
of '.'a new outpouring of barbarism from the North," 
yet the long excerpts from Mr. Fraser's much longer 
paper did not exclude the inference that the Russians con- 
tributed now as in the past to those "great alternating pul- 
sations between the East and West" and "between the 
North and South which pour southward at intervals." 
This inference was the more possible because in the same 
paragraph the writer was quoted thus : 

"If we can only get it into our heads that we are dealing 
with one of the most tremendous of the recurrent factors in 
human history, rather than with the personal ambitions of 
the German Kaiser or the schemes of the German general 
staff, we should cease to speculate about the end of the war. 
We should know that for us the war can have no end until 
the great tribal outpouring is checked and until the forces 
it represents are broken up." 

The passage suggested another outbreak of British in- 
dependence, such as Ramsey McDonald, Keir Hardy and 
in other directions, Lord Northcliffe himself, have ven- 
tured. 

Receipt of the full text of Mr. Fraser's article in the 
London Daily Mail of February 1 proves any such infer- 
ence to have been without warrant in what he wrote. 
Indeed, in almost every paragraph omitted in the American 
report of this article only the Germans, or the "Finno- 
Slavs," as the Prussians are called, are designated as "the 
tribe to whom is chiefly due this great barbarian irrup- 
tion." 

There is no indication that the American report of Mr. 
Fraser's paper intended either by what it included or 
omitted to give any other impression. But both the his- 
toric and prophetic sweep of its quotations seemed to 
reach so far back and forward that we were misled to 
interpret them as transcending the present conflict and its 
alliances and as dealing with "a recurrent factor older than 
written history," which might "mean unending war." 

Nevertheless we admit that such an inference drawn 
from any British source at this time should have been so 
questionable that it should not have been made until war- 
ranted by the full text of the paper — however much the 
long excerpts in the American report of it appeared to 
be a complete summary. 



THE CIVIC MARTYRDOM OF DR. SACHS 

NO ALTAR of civic patriotism ever held a more 
loyal offering than that on which Dr. Theo- 
dore B. Sachs sacrificed himself in life and 
death to save Chicago's Municipal Tuberculosis Sana- 
torium from ruthless partisan spoilsmen. 

In truth, many altars and offerings seemed to unite in 
that one costly sacrifice. 

Such supreme devotion to a cause as the Jewish religious 
spirit can beget, such self-sacrifice as the Russian oppres- 
sion of the Jew incites, such idealism as only the Orient 
inspires, such sensitivity as the heritage of suffering 
weaves into the very texture of the soul, such humanitarian 
achievement as is possible only in America — all combined 
to make the achieving life and the tragic death of Dr. Sachs 
profoundly impressive. 

To the casual observer there might have been nothing 
to distinguish the young Russian Jew when found packing 
clothing among Hart, Schaffner and Marx's thousands of 
immigrant employes a score or more years ago. But he 
was there on half-time to secure a foothold while turning 
from the profession of the law, into which he was gradu- 
ated at the University of Odessa, to prepare for the 
practice of medicine, "because I can serve humanity best 
by becoming a physician," as he. explained to his intimate 
friend, Judge Julian W. Mack. 

His profession was ever regarded only as the opportun- 
ity and obligation for human service. As he left Russia 
after declining to enter the army at the cost of abjuring 
his ancestral faith, so devotedly he kept sacred his alle- 
giance to his race not only, but to humanity as truly, 
through all the struggle to attain medical practice, from 
the day of its beginning to its fulfillment in his country- 
wide standing as a specialist in the prevention and treat- 
ment of tuberculosis. 

This utter devotion of all he was and could become, 
of all he had and could attain, was shot through with a 
passionate loving loyalty to America's democratic ideals. 
Such was his simple and child-like faith in self-govern- 
ment that he unreservedly entrusted to his fellow citizens 
the whole service of his life and skill. Although capable, 
in the judgment of another eminent physician, to earn 
$25,000 a year in private practice as a specialist, Dr. Sachs 
would thus work only for enough of a competence to enable 
him to devote most of his time and energy to the United 
Jewish Charities, the Chicago Tuberculosis Institute and 
the Municipal Tuberculosis Sanatorium of Chicago. From 
the initiative and unpaid directorship of these two latter 
agencies he declined to turn when offered the appointment 
as commissioner of health five years ago at a salary of 
$10,000 a year for four years. 

It was the very irony of fate that the present commis- 



105 



io6 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 22, ipi6 



sioner of health, at his first conference as ex-officio one 
of the three directors of the Municipal Sanatorium, should 
first of all inquire of Dr. Sachs as president of its board, 
how and to whom the contracts for the sanatorium supplies 
were let. When informed that they were let only to the 
lowest bidder among competitive bids, the commissioner 
replied that "the mayor's friends would have to be con- 
sidered in letting the contracts hereafter." Dr. Sachs' 
quiet and firm reply, "Not by me," marked the beginning 
of the determination to be rid of him and may have occa- 
sioned the long delay in his reappointment. This inter- 
view was cited by Dr. Sachs as compelling his resignation 
which he was persuaded to withhold until he could tell 
the whole town why and how he was forced out. 

Unfortunately for the public, and even more so for the 
mayor and his commissioner of health, this was the begin- 
ning and not the end of the fateful struggle which now 
turns on the tragic death of Dr. Sachs. Only a day or two 
before he died he said to a friend, "I am so confused and 
bewildered. I believed so much in America, and some day 
it will be all right, but now I am confused." 

What the conflict must have been under that cloud of 
confusion, between his faith in America and his fear 
that his whole life work which he had entrusted to his 
city would be allowed to be perverted and to perish at the 
spoilsmen's heavy hand, none can imagine who does not 
know how really this aspiring soul loved his city, how 
truly he identified his work for it with his very life. His 
letter of resignation reads like a confession of faith: 

"My service to the sanatorium during the last six years has 
been prompted by the earnest desire to give the best in me to 
this community in which I have resided during the last twenty- 
seven years. It is my judgment, after ten months' experience 
with the present administration, that the continuation of effi- 
cient service under the present conditions is absolutely im- 
possible." 

In an accompanying statement to the public, referring 
to the confidence shown by Chicago in taxing itself a mil- 
lion dollars a year for the sanatorium, he added : 

"I have refused to betray the community that has given me 
confidence. I have great faith in the city of Chicago and its 
citizens. I have passed through ten months of continuous 
nightmare in trying to avert the politicalization of a great in- 
stitution. But I find it impossible to continue. Single-handed 
at present I cannot fight a big political machine." 

The end came at the sanatorium of the Chicago Tuber- 
culosis Institute in the quiet little town of Naperville. 



There, after his day's work in town, he sought rest all 
alone in the quiet of the library. And there they found 
him the next morning at peace in his last sleep. On the 
table, besides the anaesthetics which he took to end his 
pain, there lay two letters. One was addressed to his wife, 
the other, "To the people of Chicago." To them he turned 
outward his innermost heart. At the core of it, his sana- 
torium and theirs was engraved in such letters of light as 
these, in which he wrote his farewell word to his fellow- 
citizens : 

"Built to the glory of Chicago, conceived in boundless love 
of humanity, made possible by years of toil, no institution was 
ever planned more painstakingly or built more honestly." 

There, too, in the depths of his heart was the shadow of 
his great fear of the attempt of "unscrupulous contractors 
and politicians to appropriate money which belongs to the 
sick and the poor." But with the flight of his spirit, his 
faith rose to its final declaration that "the institution should 
remain as it was built — unsoiled by graft and politics — 
the heritage of the people." Adding "I am simply weary, 
with love to all," his voice was hushed in the silence of 
the last sleep. His body was laid to rest by mournful 
hundreds, near the threshold of the sanatorium. 

THEN Chicago awoke as seldom if ever before, as 
he perhaps thought it might be aroused by his 
death more than by anything he might say or do in life. 
Although he had been assured ever since he resigned of 
the unanimous support of the press and an overwhelming 
public opinion, yet action followed the tragedy. 

A Committee of One Hundred of the most representative 
men in Chicago permanently organized to protect the sana- 
torium from the spoilsmen by demanding the thorough in- 
vestigation that Dr. Sachs pled for, and by giving continu- 
ous publicity to the affairs of the institution. Civic and 
social, religious and philanthropic agencies of all kinds de- 
nounced the spoilsmen's interference and attributed Dr. 
Sachs' death to their persecutions. And at the polls in the 
city election the desperate efforts of the city administration 
to defend itself and secure adherents in the City Council 
succeeded in winning for its candidates pluralities only in 
three of the thirty-five wards. 

And the end is not yet. 

Graham Taylor. 



IN MEMORIAM 
Edith S. Reider 



While a great city ate and drank and slept 
And played its play and went about its work, 

Letting its birthright slip from easy hands, 
One of its heroes died. 



In every loving detail taking shape, 

That thoughtless city let his life work go, 

Swept from his eager hands the thing he loved, 
And broke his heart, and cast his spirit down. 



A score of years had passed since he had come, 
Pilgrim of hope, an alien, to our land, 

In search of freedom and the chance to serve. 
Here he had sought through all the patient years 

To make his self-forgetting vision real — 
And as he saw his dream magnificient 



And now we mourn — because it is too late, 
But since his life is gone and our's are left, 

We must stand guard throughout the chastening years. 
Until a nobler city lifts its eyes 

And sees his vision of its higher life 
A City Beautiful, a City Right. 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 22, 1016 



107 



Communications 



BIRTH CONTROL 

To the Editor: As it would require 
many sheets of paper to analyze and set 
aright the many statements made in the 
article, in the March 4 Survey, entitled 
The Catholic Church and Birth Restric- 
tion, I will only refer to one of them; 
namely, "Actions that are in harmony 
with nature are good; those which are 
not in harmony with nature are bad." 

To carry an umbrella to keep nature's 
rain from falling where it otherwise 
would fall is wrong then. Nature had 
us born without clothes and, therefore, it 
is a violation of nature to wear clothing. 
Luther Burbank then, is an anti-natural- 
ist for he has taken the spines off of 
nature's spined cactus. He also crossed 
nature's blackberry with nature's red 
raspberry and thus gave us the ungodly, 
wicked, loganberry, etc. 

Thomas H. Gordnier. 

Los Angeles. 

To the Editor: Let me compliment 
you and your publication for the ap- 
pearance of the article by Prof. John A. 
Ryan, which occurred in a recent issue 
known as The Catholic Church and 
Birth Restriction. 

Articles of this high class and tenor 
will do much to raise the standard of 
any magazine which lends its pages to 
this use and I wish as a publication, 
which is so widely spread among social 
workers, that a magazine of your type 
might take a standard in this direction 
as a medium for the transmission of 
ideas on both sides of the question, for 
the tendency of social workers today is 
to deal with problems entirely from a 
materialistic standpoint, forgetting en- 
tirely the old and time-proven Biblical 
admonition, "Seek ye first the kingdom 
of God and all these things shall be add- 
ed unto you." 

Herbert C. Allen. 

Brooklyn. 

MORAL FIBER 

To the Editor: The letter from 
Susan W. Hoagland in The Survey for 
March 18 leads me to say that if Father 
Ryan's article on birth restriction is re- 
printed I should like to get some copies. 

I want the copies not so much for 
Father Ryan's discussion of birth control 
itself as for the clear and stimulating 
manner in which he brings home to his 
reader the corrupting tendency of the 
predominance among our ideals and in- 
terests of those which look to material 
welfare and physical comfort as the 
main object of social effort. 

Along with the admirable progress for 
mankind in many ways, any alert ob- 
server must be conscious that the gen- 
eration in which we live in America is 
characterized by diminishing toughness 
and dependability of moral fiber, by a 
softening of character which may be 



called increasing gentleness or increas- 
ing flabbiness, according to the point of 
view. It is the kind of change in char- 
acter which in the individual is apt to 
accompany, either as cause or effect, an 
escape from the influence of all strenu- 
ous discipline. It is a diminished ca- 
pacity for accepting hard knocks and 
unpleasant duties as they confront one 
and for growing strong in the struggle. 

I do not say that there is not a wider 
perception of duties, unpleasant and 
otherwise. A flabby character, like a 
flabby nervous system, is often ex- 
tremely sensitive. We see evidences of 
this increasing flabbiness of moral fiber 
and decreasing discipline of character 
all about us. We feel the tendency in 
ourselves. 

Now, one who is altogether dominated 
by the unselfish ideal of increasing the 
material ease and pleasure of others, who 
labors with devotion and self-abnegation 
to that end, like so many social workers, 
is certainly far less liable to flabby de- 
generation than one whose dominant 
ideal is to secure his own personal com- 
fort and pleasure. But in so far as the 
least selfish and most idealistic members 
of a community focus their highest as- 
pirations upon the ideal of making life 
easier and pleasanter for the people of 
that community, the social progress of 
the community may be expected to trend 
toward the same sort of flabby degen- 
eration that normally overtakes the self- 
indulgent individual. 

Every generation of men has its share 
of those emotional forces which history 
finds expressed in pure unmercenary art, 
in pure unmercenary science, and pre- 
eminently throughout the ages in the 
religions of mankind. One need not 
share Father Ryan's specific religious be- 
liefs, one need not subscribe to any 
formal religion, in order to recognize 
that when, in any community, these emo- 
tional forces become mainly absorbed in 
the problem of increasing and distribut- 
ing material welfare and physical com- 
fort in that community — become in effect 
the allies of materialism while retaining 
their emotional hold upon the idealist — 
it is not unreasonable to expect the im- 
pairment in the quality of the human 
material which so often comes not only 
with actual ease and self-indulgence but 
with a mere setting of the heart upon 
such ideals. 

We are all moved by the genius of 
our time. Personally nothing interests 
me half as much as the effort to make 
the physical environment of the people 
more satisfactory and agreeable. It is a 
good ideal in its place, and I expect to 
keep on working for it. But this does 
not interfere with seeing that the prog- 
ress of society under the stimulus of 
the ideals now dominant is self-limited 
by the degenerative toxins which they 
breed, or that the remedy will be found 



THE FAMILY 

As a Social and Educational Institution 

By Willystine Goodsell 

Teachers' College, Columbia University 

To those interested in the status 
of woman, this new book is espe- 
cially rich in data. Not only does 
it treat the economic and social 
significance of the family in primi- 
tive and in Greek and Roman so- 
cieties, but it traces its development 
to our own times, touching on such 
modern problems as family limita- 
tion, divorce and suffrage and the 
meaning and trend of feminism. 

"Tlie whole book is richly sug- 
gestive. It is well balanced in 
tone, being neither reactionary nor 
radical." 



At all bookstores, or by mail, $2.00 



THE MACMILLAN COMPANY, Publishers, New York 



THE WORLD'S SOCIAL EVIL 

By Wm. Burgess. Introduction by Graham Taylor 

Published by Saul Bros., Chicago. 400 pages, $1 .50 

We bought 700 of this remarkable book. While 

they last offer them at $1.25 prepaid. Send check 

or M. O. to THE BOOK BUREAU, DESPLAINES. 

ILLS. Circular Free. 



1916 DIARY AND MANUAL 

of the 

REAL ESTATE BOARD OF NEW YORK 



Contains all information pertaining to Real Estate matters, rules, 
regulations, etc. It is especially valuable where expert and 
technical information is required in ascertaining land values. 

Sent postpaid on receipt of $1 .10 
Real Estate Board of New York, 217 Broadway, New York City 



"THE FASCINATION OF THE 
NEW HOUSEKEEPING" 

THAT is how members speak of the new cor- 
respondence course Household Engineering, 
Scientific Management of the Home, It produces 

results in housekeeping just as marvelous as 
scientific management in other industries. It 
easily saves up to a third of the time spent in 
housework, smooths out difficulties and reduces 
expense. It changes indifference to enthusiasm 
and brings about the splendid efficiency attitude 
of mind that makes for success, health and 
happiness. 

All who are interested in housekeeping or 
who would like help in their problems or who 
wish to make progress in their life work are 
invited to enroll (this month) free of charge. 
Simply write a post card or note or clip. 

American School of Home Economics, 
519 West 69th Street, Chicago. 
Please enroll me for your new course, "Household 
Engineering." Send details and directions and Part I, 
The Labor Saving Kitchen, 64 pp. and the remaining 
eleven (11) Parts, one per month. When I am sure of the 
value of the course to me, I will pay $8.50 in full (or) I 
will send $1.00 per month till $9.00 is paid. Otherwise 
I will return the lesson books received and pay nothing. 

Kindly give some informa- Signed 

tion about yourself. 



io8 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 22, lc/16 



National Conference of 

Charities and Corrections 

Indianapolis, May 10-17 

Special accommodations for delegates on 
the Southwestern Limited leaving Grand 
Central Terminal, N.Y. 4.00 p. m. May 9th. 

Also solid through trains from New York, 
Boston, Albany, Syracuse, Rochester, 
Buffalo, Cleveland, Cincinnati, St. Louis, 
Chicago and intermediate points via 

New York Central Lines 

For tickets and Pullman accommodations consult ticket 
agents, New York Central Lines or your local ticket agent 



New York Central, Boston & Albany 
Michigan Central, Big Four Route 
Pittsburgh & Lake Erie 
Toledo & Ohio Central 



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THREE INSTITUTES for 
Social Workers, June 1-21, 



offer experienced workers 
in several fields opportunity to dis- 
cuss their common problems in the 
stimulating give and take of round- 
table sessions. 
The Institute in Family Welfare, conducted by Porter R. 
Lee, will consider ; (1) essentials of family welfare; (2) methods 
which give the best results in diagnosis of disabilities ; (3) the 
problem of co-ordinating different forms of social work. 

The Institute in Social Work for the Handicapped Child, 
conducted by Henry W. Thurstcn, will deal with: (1 ) the work 
of the individual worker with the individual child ; (2) organized 
community efforts to care for children. 

The Institute for Tuberculosis Workers (the first of its kind), 
conducted by Philip P. Jacobs, aims: (I) to train secretaries for 
the anti-tuberculosis field; (2) to give a broad outlook on this 
field; (3) to aid in standardizing methods. 

In all of the Institutes membership is limited and is by invi- 
tation. Correspondence is solicited with those interested. 

SCHOOL PUBLICATIONS- Fifty Benevolent and Social Institutions in and near New York, 
by Mary Grace Worthington, Supervisor of Field Work, 25 cents. 



only in the domination of society by 
more disciplinary ideals, as indicated by 
Father Ryan. 

Religion when sincere and strong is 
thus disciplinary. 

Warfare is thus disciplinary, even 
though it gives rise to degenerative 
toxins in many other respects. 

Hard discipline we must again undergo 
if real social progress is to continue. 
Let us hope that it will not be purchased 
at a needless cost. 

Frederick Law Olmsted. 

Brookline, Mass. 

THE SURVEY: ONCE-A-MONTH 

To the Editor : Congratulations on 
your new first of the month number. I 
am increasingly impressed by the fitness 
of Professor Rauschenbusch's comment 
in his Christianizing a Social Order. 

The Survey makes me wish for a pri- 
vate secretary. Almost every week it 
suggests a letter to be written to the 
editor or elsewhere, in commendation or 
protest. It is a salutary leaven. 

Charles L. Carhart. 
[Minister Larchmont Ave. Church.] 
Larchrnont, N. Y. 



To the Editor: Please accept our 
sincere compliments for the really beauti- 
ful number of your magazine in its hand- 
some new typographical dress and make- 
up. 

Charles McDonald. 
[Secretary Mutual Welfare League.] 

Sing Sing Prison, N. Y. 





CALENDAR OF 
CONFERENCES 





Items for the next calendar should reach 
The Survey before May 10. 

April and May. 

Boys' Work Conference. Scranton, Pa., 
May 17-19. Sec'y, C. J. Atkinson, 1 
Madison avenue, New York. 

Charities and Correction, Connecticut 
State Conference of. Norwich, Conn., 
April 30-May 2. Sec'y, Edward D. B. 
Lynde, New London, Conn. 

Charities and Correction, National Con- 
ference of. Indianapolis, Ind. May 10- 
17. Sec'y, W. T. Cross, 315 Plymouth 
court, Chicago. 

Charities and Correction, New Jersey 
State Conference of. Hoboken, N. J., 
April 30-May 2. Sec'y. Ernest D. Easton, 
45 Clinton street. Newark, N. J. 

Charities and Correction, New York City 
Conference of. Brooklyn, Manhattan, 
and Bronx, May 25-27. Sec'y, John B. 
Prest, 287 Fourth avenue, New York. 

Child Helping Conference, Lehigh Valley. 
Catasauqua, Pa., May 13. Sec'y, Mrs. 
Frank DeGroot, 626 Walnut street, 
Catasauqua, Pa. 

Children's Home Society, National. In- 
dianapolis, Ind., May 8-10. Sec'y. W. S. 
Reynolds, 1818 Republic bldg., Chicago. 

Nurseries, National Federation of. 
Eleventh biennial conference. Chicago, 
May 2-3. Sec'y. Marjory Hall, 105 East 
88 street, New York. 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 22, ipi6 



109 



"One of the most brilliant and useful books 
for active-minded Americans." 

American Munici- 
pal Progress 

By Charles Zueblin 

It is doubtful if any other book 
of like size contains more useful 
and accurate information about the 
cities of this country. The author 
has made an enlightening discus- 
sion, topic by topic, of municipal 
conditions, dealing with every con- 
ceivable phase of governmental ac- 
tivity and presented a clear-cut pic- 
ture of collective achievements in 
municipal improvement during the 
twentieth century. 

New edition, thoroughly revised and 
enlarged, with many illustrations 



At all bookstores, or by mail, $2.00 



THE MACMILLAN COMPANY, Publishers. New York 



Classified Advertisements 



SITUATIONS WANTED 

MAN, executive, fifteen years' experi- 
ence, boys' club, probation and associated 
charities work, seeks opening in larger city. 
Address Social Service Bureau, Richmond, 
Indiana. 

TRAINED Kindergartner, Settlement 
and Social Worker desires position in 
Summer and Fall work. Playground ex- 
perience. Trained investigator. Address 
2304 Survey. 

EXECUTIVE Head of Settlement and 
Welfare worker, 16 years' experience, ref- 
erence, Jewish, seeks connection, would 
consider Summer work. Address 2306 

Survey. 

AN executive position in reformatory 
or probation work, location middle West 
preferred. College woman, good experi- 
ence. Address 2308, Survey. 

HELP WANTED 

SCOUT EXECUTIVE WANTED 

Scout Executive for a city of 500,000. 
Competent and experienced man desired. 
Write, giving full particulars to Box 2305 
Survey. 

ASSISTANT Director for large Camp 
for boys. Open from June 15 to Septem- 
ber 10th. To assume entire charge during 
latter part of summer. Address 2307 

FOR THE HOME 



BULLETINS: 



"Five-Cent Meals." 10c; "5*0w> 
Values," 10c; "Free-Hand CooV 

ing," 10c; "The Up-To-Date Home, Labor Saving Aj. 

pliances," 15c: "The Profession of Home-Making,' 

Home Study, Domestic Science Courses, 100 pp. free. 

American School of Home Economics. 519 West 69th St.. Chicago 



Dependent, Truant, Backward and De- 
linquent Children, National Conference 
on the Education of. Indianapolis, Ind., 
May 8-9. Sec'y, W. L. Kuser, Eldora, 
Iowa. 

Drama League of America. St. Louis, 
Mo., April 22-25. Sec'y, Mrs. John A. 
Orb, 736 Marquette Bldg., Chicago. 

Ethical Movement in America, Fortieth 
anniversary of. New York, May 14-21. 
Sec'y, Stanley Ries, 2 West 64 street, 
New York. 

Fire Protection Association, National. 
Chicago, 111., May 9-11. Sec'y, Franklin 
H. Wentworth, 87 Milk street, Boston. 

Hygiene and Public Baths, American As- 
sociation for Promoting. Baltimore, Md., 
May 9. Sec'y, J. Leonard Mason, 587 City 
Hall, Philadelphia. 

Jewish Charities, National Conference of. 
Ninth biennial meeting. Indianapolis, 
Ind., May 8-11. Sec'y, Louis H. Levin, 
411 West Fayette street, Baltimore. 

Mothers, California Congress of. Santa 
Ana, Cal., May 24-25. Sec'y, Mrs. W. F. 
Eschbacher, 1 Greenbank avenue, Pied- 
mont, Cal. 

Museums, American Association of. Wash- 
ington, D. C, May 15-17. Sec'y, Paul M. 
Rea, Charleston Museum, Charleston, 
S. C. 

Nurses' Association, American. New Or- 
leans, La., April 26-May 2. Sec'y, Kath- 
arine DeWitt, 45 South Union street, 
Rochester, N. Y. 

Nurses' Association, California State. San 
Jose, Cal., May 25-27. Sec'y, Mrs. B. 
Taylor, 126 Ramsell street, San Fran- 
cisco. 

Nursing Education, National League of. 
New Orleans, La., April 26-May 2. Sec'y, 
Isabelle M. Stewart, Teachers College, 
New York. 

Officials of Charity and Correction, 
American Association of. Indianapolis, 
Ind., May 10. Sec'y, George S. Wilson, 
District bldg., Washington, D. C. 

Open Forum Council. Buffalo, N. Y., May 
7-9. Director, George W. Coleman, 354 
Congress street, Boston. 

Police Women, International Association 
of. Indianapolis, Ind. May 10-12. Sec'y, 
Mrs. Georgiana Sharrot, 40 Court house, 
Minneapolis. 

Polish Social Workers, First National 
Conference of. Indianapolis, Ind., May 
10-11. Sec'y, Thaddeus Sleszynski, 2026 
Haddon avenue, Chicago. 

Political and Social Science, American 
Academy of. Twentieth annual meeting. 
Philadelphia, Pa., April 28-29. Sec'y, J. 
P. Lichtenberger, Philadelphia. 

Probation Association, National. Indian- 
apolis, Ind., May 9-10. Sec'y, Charles L. 
Chute, 58 North Pearl street, Albany, 
N. Y. 

Public Health Nursing, National Organ- 
ization for. New Orleans, La., April 26- 
May 2. Executive Sec'y, Ella Phillips 
Crandall, 25 West 45 street, New York. 

Settlements, National Federation of. New 
York, May 19-24. Sec'y, Robert A. 
Woods, South End House, Boston. 

Social Agencies, California State Confer- 
ence of. Los Angeles, Cal., May 1-5. 
Sec'y, Stuart A. Queen, 533 Phelan build- 
ing, San Francisco. 

Social Welfare, Arkansas Conference for. 
Little Rock, Ark., April 25-27. Sec'y, 
Mrs. Scott C. Runnells, Little Rock, Ark. 

Societies for Organizing Charity, Amer- 
ican Association of. Indianapolis, Ind., 
May 10. Sec'y, Francis H. McLean, 130 
East 22 street, New York. 
Tuberculosis, National Association for the 
Study and Prevention of. Washington, 
D. C, May 11-12. Ass't Sec'y, Philip 
P. Jacobs, 105 East 22 street, New York. 



"The Roots of Good Government" 

Principles and 

Methods of Municipal 

Administration 

By William Bennett Munro 

'Professor of Municipal Government in Harvard 
University 

Professor Munro's new book 
deals with the actual functioning 
mechanism of city organization; 
taking up the various departments 
in turn, he explains the existing 
conditions of each, the reforms 
that have been accomplished, the 
defects and difficulties, and fre- 
quently suggests methods of im- 
provement. 

Every thoughtful man and 
woman who take seriously their 
responsibilities as citizens of a 
republic will profit by a reading of 
this most stimulating book. 



At all bookstores, or by mail, $2.25 



THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. Publishers. New York 



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all standard slides. Price $30.00 and up. The Home 
Balopticon projects post cards, photos, maps, specimens 
and other opaque objects in natural colors. Price,$35.00. 
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The Girl and Her Chance 

A Study of the New York City Girl between 

Fourteen and Eighteen Years of Age Made by 

Harriet McDoual Daniels. 

• For the ASSOCIATION of NEIGHBORHOOD 

WORKERS of NEW YORK CITY 

Foreword by Mrs. Vladimir Q. Simkhovitch 

As edition is limited send ORDER AT ONCE to 

Association of Neighborhood Workers, 188 Ludlow St., N.Y. City 

Cloth 50c. net, 55c. postpaid 



AMERICA'S GIFT TO THE OLD WORLD 

A pageant or masque for home economics students. By 
Helen W. Atwater and C. F. Langworthy. A publi- 
cation for the Richards Memorial Fund. American Home 
Economics Association, Station N, Baltimore, Md. 



no 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 22, ipi6 



Women's Agricultural and Horticul- 
tural Association, National. Boston, 
Mass., May 18-19. Chairman, Mrs. George 
U. Crocker, 378 Marlboro street, Boston. 

Young Men's Christian Associations of 
North America, thirty-ninth international 
convention of. Cleveland, O., May 12-16. 
Sec'y, John R. Mott, International Com- 
mittee, 124 East 28 street, New York. 
National 

Catholic Charities, National Conference 
of. Washington, D. C, Sept. 17-20. Sec'y, 
Rev. Wm. J. Kerby, Catholic University, 
Washington, D. C. 

Christian Co-operation of Organizations 
Doing Inter-Church Work, Conference 
on. Atlantic City, N. J., June 2-5. Sec'y, 
James A. Whitmore, 105 East 22 street, 
New York. 

Education Association, National. New 
York. July 3-8. Sec'y, D. W. Springer, 
Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Housing Association, National. Provi- 
dence, R. I., October 9-11. Sec'y, Law- 
rence Veiller, 105 East 22 street, New 
York. 

Humane Association, American. Cincin- 
nati, O., October 16-19. Sec'y, Nathaniel 
J. Walker, Humane Society bldg., Albany, 
N. Y. 

Infant Mortality, American Association 
for Study and Prevention of. Seventh 
annual meeting. Milwaukee, Wis., Oc- 
tober 19-21. Executive Sec'y, Miss Ger- 
trude B. Knipp, 1211 Cathedral street, 
Baltimore. 

Legal Aid Societies, National Alliance of. 
Cincinnati, O., October 11-12. Pres., M. 
W. Acheson, Jr., Oliver bldg., Pittsburg. 

Library Association, American. Asbury 
Park, N. J., June 26-July 1. Sec'y, George 
B. Utley, 78 East Washington street, Chi- 
cago. 

Medicine, American Academy of. Detroit, 
Mich., June 9-12. Sec'y, Dr. Thomas W. 
Grayson, 1101 Westinghouse bldg., Pitts- 
burg. 

Remedial Loan Associations, National 
Federation of. Detroit, Mich., June 22- 
24. Sec'y, G. E. Upson, 107 Paul bldg., 
Utica, N. Y. 

Safety Council, National. Detroit, Mich., 
October 16-21. Sec'y, W. H. Cameron, 
Continental and Commercial Bank, Chi- 
cago. 

Women's Clubs, General Federation of. 
New York city. May 23-June 2. Sec'y, 
Mrs. Eugene Reilley, 508 Park avenue, 
Charlotte, N. C. 

State and Local 

Better New England, Conference for a. 
Springfield, Mass., October 14-15. Di- 
rector, Esther Taber Fox, Litchfield, Conn. 

Mayors and Other City Officials, New 
York State Conference of. Syracuse, N. 
Y., May 31-June 2. Sec'y, William P. 
Capes, 25 Washington avenue, Albany, 
N. Y. 

Municipal League of Indiana. Goshen, 
Ind., July 11-13. 

Exhibits 

Today and Tomorrow Civic Exposition, 
Widener bldg., Philadelphia, Pa., May 15- 
June 10. 



SOCIAL WORKERS 

Are you seeking a position ? 

Are you looking for trained 

workers for your staff ? 

Apply to the Department for Social Workers 

Intercollegiate Bureau of Occupations 

1 30 East 22nd Street. New York 
It is a clearing house for social workers 



INFORMATION DESK 

The following national bodies will gladly and freely supply information and advise reading on the subjects 
named by each and on related subjects. Members are kept closely in touch with the work which each organi- 
zation is doing, but membership is not required of those seeking information. Correspondence is invited. Alway 
enclose postage for reply. 



Health 


f-JREVENTION OF BLINDNESS - National 
\~ Committee for. Objects : To furnish in- 
formation for Associations, Commissions 
and persons working to conserve vision ; to pub- 
lish literature of movement; to furnish exhibits, 
lantern slides, lectures. Printed matter: sam- 
ples free ; quantities at cost. Invites member- 
ship. Field, United states. Includes N. Y. 
State Com. Ed. M. Van Cleve, Mgr. Director; 
Gordon L. Berrv. Field Secretary and Acting 
Secretary. Address, 130 E. 22d St., N. Y. C. 


OEX EDUCATION- Society of Sanitary and 
^ Moral Prophylaxis, 105 West 40th Street, 
New York City. .Maurice A. Bigelow, 
Secretary. Seven educational pamphlets. 10c 
each. Three reprints. 5c each. Quarterly 
journal. $1.00 per year. Dues — Active $2.00 ; 
Contributing, $5.00; Sustaining, $10.00. Mem- 
bership includes current and subsequent liter- 
ature. Maintains lecture bureau. 






/^ANCER — American Society for the Control 
y^j of lancer, 289 fourth Ave., New York 
City. Curtis E. Lakeman, Exec. Secy. 
To disseminate knowledge concerning symp- 
toms, diagnosis, treatment and prevention. 
Publications free on request. Annual member- 
ship dues $5. 


T-JUGENCIS REGISTRY — Board of Direc- 
M, tors, Chancellor David Starr Jordan, Pres- 
J ~ t idem : Prof. Irving Fisher, Dr. C. B. Daven- 
port. Luther Burbank. Dr. .1. H. Kellogg, Secretary. 
A bureau for the encouragement of interest 
in eugenics as a means of Itace Betterment, 
established and maintained for the Race Better- 
Foundation in co-operation with the Eu- 
genics Record "Hire. Address, Eugenics Ri 
Board, Battle Creek, Mich. 


/COMMITTEE ON PROVISION FOR THE 
1. FEEBLE-MINDED —Objects: To dissem 
inate knowledge concerning the extent 
and menace of feeble-mindedijess and to sug- 
gesl and initiate methods for its control and 


Racial Problems 


ultimate eradication from the American people. 
General offices Empire Bldg . Phila.. Pa Foi in- 
formation, literature, etc., address Joseph P. Byers, 
Exec. Sec'y. 


XTEGRO YEAR BOOK— Meets the demand 

I^U for concise information concerning the 

condition and progress of the Negro 

Race. Extended bibliographies. Full index. 


"K JTENTAI. HYGIENE— National Committee 
1VJ. fo1 ' Mental Hygiene. 50 Union Square, 
■""■ New York City, Clifford W. Beers, Sec'y. 
Write for pamphlets on mental hygiene, pre- 
vention of insanity and mental deficiency, care 
of insane and feeble-minded, surveys. social ser- 
vice in mental hygiene, State Societies for Men- 
tal Hygiene. 


1'rice 25c. By mail 35c. Negro Year Book 
Company. Tuskegee Institute, Alabama. 

In addition to information in Negro Year 
Book. Tuskegee Institute will furnish other 
data on the condition and progress of the Ne- 
gro race. 


TJAMPTON INSTITUTE. HAMPTON. VA. 
£""]_ — Trains Negro and Indian youth. "Great 
educational experiment station." Neither 
:\ state nor a government school. Supported 
by voluntary contributions. II. B. Frlssell, 
Principal: F. K. Rogers. Treasurer: W. H. 
ScovIIIe, Secretary. Free literature on race ad- 
(ustment, Hampton aims and methods. Southern 
Workman, illustrated monthly, $1 a vear : free 


•RTATIONAL HEALTH -Committee of One 
|\ Hundred on National Health. E. F. Rob- 
bin-. Exec. Sec, 203 E. :_'7th St., New 
York. To unite all government health agencies 
into a National Department of Health to in- 
form the people bow to prevent disease, 


T-fUBERCULOSIS— National Association for 


to donors. 


the Study and Prevention of Tuberculosis, 
* 105 East 22nd St. New York. Charles J. 
Hatfield. M.D., Exec. Sec'y. Reports, pamph- 
lets, etc., sent upon request. Annual transac- 
tions and other publications free to members 


K TATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR THE AD- 
IN VANCEMENT OF COLORED PEOPLE 

' 70 Fifth Avenue, New York. Publishes 
The Crisis, a monthly magazine, 63 branches 
and locals. Legal aid, literature, speakers, lan- 
lein slide's, press material, etc. President, 
Moorfield Stony: Chairman of the Board of 
Directors, J. E. Splngarn ; Vice President and 
Treasurer, Oswald Garrison Viliard: Director 
of Publications and Research, W. E. B. DtiBols, 
Acting Secretary, Roj Nash 


TJUBLIC HEALTH American Public Health 
f~ Association. Pres., John F. Anderson, 
* M.D., New Brunswick, N. .1. ; Sec'y., Prof. 
S. M. < : u n ii. Boston. Object "To protect ami 
promote public and personal health. six Sec 
tions : Laboratory, Sanitary Engineering, Vital 
Statistics. Sociological, Public Health Adminis- 
tration, Industrial Hygiene. Official monthly 
organ, American Journal of Public 'Health: 

$3.00 per year. To si bvex readers 4 s. 

trial subscription .",o cents. Address 755 Boyl- 
ston St., Boston, Mass. 

X TATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR PUB- 
|\ LIC HEALTH NURSING— Object : to 

stimulate the extension of public health 
nursing; to develop standards of technique; to 
maintain a central bureau of information. Pub- 
lications! Pub. Health Nursing Quarterly, $1.00 
per year, and bulletins. Address Ella Phillips 
Crandall, It. N. Exec. Sec, 25 West 45th St., 
New York City. 


Social and Economic Problems 


A MERICAN ECONOMIC ASSOCIATION^ 

research," "the issue of publications on 
economic subjects," "the encouragement of per- 
fect freedom of economic discussion." The mem- 
bership includes the professional economists 
ol the country together with many others Inter- 
ested ill Scientific study of economic problems, 

Publications: American Economic Review, Pro- 
ceedings of Annual Meetings, and Handbook 
Dues $5.00 a year. Secretary A. A. Y'oung, 
Ithaca, N. Y. 






*"pHE AMERICAN RED CROSS -Through 
its Town and Country Nursing Service, 


Remedial Loans 


maintains a Staff of specially prepared 

visiting nurses for appointment to small towns 

and rural districts. Pamphlets supplied on 
organization and administration of visiting 
nurse associations; personal assistance and ex 
hibits available for local use. Apply to Su 
nerlntendent, Red Cross Town and Country 


T">EMEDIAL LOANS — National Federation 
re of Remedial Loan Associations, ISO E. 
*^22nd St.. N. Y. Arthur 11. 11am 

Reports, pamphlets, and forms for societies 
free. Information regarding organlM tion of 
remedial loan societies gladly given. 


Nursing Service. Washington, D. C. 




COCIAL HYGIENE— The American Social 
^ Hygiene Assoc, inc. 105 West H'th St. N. 
w Y. : Branch Oilier- 122 South Michigan 
Ave., Chicago; Phelan Bldg., San Francisco. 

To promote sound sex education, the reduction 

of venereal diseases, and the suppression of com- 
mercialized vice. Quarterly magazine "Social 
Hygiene." Monthly Bulletin. Membership. $6 : 
sustaining. Slo. Information upon request. Pres., 
Charles W. Ellol : Gen. Sec'y, William F. Snow, 
M.l>. ; Counsel, James B. Reynolds. 


Work With Boys 


T»OYS' CLUB FEDER A TI ON ^National 
Pi Headquarters, 1 Madison Ave., New \ork 
■*-' City. A clearing house for information 
on subjects relating to work with boys. Print- 
ed matter distributed; workers furnished: as- 
sistance given in organizing, invites member- 
ship. Club free: individual $1.00. Wm. C. 
Stevenson. President; C. J. Atkinson, Execu- 
tive- Secretary. 









semvey* 




APRIL 29, I 9 16 




Tried for Treason in Her Father s Stead 



By Mary McDowell 



Discipline for City Employes 

By Leonhard Felix Fuld 

1 00 Years of Indiana 

By Alexander Johnson 



piiiiiiiiHiiKiiiiniiiiiiiiiimii 




tie 



PRICE IO CENTS 



VOL. XXXVI 



NUMBER 5 




CONTENTS for APRIL 29, , 9 i6 The GIST „/ IT 



77/£ COMMON WELFARE 



VOL. XXXVI NO. 5 



Legislation by Hit and Miss ---... m 

Fire Risks of Gimbel's Store - . -Ill 

Service for Those Who Will Not Fight - - - - - - - 112 

A Raise for the Subway "Muckers" - - - - - - . -112 

The Appeal of the Ford Neutrals - - - - - - - - 113 

Chicago's Generous New Protocol - - - - - 113 

Red-Light or Daylight in Cleveland - ----- 113 

Quick Growth of Mental Hygiene - - - - 114 

How Dallas Audited Its Public Service - - 114 

Secretary Hebberd Out of State Board - - 114 

Health Insurance Before Congress -- ----115 

Tried in Her Father's Stead - - mary mcdowell 116 

A Builder of Democracy - - charles h. cooley 116 



CONTRIBUTED ARTICLES 
A State Aged 100. II. 
The Deceiver, a poem 

CIVICS 

Improved Disciplinary Methods for City Employes 
Civic Periodicals of Recent Birth 



ALEXANDER JOHNSON 117 
SARAH N. CLEGHORN 121 



LEON HARD FELIX FULD 122 
- 122 



HEALTH 

Heart Disease, Rival of Tuberculosis - - - 124 

Putting Pounds on Tuberculous Children - 124 

COMMUNICATIONS ----------- 126 



SURVEY ASSOCIATES Inc. PUBLISHERS 

ROBERT W. de FOREST President 

ARTHUR P. KELLOGG Secretary FRANK TUCKI'.R Treasurer 

PUBLICATION OFFICE WESTERN OFFICE 

ii2 East igth Street, New York 2S59 Michigan Ave., Chicago 

PRICE 

Single copies of this issue ten cents. Co-operating subscriptions Sio a year. Regular subscriptions weekly edition $3 
a year. Foreign postage S1.50 extra. Canadian 75 cents. Regular subscriptions once-a-month edition $z a year. 
Foreign pos'age 60 cents extra. Canadian 35 cents. C hanges of address should be mailed to us ten days in 
advance. In accordance with a growing commercial practice, when payment is by check a receipt will be sent 
only upon request. Copyright, 10.16, by Survey Associates, Inc. Entered as second class matter 
March 2^, ionq, at the j'ost office at New York, N. I'., under the Act of March 3, 1879. 











Still Another Mexican Invasion 

Last month The Survey told how ultimate good came 
of the invasion of Texas by the Mexican boll weevil. 
Now the Mexican laborer bobs up in the Arizona 
copper mines — an ill-paid fellow who finally struck. 
And out of his case came Governor Hunt's famous 
instructions to the militia to keep out strike-breakers 
— something brand new in the industrial history of 
the states. A review of it by John A. Fitch in 

The Survey Next Wee\ 











FEDERAL QUARANTINE for the port 
of New York is one of the tangible gains 
of a feckless legislative session. Page 111. 

BRYN MAWR ALUMNAE have declared 
Gimbel's department store in Philadelphia 
a risky fire hazard for employes and shop- 
pers. Philadelphia newspapers please copy. 
Page 111. 

PERCY ALDEN, M.P., tells of the am- 
bulance service of the English Quakers 
caught in the conscription act but unwilling 
to bear arms. Page 112. 

HART, SCHAFFNER & MARX and their 
workmen have signed a protocol marked 
by generosity and good will on both sides. 
Page 113. 

SYPHILIS INFECTIONS have dropped 
one-half since Cleveland put the snuffers 
to its red lights. Page 113. 

CITIZENS OF SIX neutral nations, sit- 
ting in the Ford conference at The Hague, 
have issued an appeal to the warring na- 
tions. Page 113. 

DALLAS CALLED IN an expert to survey 
its public service situation and as a result 
has cut down light rates and otherwise put 
a checkrein on the outside corporation 
which serves it. A popular vote sustained 
Mayor Lindsley in his action. Page 114. 

ROBERT W. HEBBERD has resigned as 
secretary of the New York State Board of 
Charities without waiting for the report 
of the official investigation of the board 
Page 114. 

ORGANIZED WORK for mental hygiene 
has made rapid progress in its brief two 
years of life. Page 114. 

SAMUEL GOMPERS, the only opponent 
of health insurance at the hearing on the 
congressional bill, voiced his strong feel- 
ing against compulsory insurance. Page 
115. 

ALICE MASARYK, well remembered by 
Chicago settlement workers for her simple, 
unostentatious democracy, has been arrested 
at Prague, charged with treason. Appar 
ently she suffers for the feeling against 
her father, known all over Europe as the 
friend of the small nations. Page 116. 

AN APPRECIATION of President An- 
gell by the professor of sociology at the 
University of Michigan. Page 116. 

AN ARTICLE FROM which it appears 
that Indiana is 100 years old and Alexander 
Johnson 69 years young. Page 117. 

DISCIPLINE IN THE New York Fire 
Department is maintained by imposing 
longer hours of work in place of tines, 
therebv punishing the man instead of his 
wife. Page 122. 

PREVENTIVE WORK among children is 
advocated to meet the rising death-rate 
from heart disease. Page 124 




C092OT 




IU 



■KM 




LEGISLATION BY HIT AND 
MISS 

TRANSFER of the quarantine sta- 
tion at the port of New York to 
the federal government and confirmation 
of Governor Whitman's nomination of 
Dr. L. E. Cofer of the United States 
Public Health Service as health officer 
of the port was accomplished at the twen- 
ty-third hour of the last legislative day 
in New York. Not only for its intrinsic 
importance, especially at this time when 
Asiatic plagues are creeping westward 
and the close of the war is to have un- 
predictable effects upon immigration, but 
in contrast to a generally barren session, 
this placing of a trained quarantine man 
at our chief port of entry stands out as 
an important gain. 

The other chief health measure — the 
appointment of a commission on health 
insurance — went by the board, so that 
unless Massachusetts acts or Congress is 
galvanized into passing the federal bill, 
the pioneer California commission will 
have to go it alone for this year at least. 

Governor Whitman must choose be- 
tween the two conflicting prison bills, 
both enacted. One fixes for Sing Sing 
prison a new site once purchased and 
later discarded by the state as unsuit- 
able, while the other puts the choice of 
a site in the hands of a commission. 

And the governor must pass, too, on 
the fruits of the annual legislative raid 
of the New York canners. Both As- 
sembly and Senate passed the Spring- 
Brennan bill, a reincarnation of the no- 
torious Thompson bills defeated by last 
year's legislature. 

Under the present labor law the can- 
ners are favored above other manufac- 
turers by being allowed under certain 
conditions to employ women sixty-six 
hours a week and eleven hours a day 
during the rush period from June 15 to 
October 15. The Spring-Brennan bill 
would give the State Industrial Commis- 
sion power to extend even these hours, 
so that women of eighteen years and up- 
ward may be employed for a limited 
number of days twelve hours a day. It 
also fixes the closing hour as 12 p. m. 
instead of 10 p. m. and makes Sunday 
work possible. Thus eighteen hours may 
be added to the week of girl cannery 

Volume XXXVI, No. 3 



workers if the Industrial Board "shall 
find such employment is required by the 
needs of such industry in emergencies 
and can be permitted without serious in- 
jury to the health of women so employed, 
and wages of one and a half times the 
usual rate are paid for all overtime in 
excess of ten hours per day." 

The wage clause is regarded as a sop 
to "uplifters." It is doubted, however, 
whether the Industrial Commission, even 
if it could enforce such a provision, has 
the lawful power to fix wages for either 
overtime or ordinary time. 

To rest itself from such trying labors, 
the Assembly ornamented its closing ses- 
sion with a cabaret singer from a nearby 
cafe. Mounted on a table, he regaled 
the lawmakers with songs that, according 
to the New York Times, "at times ap- 
proached the indecent." 



GOOD TIDINGS 
By Dr. Charles T. Ryder 

T THAT have watched and pray- 
ed the long night through, 
Almost despairing, doubting of 
the dawn, 
Yet kept a little flame still burn- 
ing true, 
Nor quite confessed that life and 
hope were gone, 
Now see the glory of the world 
returning — 
// floods the earth, and warms 
me to the soul, 
And my small flame, so faint, yet 
faithful burning, 
Springs high to greet the sun, 
and I am whole. 
Hail, loyal hearts, my comrades 
in the night! 
Hail and farewell, lost comrades 
of the way! 
Hail and all hail, giver of life and 
light! 
Hail ye, that still in darkness 
wait the day! 
To you and all, my true report 
I give — 
Have faith, have faith in life, 
and ye shall live. 



The Associated Charities of 
Minneapolis publish in their Bul- 
letin these undaunted lines by Dr. 
Ryder, who himself is "playing the 
lone game." 



FIRE RISKS OF GIMBEL'S 
STORE 

THE skeleton in the closet of Phila- 
delphia's public safety has at last 
been exposed by a little group of Bryn 
Mawr alumnae. To be sure, others includ- 
ing the Chamber of Commerce, the Board 
of Trade, the Bureau of Municipal Re- 
search and the fire marshal of Philadel- 
phia himself have peeked inside and 
attempted to drag the skeleton out to 
public view, but always the press, the 
insurance companies and other pow- 
erful interests have slammed the door. 

The Bryn Mawr Alumnae Committee 
on Fire Prevention, is determined, how- 
ever, that no force shall prevent people 
from realizing that in the heart of Phil- 
adelphia stands an establishment menac- 
ing the welfare and security of the whole 
city. This establishment is the great 
department store of Gimbel Brothers em- 
ploying approximately 5,000 women, chil- 
dren and men, crowded at certain hours 
of the day with as many more of the 
purchasing public. 

Over 20 years ago Gimbel Brothers 
took possession of the vast pile, de- 
scribed by architects as a "stack of 
cards" which, if fire started under cer- 
tain conditions, might cause Philadel- 
phia to be flame swept from river to 
river. 

Since that time a wing has been added 
here or a story built there, always with 
a view to accommodating more shoppers 
and more merchandise, never with the 
purpose of protecting the lives of human 
beings. 

Now the building stands 10 stories 
high, occupying almost a block, all sup- 
ports above the first floor of exposed 
metal, the walls an aggregation of an- 
cient buildings, the stairways and ele- 
vator shafts quite open and no fire walls 
to check a blaze. Besides being massed 
with inflammable materials, the upper 
floors of the store are used for factories 
with all the well known fire predisposing 
conditions of such industries. 

Around the establishment are other 
stores and office buildings whose owners 
are paying, in ratio with the proximity 
of their property to Gimbel Brothers, 30, 
20 and 10 cents extra on every $100 

III 



112 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 29, 1916 



worth of insurance — a total insurance 
surtax of about $100,000 per annum. One 
firm which sells its products to Gimbel 
Brothers is said to lose as much in ex- 
cessive insurance as it gains in profits 
on such sales. Although the Philadel- 
phia Fire Underwriters Association has 
offered in writing to remove the insur- 
ance surtax whenever the physical con- 
ditions of the Gimbel store have been 
rectified, neighborhood complaint has 
somehow been muzzled. 

About two years ago the City of Phil- 
adelphia brought suit against Gimbel 
Brothers charging them with refusing to 
comply with the law in erecting fire-walls 
which would divide the store into three 
sections and make it as safe as many 
other big buildings of its type in the dis- 
trict. The act alleged to have been dis- 
regarded by the proprietors entails a 
specific penalty of $25 for every three 
days' non-compliance. 

Yet despite the efforts of the Philadel- 
phia fire marshal this old charge has 
never. been answered. In vain the Phil- 
adelphia Chamber of Commerce, the 
Board of Trade and the Bureau of Mu- 
nicipal Research have adopted resolu- 
tions supporting the city. The case has 
always been "adjourned." 

Now comes fresh energy into this cam- 
paign for public security. In January, 
the fire four classes (1889-92) to be 
graduated from Bryn Mawr College re- 
solved upon a unique "class gift" for 
their twenty-fifth anniversary — the or- 
ganization of a Fire Prevention Commit- 
tee co-operating with an advisory board 
of experts and employing two investi- 
gators who are working under the State 
Department of Labor and Industry. On 
the very threshold of their inquiry into 
fire conditions where women and girls 
are employed, the Bryn Mawr Alumnae 
Committee stumbled upon the fire haz- 
ard concealed in the Gimbel Brothers 
establishment. 

The committee acted at once to throw 
light upon these conditions.' It prepared 
a report calling attention to the building 
that threatened the city and to the fact 
that more than half the land on which 
the property rests belongs to the estates 
of old Philadelphia families. It spread 
the report broadcast, reading it before 
the new Century Club, the Philomusian 
Club and the Civic Club — but always 
omitting any reference to the name of 
the store in order to give the firm "a 
chance." 

Finally on April 8 the committee drew 
up a set of resolutions which were for- 
warded to Gimbel Brothers with the un- 
derstanding that two weeks' opportunity 
for reply should be given. After that 
limit, if a promise of changed conditions 
was not forthcoming, name and addi- 
tional facts should be suppressed no 
longer. 

The two weeks have elapsed. The an- 
swer has not come. And now, handi- 



capped though they are by the refusal 
of Philadelphia papers to run news of 
their activity, the Bryn Mawr Alumnae 
Committee will use every means to make 
it known. 

SERVICE FOR THOSE WHO 
WILL NOT FIGHT 

MEN OF military age in England 
who, as Quakers, have conscien- 
tious convictions against joining the 
army under the conscription act, are en- 
tering the service of the Friends Ambu- 
lance Unit. This is made possible by a 
recent special arrangement with the Brit- 
ish government, says Percy Alden, M.P., 
of London, who has just arrived in the 
United States on a non-controversial and 
humanitarian mission. 

Mr. Alden, who is well known to many 
Americans because of his social work in 
England and his previous visits to this 
country, was the founder and for many 
years the warden of Mansfield House, 
university settlement in East London. 
He has long served also as honorary 
secretary of the British Institute of So- 
cial Service. As a member of Parlia- 
ment for the last several years he has 
been active in the formulation and pas- 
sage of various social measures, and his 
books on unemployment and other social 
problems are widely known. 

His visit to the United States at this 
time is to secure aid for the Friends 
Ambulance Unit, and for the British Na- 
tional Committee for Relief in Belgium 
which works in close association with 
the Commission for Relief in Belgium, 
and to discuss international relations not 
with reference to particular solutions of 
the existing European problem but from 
the standpoint of furthering popular 
understanding of all the factors involved. 

When Quakers advance "conscientious 
objections" to military service the tri- 
bunal before whom the plea is made re- 
fers them directly to the Friends Am- 
bulance Unit for employment in work of 
national service. They are not com- 
pelled to take the military oath, they are 
not under the control of the war office, 
and they cannot be called to take up 
arms under any conditions, but they are 
called upon to engage in the relief of 
the wounded and diseased at the front or 
in England, do sanitary work, relieve 
the distress of civilians in Flanders, or 
any other national service . 

The Friends Ambulance Unit began in 
October, 1914, with 45 men who started 
Red Cross work in Flanders. It now has 
nearly 600 men and about 50 women. 
They are responsible for the conduct of 
a hospital in England with 250 beds, a 
hospital at Dunkirk with 130 beds, an- 
other one at Poperinghc with about 100 
beds, 3 hospital trains, one hospital ship 
with 300 beds and a floating hospital not 
far from Yprcs. 

The action of the British government, 
which greatly increases the number of 



men in the unit, will make it necessary 
for additional funds to be raised. At 
least $15,000 a month is required, if this 
work which is under the British Red 
Cross is to maintain its usefulness. Some 
idea of the size of the work is shown 
by the fact that the ambulances have 
carried 60,000 wounded and sick, and 
that the ambulance trains since they 
were started last March have carried 
nearly 50,000. Much work is done in 
connection with the Aide Civile Beige 
which carries on its operations in that 
portion of Belgium which is still free 
from German control. 

Many of the towns and villages have 
been ruined by shell fire. It is the busi- 
ness of the unit to care for the wounded 
in that area, to clothe the civilian popu- 
lation, to provide for the orphans, to 
establish milk depots under sanitary serv- 
ice, and generally to act as a govern- 
ment for people who are at the moment 
without government. 

Mr. Alden is honorary secretary of 
the Council for the Study of Inter- 
national Relations of which Lord Bryce 
is founder and president. The council 
has started a very large number of read- 
ing circles all over the country, is giving 
lectures in all the principal towns and 
at the universities. It makes a special 
point of publishing literature which deals 
with the various belligerent countries 
from a historical standpoint. The gen- 
eral desire throughout the world that 
the tragedy which is being enacted in 
Europe shall not recur makes it neces- 
sary, says Mr. Alden, to understand the 
conditions which determine international 
relations — questions of immense range 
and complexity. After visiting principal 
towns in the East Mr. Alden will go to 
Chicago and other middle western cities. 
He may travel as far as the Pacific Coast 
if the parliamentary situation in Eng- 
land, which is now critical, does not re- 
quire his return. 

A RAISE FOR THE SUBWAY 
"MUCKERS" 

TEN thousand subway "muckers*' in 
New York are from twenty-five to 
fifty cents a day nearer a living wage 
since their sixteen-day strike (The Sur- 
vey for April 15) was settled on April 
18 by the intervention of Oscar S. Straus, 
chairman of the Public Service Commis- 
sion, as mediator in a third conference 
with representatives of the General Con- 
tractors' Association and officials of the 
International Tunnel and Subway Con- 
structors' Union. 

According to the agreement common 
labor will receive a minimum of $2 for 
an eight-hour day; timbermen, $2.75; 
timbermen helpers, $2.20, concrete ma- 
chine runners $2.50: and wooden con- 
crete form-makers $2.75. The contrac- 
tors agree also not to discriminate 
against union men. and the latter pledge 
themselves to abide by the present de- 
cision as long as they work under the 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 29, 1916 



"3 



contracts for the new $200,000,000 sub- 
way system. 

Pending negotiations, there was no vio- 
lence of any sort, and ho strikers were 
. arrested. The work the "muckers" do 
and the meager standard of living which 
their former wages permitted were de- 
scribed by William H. Matthews in The 
Survey for October 2, 1915. 

THE APPEAL OF THE FORD 
NEUTRALS 

LAST week the neutral conference 
established at The Hague by the 
Ford Peace Expedition presented to the 
warring nations an appeal for the observ- 
ance of those principles which it believes 
will make for an early and lasting peace. 

The appeal is short. Historically it is 
an innovation; it is the first co-operative 
effort of pacifist citizens in neutral coun- 
tries to put before the official and un- 
official members of belligerent nations a 
constructive statement of the pacifist 
program. Citizens of Denmark, Holland, 
Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, and the 
• United States are here seen working to- 
gether in a publicity campaign to present 
the cause of "justice and humanity." 
They make no claim to be other than 
they are. 

"This conference represents no gov- 
ernment," reads the appeal. "It has no 
official sanction. It represents the good 
will of millions throughout the civilized 
world who cannot stand idly by while 
the deadly combat rages unchecked." 

It states the following principles as 
fundamental : the right of nations to de- 
cide their own fate instead of having 
their territory transferred without the 
consent of the population; guarantees 
that the economic activities of all peo- 
ples be afforded development on equal 
terms; freedom of the seas; effective 
parliamentary control of foreign policies, 
to displace secret treaties and secret 
diplomacy; international organization 
founded upon law and justice, to include 
an agreement to submit all disputes be- 
tween states for peaceful settlement; dis- 
armament by international agreement ; a 
world congress composed of both bellig- 
erents and neutrals, to concern itself 
with more than the immediate questions 
arising out of this war, such as the guar- 
anteeing of political and spiritual free- 
dom to special nationalities united with 
other peoples. 

The appeal asserts that: 

"the restoration of Belgium must first be 
agreed upon. . . The occupied 

French territory should be returned. A 
reconsideration of the difficult Alsace- 
Lorraine question is also an absolute ne- 
cessity. The independence of Serbia and 
Montenegro should be assured. 

"In its wider interpretation, the prin- 
ciple of the right of nations to decide 
their own fate postulates the solution of 
a problem like the Polish question by 
guaranteeing the union of the Polish na- 
tion as an independent people. Further 



applications would be the adjustment of 
the frontiers between Austria and Italy, 
as far as possible according to the prin- 
ciple of nationality ; autonomy for Ar- 
menia under international guarantee, and 
the solution of various national questions 
in the Balkans and in Asiatic Turkey by 
international agreement. . . . 

"The economic activity of all peoples 
should be afforded development on equal 
terms. The recognition of the principle 
of the open door in the colonies, protec- 
torates, and spheres of influence would 
be an important step in this direction, as 
would also the internationalization of 
certain waterways, e. g., the Dardanelles 
and the Bosphorus. The German col- 
onies ought to be returned, the exchange 
of colonies made possible by satisfactory 
compensation, and Germany's access to 
the near East guaranteed." 

The points brought out in this appeal 
express principles upheld by consistent 
pacifists the world over. No armistice is 
mentioned. The conference believes in 
bringing instant pressure to bear upon 
the situation "to promote such discussion 
as may tend to bring the belligerents to- 
gether on just and reasonable terms." 
Most of the other peace organizations are 
willing to wait for military exhaustion 
and armistice before having their say 
but the neutral conference believes in ad- 
vertising peace, in preparing public opin- 
ion for the inevitable adjustment which 
will follow the war, in hastening that ad- 
justment, if possible, by pointing out the 
principle which should govern treatment 
of the smaller nations no matter which 
side wins. 

The influence of the appeal will de- 
pend, in large measure, upon the backing 
given it by public sentiment in each of 
the six neutral nations represented. So 
far the United States has shown less in- 
terest, smaller belief in the practicality 
of these pacifist principles than have any 
of the other neutral nations. 

CHICAGO'S GENEROUS NEW 
PROTOCOL 

ANEW agreement to run for three 
years was signed in Chicago on 
April 14 between Hart, Schaffner and 
Marx, the largest manufacturers of 
men's clothing in the United States, and 
the Amalgamated Clothing Workers. 
The former agreement, now superseded, 
had run since the long and costly strike 
of 1911. It was an agreement of the 
"protocol" variety, with a preferential 
union shop, a trade board, consisting of 
a representative of each side with an 
impartial chairman for the adjustment 
of grievances and an arbitration board 
as a court of last resort. 

The new agreement retains all of the 
essential machinery of the old. It pro- 
vides a reduction in hours from fifty-two 
to forty-nine a week, and an increase 
in wages of 10 per cent. A minimum wage 
is fixed for women apprentices at $9 a 
week and for men at $12. In order to 
reach these and other minimum stand- 



ards without abrupt changes the in- 
creases are to take effect progressively 
in from three months to two years. 

What has been characterized by one 
in close touch with the situation as "the 
most remarkable feature" of the settle- 
ment is the fact that the 10 per cent in- 
crease is not to apply without distinction 
to all employes. At the request of the 
union the greater proportion is to go to 
those receiving the least wages. Those 
at the lower end of the scale may, there- 
fore, receive as much as a 20 per cent 
advance while better paid workers may 
get no more than 5 per cent. 

Writing of the settlement to his home 
paper in Streator, 111., the Independent- 
Times, J. E. Williams, chairman of the 
trade board under the old agreement in 
Chicago, and chairman for a time of the 
committee for immediate action under 
the now defunct cloak and suit protocol 
in New York, comments on this contrast, 
and asks what the change can mean. To 
answer the question adequately, he says, 

"would be to write the history of the 
Hart, Schaffner and Marx agreement 
for the past five years. It would be to 
record the passing of the old antagon- 
isms based on ignorance and misunder- 
standing, and to note the coming of a 
new sympathy, a new co-operation, based 
on a new and growing perception of a 
mutuality of interest and purpose. It 
would be to write down new apprecia- 
tion of men and motives on both sides, 
an appreciation born of stern contacts, 
and hand-to-hand grips with each other 
in the daily encounters of the industrial 
struggle." 

RED-LIGHT OR DAYLIGHT IN 
CLEVELAND 

CLEVELAND'S segregated district 
was closed officially by Mayor 
Newton D. Baker at midnight March 31, 
1915. Since that time there have been 
heard in the daily press complaints about 
"the increase in disease infection as a 
result of this abolition of the regulated 
district," and various other rumblings 
from the underworld, the intention evi- 
dently being to influence Mayor Davis 
in favor of reopening the segregated dis- 
trict. 

In order to determine as accurately 
as possible the result of closing Cleve- 
land's red-light district, the Cleveland 
Medical Journal publishes a study by 
Dr. A. R. Warner of the Lakeside Dis- 
pensary, showing the number of infec- 
tions acquired in Cleveland during the 
period of eight months before the clos- 
ing of the district and during eight 
months immediately after that time. 

The Journal says that it is the custom 
of the Lakeside Dispensary to secure 
from each patient having syphilis a state- 
ment of the date of his infection, the 
type of person from whom the disease 
was contracted (prostitute, street-walk- 
er, friend, etc.), where infected (public 
house of prostitution, assignation notice. 



H4 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 2 9) 1916 



rooming house), and whether the patient 
was drunk or sober when he contracted 
the disease. Not all patients are willing 
to answer these questions in detail, but 
the figures in the following tabulation 
are taken from records only of those 
who gave full data. They include, more- 
over, only the infections acquired in the 
city of Cleveland and cases of syphilis 
in men only. Women, old infections, and 
infections acquired outside of Cleveland 
are not included. 

Before Closing 

Per- 

Sources No. Cases centage 

Segregated district 45 40.2 

Street walkers 29 25.9 

Clandestine prostitution 10 8.9 

Accidental 14 12.4 

"Friends" 11 9.8 

Marital 3 2.6 

112 99.8 

In comparison with this table, the rec- 
ord should be noted of cases reaching 
the dispensary between April 1, 1915, 
and January 1, 1916. As in the first 
tabulation, the records of men infected 
in Cleveland, who answer in full the 
questions above referred to, and such 
records only, are used. 

After Closing 

Per- 

Sources No. Cases centage 

Street-walker 6 33.3 

Friend 4 22.2 

Unknown or accidental. 6 33.3 

Clandestine prostitution 2 11.1 

18 99.9 

The fact that 112 cases, plus an unre- 
corded number who would not answer 
questions in full, were treated before the 
close of the segregated district and that 
only 53 cases in all, (including the 35 
not reporting in full) were reported 
after the close of the district, is striking 
evidence of the place in Cleveland's pub- 
lic health occupied by the red-light 
region. 

QUICK GROWTH OF MENTAL 
HYGIENE 

THAT the mental hygiene move- 
ment, which got under way less 
than a decade ago, has grown into a 
well-organized, nation-widceffort to con- 
serve mental health stood out clearly at 
the second annual convention of State 
Societies for Mental Hygiene held at 
New Orleans. There are now mental 
hygiene societies in thirteen states, all 
affiliated with the National Committee 
for Mental Hygiene. Five new societies 
were established last year, in Alabama, 
California, District of Columbia, Louis- 
iana and Rhode Island. The states 
which already had societies were Con- 
necticut, Illinois, North Carolina, New 
York, Massachusetts, Maryland, Pennsyl- 
vania and Ohio. The national commit- 
tee has raised approximately $200,000 
to carry on its work while $250,000 addi- 
tional has been raised by the state so- 
cieties. 

Though methods vary, all of the so- 
cieties seek to accomplish their purpose 
4>y means of educational campaigns, so- 



cial service, surveys, and through co- 
operation with the many agencies whose 
work touches at one point or another 
the field of mental hygiene among the 
insane, the feebleminded, the inebriate, 
the epileptic, and that large group of 
people who, through mental causes, are 
unable to adjust themselves to their en- 
vironment. 

Dr. Thomas W. Salmon, medical di- 
rector of the national committee, an- 
nounced that the committee would soon 
begin publication of an official organ and 
that greater attention is to be paid to 
the holding of exhibits throughout the 
country. 

The seventy-second annual meeting of 
the American Medico-Psychological As- 
sociation held the same week in New 
Orleans, signalized, in its close and cor- 
dial co-operation, the beginning of a new 
era in the campaign for the prevention 
of mental disorders. Both organizations 
adopted resolutions urging Congress to 
enact a bill establishing a division of 
mental hygiene in the United States 
Public Health Service. 

This and other steps were held to indi- 
cate that the founders and promoters of 
the mental hygiene movement, who are 
largely laymen, have established their 
work upon a foundation which has 
earned the approval of the highest scien- 
tific and medical authority. Mental hy- 
giene workers see in the association's 
attitude an earnest desire on the part 
of psychiatrists to extend the scope of 
their interest and activity into all war- 
ranted preventive fields. 

HOW DALLAS AUDITED ITS 
PUBLIC SERVICE 

THE municipal election in Dallas on 
April 4 was of ^reat importance not 
only for the city but for the cause of popu- 
lar government in Texas, writes Prof. 
John C. Granbery, of Southwestern Uni- 
versity. Georgetown, Texas. Four ballots 
containing seventeen propositions were 
cast, and the policy of Mayor Henry D. 
Lindsley in dealing with public utility 
companies was endorsed. 

One proposition that was overshadow- 
ed by the others, and hardly discussed, 
was an ordinance providing for the 
segregation of white and colored races 
as to place of residence, similar to the 
ordinance recently enacted in St. Louis. 
Tt was carried by a vote of 7,613 to 
4,693. The ordinance provides that 
when any block is occupied exclusively 
by whites no negro can move into it, 
and the reverse. 

To understand the main point in con- 
troversy, involving the public utilities 
policy, it is necessary to go back a year. 
The mayor and commissioners were 
then elected by an overwhelming and un- 
precedented majority. The Stone and 
Webster Company which furnishes the 
traction and light facilities has been an 
issue in Dallas politics for ten years. 



It is understood that its charter was 
taken out neither in Texas nor in Mas- 
sachusetts, where its headquarters are, 
but in the state of Maine. The present 
administration represented the most con- 
servative element of those seeking elec- 
tion, and yet the following was the main 
plank of its platform: 

"We favor a prompt, thorough and 
full investigation of the public service 
corporations of Dallas, especially the 
street railway properties, by independent 
experts of national reputation whose 
services are employed exclusively in the 
interest of the public, and at no time 
and in no way in the interest of the pub- 
lic service corporations, so that the peo- 
ple of Dallas may know the exact cost 
of our public utilities, their present phy- 
sical value, their gross and net earning 
power and all other factors necessary 
for the people to know in order that a 
correct solution may be reached of our 
public utility problems." 

In prompt compliance with the plat- 
form pledge Mayor Lindsley and commis- 
sioners unanimously instituted the inves- 
tigation, Edward W. Bemis, an expert 
economist of national reputation, being 
employed to supervise the work. He fur- 
nished the people of Dallas for the first 
time with a report as to their public 
utilities from an impartial source. By 
unanimous action the mayor and com- 
missioners ordered an immediate aver- 
age reduction of 20 per cent in the elec- 
tric light rates, assuring a saving of 
more than $150,000 a year. 

In order to derive full benefit from 
the report, steps were taken to change 
the existing public utility franchises. 
The constitution of Texas makes this 
possible by a section which reads: "No 
irrevocable or uncontrollable grant of 
special privileges or immunities shall be 
granted ; and all privileges or franchises 
granted by the legislature or created 
under its authority shall be subject to the 
control thereof." 

The recent election determined the 
carrying out of this policy. The mayor 
was deserted by many of those who had 
been his friends, but others came to his 
support. The Dallas News, which is con- 
sidered by many the greatest paper oi 
the Southwest, and which had formerly 
supported him, found itself unable to ac- 
cept all of his propositions, after Stone 
and Webster had indicated that the pro- 
posed franchises were not acceptable to 
them and had threatened litigation. Even 
two of the commissioners, Winfrey and 
I ang, came out in open opposition. Some 
of those opposed, notably Commissioner 
Winfrey, denounced and ridiculed the 
$20,000 expended for the Bemis investi- 
gation and the appropriations for the 
Hoard of Public Welfare and the De- 
partment of Sanitation of the city of 
Dallas. The mayor took the matter di- 
rectly to the people. Many feel, says 
Prof. Granbery, that Texas has no more 
public-spirited and courageous a citizen 
than llenrv D. Lindsley. 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 29, 1916 



115 



SECRETARY HEBBERD OUT 
OF STATE BOARD 

JUST as the taking of testimony had 
been finished and counsel were 
about to sum up in the investigation of 
the New York State Board of Charities, 
Robert W. Hebberd resigned as secretary 
of the board. Announcement of it came 
as a dramatic climax to disclosures of 
intimate relations between Father Far- 
rell, whose name was signed to the 
pamphlets attacking the investigation by 
Commissioner Strong [See The Survey 
tor April 8], Daniel C. Potter, an ex- 
Baptist minister said to have been the 
real author, and Mr. Hebberd. Neither 
the board nor Mr. Hebberd has made 
an explanation of his sudden leaving 
while under fire. 

Mr. Hebberd has been secretary of 
the state board since 1896 with the ex- 
ception of the years of Mayor McClel- 
lan's administration during which time 
he was city commissioner of public char- 
ities. His state position was held open 
for him, and Robert W. Hill, who filled 
in as secretary at that time, is again tem- 
porarily in charge. 

HEALTH INSURANCE BEFORE 
CONGRESS 

THE two April hearings before the 
Committee on Labor of the United 
States House of Representatives, on Con- 
gressman Meyer London's bill to create a 
commission to investigate unemployment 
and social insurance [see The Survey 
March 15] brought that subject to the 
fore as a national issue for the first time. 
Great interest was manifested not only 
by the questions asked by members of 
the committee but by the action of 
Congressman Edward Keating, the act- 
ing chairman, in extending the hearing 
on both days from 10 a.m. until 6:30 in 
the evening. 

Only one witness appeared to oppose 
the bill, in the person of Samuel Gomp- 
ers, president of the American Federa- 
tion of Labor, while lined up in its favor 
were statisticians, economists, social 
workers and government officials. 

It was to be expected that such en- 
thusiasts of the social insurance move- 
ment as John B. Andrews of the Ameri- 
can Association for Labor Legislation ; 
Joseph P. Chamberlain, of Columbia 
University; Miles M. Dawson, and I. M. 
Rubinow would favor the bill but new 
spokesmen for social insurance were 
Rufus M. Potts, superintendent of insur- 
ance of the state of Illinois, and Charles 
F. Nesbitt, superintendent of insurance 
in the District of Columbia. 

Royal Meeker, United States commis- 
sioner of labor statistics and an appointee 
of President Wilson, I. N. Stone, who 
was statistician of the short-lived Tariff 
Board, and Juliet Poyntz, director of the 
recently established department of labor 
research of the Rand School of Social 
Science, spoke in favor of the bill. Let- 



ters in its support from Prof. Henry R. 
Seager of Columbia, Prof. Irving Fisher 
of Yale and others were read into the 
record. 

Mr. Gompers spoke at the second hear- 
ing for over three and one-half hours, 
devoting his attention for the most part 
not to the bill under consideration but to 
an assertion by Dr. Rubinow that the 
rise in the cost of living during the last 
ten years has caused a decline in real 
wages and that measures to prevent 
destitution are therefore the more urgent. 
This statement was not startlingly new, 
but it struck Mr. Gompers like a bomb- 
shell and he insisted upon reading into 
it a veiled attack upon the entire Ameri- 
can labor movement. 

"If Mr. Rubinow's conclusions are 
true," Mr. Gompers dramatically ex- 
claimed over and over again, "then the 
entire labor movement of the country 
has been a failure and fifty years of my 
life and activity in that movement were 
wasted." 

Mr. Gompers also registered his dis- 
sent from Mr. London's bill but con- 
cluded by approving the plan for an in- 
vestigating commission and presented 
his own draft of a bill limiting the possi- 
ble recommendations of the commission 
to voluntary insurance only. He reiter- 
ated his views, recently expressed in a 
letter read at the Albany hearing, that 
compulsory insurance is a dangerous 
limitation of the freedom and liberties 
of the American wage-earner. 

Following his testimony, Mr. London 
cross-examined Mr. Gompers on the 
various provisions of his own bill and 
succeeded in reducing the difference to 
two or three very minor points. 

Most of the other witnesses who ap- 
peared in favor of the resolution empha- 
sized the fact that they did not appear 
before the committee to urge any parti- 
cular plan of social insurance but simply 
to insist on the tremendous importance 
of the subject which justified investiga- 
tion on national lines. 

Drawing upon his wide experience ob- 
tained through a direct investigation in 
Europe some years ago, Mr. Dawson 
emphasized the social rather than class 
character of social insurance legislation. 
He quoted the well known German au- 
thority, Dr. Zacher, to the effect that the 
average increase in longevity in Ger- 
many between 1870 and 1900 equalled 
twelve years added to the life of every 
man. and that "the height, weight, phy- 
sical strength and general ability of the 
men called into the service of the Ger- 
man army showed a steady improvement 
while the official records of other gov- 
ernments contrasted unfavorably with 
the German statistics." 

Evidence of the growth of the social 
insurance movement was presented by 
the appearance of Rufus M. Potts, who 
is responsible for the creation of a social 
insurance committee by the national con- 
vention of insurance commissioners. Mr. 



Potts is chairman of that committee. It 
has prepared a report on the entire prob- 
lem in the United States, which he was 
granted permission to print as an ap- 
pendix to the hearings. 

Charles F. Nesbitt, superintendent of 
insurance for the District of Columbia 
and also a member of Mr. Pott's com- 
mittee, frankly admitted that the subject 
of social insurance was a new one to 
him and that he was seeking for light, 
and for that reason endorsing Mr. Lon- 
don's resolution. Nevertheless he suc- 
ceeded in stating a few facts concerning 
the results of voluntary health insurance 
among working men of the District 01 
Columbia which made a deep impression 
upon the committee. 

Mr. Nesbitt produced figures indicat- 
ing that notwithstanding the small work- 
ing population of the city of Washing- 
ton, consisting largely of colored men 
and women, nearly half a million dol- 
lars a year was collected by the small 
industrial accident and health insurance 
companies of which never more than 
$200,000 was paid back in claims. 

I. M. Rubinow analyzed the problem 
of poverty on the lines familiar to those 
who have read his book, Social Insur- 
ance. He pointed out that most of the 
individual causes of poverty were, in the 
technical language of insurance, insur- 
able propositions. He declared that the 
problem of destitution is the gravest 
problem confronting civilized society 
and that, according to the experience of 
modern Europe, social insurance is the 
only method that has been successful in 
mitigating it. 

Dr. Andrews spoke briefly, endorsing 
Mr. London's resolution for an investi- 
gating commission in the name of the 
American Association for Labor Legisla- 
tion. 

Miss Poyntz held the close attention of 
the committee for over an hour by her 
analysis of the fluctuations in the labor 
market, illustrated by a number of dia- 
grams which the chairman of the com- 
mittee, on his own initiative, had re- 
quested her to insert in her remarks in 
the printed report of the hearings. 

As a result of the hearing several 
members of the committee expressed 
themselves in private conversation as 
ready to report out Mr. London's reso- 
lution. 

Probably minor changes in the resolu- 
tion will be made. The composition of 
the commission as outlined in the resolu- 
tion is two representatives of employers, 
two of organized labor, with the secre- 
tary of labor as chairman of the commis- 
sion. It was pointed out that such a 
commission may be faulty in that it 
places too heavy a burden upon a public 
official already in charge of an import- 
ant department. It was insisted, also, 
by some persons not directly identified 
with either the employing or the em- 
ployed classes be included to represent 
the public at large. 



Ii6 



THE SURVEY EOR APRIL 29, igt6 



Tried in Her Father's Stead 



ALICE G. MASARYK of Prague, 

/\ Bohemia, is to be tried for trea- 
jL jL. son in Vienna. She is no doubt 
being punished for being the daughter 
of her father. 

Miss Masaryk spent the year 1905 with 
us at the University of Chicago Settle- 
ment. She was preparing herself to 
write the history of Bohemia and de- 
sired to know the Bohemians in America. 
Here she endeared herself to all who 
knew her ; the children were devoted to 
her. 

Miss Masaryk graduated from the Uni- 
versity of Prague, but took the degree 
of doctor of philosophy from Berlin Uni- 
versity. Her personality was impressive 
because of her sincerity and genuine sim- 
plicity. She was distinguished looking 
and beautiful when animated by an idea, 
or when speaking in public; she was mag- 
netic and forcible. All who knew her, a 
gentle, sympathetic and simply demo- 
cratic young woman, will believe her to 
be innocent of treason. She had a con- 
structive mind and was not anarchistic in 
word or deed. 

Alice Masaryk was known to Jane Ad- 
dams, Julia C. Lathrop and Emily G. 
Raich, who has written so beautifully of 
the immigrants at home and in America. 
Her mother is an American ; her father. 
Thomas G. Masaryk, the greatest living 
Bohemian, has for years been professor 
of philosophy and history in the Uni- 
versity of Prague — a friend of Tolstoi. 
though a younger man. He has always 
stood for the rights of the small nations 
and was. as a member of Parliament in 
Vienna, the champion of Bosnia and Ser- 
bia. He refused to take up arms against 
Serbia at the beginning of this war, was 
imprisoned and only saved from execu- 
tion by the activity of the Bohemians in 
America and in Austria. He was ban- 
ished and is now in England. 

About twelve years ago Professor 
Masaryk. under the Crane Foundation, 
gave a series of lectures at the University 
of Chicago on the Problems of the Small 
Nation. At bis first lecture a number of 
distinguished Jews were present. 'Why 
were they there?" we asked, and then 
learned the story of Professor Masaryk 
and the "blood atonement." It seems 
that the superstitition was well establish- 
ed in Austria that at the feast of the 
Passover the Jews murdered a Christian 
maid and sprinkled her blood upon the 
door lintels. When Professor Masaryk 
had his first experience with this super- 
stition in Prague, he went to Bohemia 
and lived among the Jews for several 
months to get at the facts and learn the 
truth. Then he wrote a thesis which was 
published. For several years following 
he and his family suffered all kinds of 
petty persecutions. 

This getting at facts by direct personal 



investigation illustrates Professor Masa- 
ryk's method. When Bosnia and Herse- 
govina had an uprising in 1910 he spent 
his own meager income, gave himself 
to the study of the trouble and made pub- 
lic the facts, which were not creditable to 
Austria. This was one of the historic 
reasons for banishing him. 

In his lectures, his personal influence 
and his organ, Cas, Professor Masaryk 
has been the leader of the intellectual 
democracy of Bohemia — a modern 
prophet of democracy with the spirit and 
courage of Jan Huss. His democracy is 



constructive and educational. Through 
his efforts the mob fight for language 
was changed to a struggle for public 
schools and democratic education. In all 
of the struggles by the small nations 
he has urged constructive methods ; evo- 
lution, not revolution, was his constant 
advice to the young leaders who had been 
his students at the university. Often he 
has had patiently to endure the impa- 
tience of his followers who wanted to get 
results by short cuts. 

Surely American women individually 
and collectively will at once send through 
our State Department a plea for leniency 
towards Miss Masaryk. 

Mary McDowell. 



A Builder of Democracy' 



ON APRIL 1 died James B. An- 
gell who, for thirty-eight years 
preceding his retirement in 
1909, was president of the University 
of Michigan. To organize the intellec- 
tual progress of a pioneer state, and by 
his success to extend that organization 
all over the rising West, was the work 
of President Angell and of the men 
whom he knew how to call to his as- 
sistance in the development of the first 
of those vast state institutions, devoted 
to ideals of learning and leadership and 
yet upheld by the votes of the common 
people. 

If one had to name one quality which, 
more than any other, made possible his 
achievement, one could perhaps select 
none more distinctive than his faith. 

He had. in the first place, a notable 
faith in human nature, in the better in- 
stincts of the young and the good sense 
of the plain people, which made him pa- 
tient and optimistic in the midst of mani- 
fold trials from the vagaries of the popu- 
lace both inside and outside of his insti- 
tution. "Never lose faith in the boys 
and girls," I have heard him say to an 
assembly of teachers, and no sentiment 
was more spontaneous than this in his 
own mind. 

He had also faith in truth and honest 
dealing which he expressed by life-long 
loyalty to them. Shallow writers and 
talkers, astonished at his influence over 
all sorts of men, including legislators. 
have sometimes described President An- 
gell as a man of profound and almost 
Italian subtlety and management. In 
fact there was nothing of the sort in him ; 
if there were his influence would have 
been far less than it was. His nature 
was essenti ilh simple and downright, dis- 
liking indirect methods and always trust- 
ing rather to principles than to manipu- 
lation. 

While he had the greatest respect for 
custom and opinion and liked to conform 

'Tbi> appreciation is, in part, a repro- 
duction of one written for i'm SURVEY at 
the time of Mr Vngell's retirement in 1909 



when he coulo, there were certain things 
that latterly have become not uncommon 
among men of his calling which he would 
not do, especially things that might be 
described in general as pretence. In 
writing or speaking one who has known 
him throughout his term of service never 
heard him tell anything but the exact 
truth (if he told anything), without ex- 
aggeration or dissimulation. He never 
made any claim for the university, be- 
fore the public or the legislature, which 
the soberest study of the facts would 
not have verified word for word. 

He had, moreover, a very practical 
faith in God, a present and living con- 
viction that He works in the world and 
that man exists for His service. 

Few remember in these later days that 
at one time (and that a long time) a 
large and bitter faction in the state, in- 
cluding a great part of the active poli- 
ticians, were hostile to him and assailed 
him with obloquy : but so it was ; and the 
dignity and equanimity with which he 
remained faithful to his trust rested upon 
a feeling that God had put it in his hands 
and it was not for him to lay it down. 
We too easily forget in the applause that 
follows great achievement, that it is 
seldom attained save by those who know 
how to endure vituperation. 

lie was one who never fell into deep 
ruts of any sort, never ceased to grow 
with the growth of life, never took on 
that shell of habit which renders many 
men of advancing years incapable of 
appreciating anything but the past. "A 
man who has ceased to learn." he would 
say, "is unfit to teach" ; and his own fit- 
ni'^ was never threatened in this way 

Although President Angell made no 
profound study of the newer sociology 
and philanthropy, he had a general 
knowledge of and sympathy with them. 
and (which is more to the purpose) it 
was the whole tendency of his work and 
of his character to build up in our coun- 
try those conditions upon which their 
success must depend. 

Cn aki es H ' not !Y. 



A State Aged ioo 

Glimpses of Social Progress in Indiana During 

One Hundred Years 

(The second instalment of this article, Part I of which appeared in The Survey for April 22) 



THE social progress of the state 
in its governmental aspects is 
most forcibly shown in its so- 
called charitable institutions. The de- 
velopment, from the county poor asylum, 
which, as in other states and countries, 
was the germ of institutional relief, to 
the present complete system of state 
and county institutions, is an interesting 
and fascinating study. 

Although the system of poor relief has 
always been that of the township and 
county, very early in its history the duty 
of the state proper to certain classes of 
unfortunate people was recognized. The 
earliest mention of provision for the in- 
sane occurred in 1827. The capital had 
been moved in 1824 from Corydon, near 
the Ohio river, to its present location, 
and the city of Indianapolis had been 
established on land granted by Congress. 1 

In 1827, square No. 22 was set aside 
for the use of a state hospital and lunatic 
asylum. The state hospital was not built, 
but a log cabin on that square was used 
as a "crazy house" until the first build- 
ings of what is now the Central Hospital 
for the Insane were ready. It is interest- 
ing that in those early days the idea was 
to provide for the insane with the sick 
rather than with criminals. 

Twenty-eight years after the state's 
admission to the Union, Dorothea Dix, of 
blessed memory, came to Indiana with 
her gospel of humane and scientific care 
for the insane. One speech by her to 
the General Assembly of 1844, prepared 
for as it was by visits of inspection of 
the insane in almshouses and jails, within 
a few miles of the capitol, was enough 
to rouse the law makers, and they created 
the State Lunatic Asylum, the name of 
which was changed in 1846 to the 
Indiana Hospital for the Insane. This 
change of name, which indicated a more 
rational and scientific conception of what 
institutions for the insane should be, was 
followed in many states, notably in New 
York, where some 40 years later the 
name asylum was changed to state hos- 
pital. 

The first hospital building was com- 
pleted and occupied in 1848. At first, 

'Advocates of the single tax must deplore 
the loss of the wonderful opportunity for 
social development that was suffered when 
the site of the city was peddled out to 
private persons, instead of being retained 
as the possession of the community for- 
ever. 



By Alexander yohnson 

as its name implies, intended for curable 
cases, many chronics were kept there. 
In 1865 a law was enacted which re- 
quired the commissioners of the insane, 
to take charge of and provide for the 
incurables in the same manner as the 
curables. The insane were entitled to 
admission on a county quota, pro rata of 
the population, but there was not room 
to take care of them all. 

In 1879 a large, new department for 
women was equipped and for a time 
eased the pressure for admission. But 
the numbers increased more rapidly than 
the provision for them, and despite the 
law of 1865, many of the incurables were 
returned to the counties to make room 
for new and supposedly curable cases. 
This plan manifestly leads to much suf- 
fering and abuse. The county asylums 
are ill adapted for insane people. 
County care of the insane is seldom effi- 
cient. There are some brilliant excep- 
tions, the most famous being that of Wis- 
consin, but in most of the states county 
care means county neglect. The Wis- 
consin system is really a remarkable ex- 
ample of state supervision and control of 
county institutions, guaranteed and made 
positive by partial state support. Such 
a plan is applicable chiefly to rural com- 
munities with sparse population. 

A Reform Assembly 

In 1883 there occurred one of those 
not infrequent sessions of the Indiana 
General Assembly when the spirit of re- 
form seems to take possession of the 
members. At this time a law was en- 
acted creating three, so-called, additional 
hospitals for the insane, one each in the 
northern, eastern and southern parts of 
the state. A special board of construc- 
tion was appointed and a medical engi- 
neer, or superintendent of construction 
was chosen in the person of Dr. Joseph 
G. Rogers, a highly skilled alienist and a 
man with a genius for executive and 
constructive work. 

Under this board sites were secured 
near Logansport, Richmond and Evans- 
ville, and very comprehensive plans 
adopted. The old and standardized plans 
of hospital building were considered ob- 
solete and three new and distinct types 
of buildings were chosen. At Logans- 
port the plan of two-story detached 
blocks, at Richmond a very complete cot- 
tage plan, and at Evansville the radiate 



plan (first devised for an English prison) 
were decided on. For many years past 
these three hospitals have been visited 
and studied by people from other states 
who have been charged with the duty of 
building a hospital. 

At this time the state adopted a radical 
change of policy as regards incurables. 
No patients were to be discharged from 
the new hospitals, either to their own 
care as cured, or to that of the county 
from whence they came, "until their 
physical and mental condition justifies 
it." This gave rise to the popular mis- 
conception that the new institutions were 
for incurables, and they were often 
spoken of as asylums for the chronic 
insane. 

The new law applied only to the dis- 
tricts allotted to the new hospitals, so 
that for some years there existed the 
anomalous condition of one law applying 
to 49 counties of the state and another to 
the remaining 43. This was corrected 
some years later and the state was ac- 
curately re-districted for the insane. 

The appropriations made in 1883 were 
merely a beginning of what was needed, 
and the sessions of the next few years 
were governed by conditions of economic 
stringency which prevented the prompt 
completion of the comprehensive plan. 
However, in 1888 the Northern Hospital 
was equipped and at once filled to over- 
flowing with patients, not only from its 
own district but from other parts of the 
state. The Eastern Hospital was opened 
in August. 1890, and the Southern in 
October, 1890. 

Even with four state hospitals of large 
capacity the needs of the insane were 
not met. The population of the state 
was growing and it seemed that the num- 
ber of insane was increasing even more 
rapidly. The crowding of the hospitals, 
with the consequent refusal to accept 
patients, was so serious that Marion 
county in 1900 erected a county asylum 
for incurable insane with room for 200 
patients. In other counties, the chronic 
insane were still found in the poor asy- 
lums. 

In 1905 the state established a fifth hos- 
pital for the southeastern district, which 
was opened August 1, 1910. This is 
beautifully situated on a bluff overlook- 
ing the city of Madison, and command- 
ing magnificent views for many miles up 
and down the Ohio river. An account 



117 



n8 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 29, 1916 



of the admirable method which was 
adopted for choosing the location of this 
hospital, was published in The Survey 
for December 2, 1905. Its procedure 
established a precedent which might well 
be followed everywhere and has already 
been followed in locating other institu- 
tions in Indiana. 

Before the first hospital for the insane 
was erected, two other state benevolent 
institutions, as they were and still are 
called, were founded. Early in the 40's, 
a wealthy resident of Indianapolis who 
had two deaf-mute children sent East 
and secured a governess for them who 
had learned the art of teaching I. 2 deaf. 
At that time deaf-mutes were hardly 
distinguished in common thought from 
idiots. The fact that these two supposed 
idiots were to be educated because their 
father was rich roused public feeling for 
members of the same class who were 
poor. 

This occurred during a period of strug- 
gle for a system of public education, a 
struggle which was greatly aided by the 
efforts and example of the Friends who 
had already established a system of 
piimary and secondary schools of their 
own.' 

For Deaf-Mutes 

It was not until 1848 that the victory 
was won and the idea of the common 
school, that every child, of rich or of 
poor parents alike, shall have a chance, 
as near as possible, an equal chance, for 
education, became vital in the Hoosier 
mind. 

By a law of 1844, an Asylum for the 
Education of Deaf and Dumb was estab- 
lished and opened in a rented building in 
October of that year. This grew rapidly 
into a well-equipped school. In 1907 its 
name was changed to the Indiana State 
School for the Deaf. The first buildings 
were within the city limits on property 
which grew in value, and in September, 
1904, was sold and a new site a few miles 
north of the city was obtained, upon 
which is now situated one, of the best 
equipped and managed institutions of the 
country. 

In 1847, the Indiana Institute for the 
Education of the Blind was established. 
Like the school for the deaf this was be- 
gun in rented property, but later a beauti- 
ful site was acquired in the best resi- 
dential center of the city, and the insti- 
tution built thereon is of dignified and 
noble architecture. Unlike the school 
for the deaf there are many reasons for 
a city location for the education of the 
blind, chiefly that the students may en- 
joy the advantages of church services. 
concerts, lectures, etc., which would be 
useless to the deaf. In 1907 the name 

8 "Tn 1S40. in the limits of the Friends 
yearly meeting, there were 7.(ir>i children 
of school age, and of this number only 319, 
or 1 in 24, were not in school. Tn the 
same year one-seventh of the population of 
the state was illiterate." (See The Quakers 
in the Northwest, by Harlow Linrlley.) 



of .this institution was changed to Indiana 
School for the Blind, 

These institutions and most of the oth- 
ers which have followed were owned and 
supported from their inception entirely 
by the public. The state recognized its 
duty to defectives, and there was no 
large number of wealthy and charitable 
people, as was the case in older states, 
to build and support as charity the in- 
stitutions that in the opinion of Indiana 
people were a matter of justice. It is 
interesting to see how the correctional 
and charitable system developed. Al- 
ways a new institution was created to 
meet a need felt by the public conscious- 
ness. It was always a condition not a 
theory that confronted the people, al- 
though conditions were met by the ap- 
plication of theories or principles like 
that of public education, which the popu- 
lar mind recognized as vital. 

Indiana had sent more volunteers to 
the Civil War, in proportion to her popu- 
lation, than any other state. When they 
enlisted they were told by their fellow 
citizens, "If you go and fight for your 
country and for us, you and yours shall 
be a sacred charge, your declining years 
of disability shall be passed in comfort, 
and if you die your orphans shall be the 
wards of the state." Again this was felt 
to be a matter of simple justice, not by 
any means of charity. Soon after the 
war Governor Morton recommended the 
organization of a society to make pro- 
vision for the permanent care of disabled 
soldiers, relying for its means of opera- 
tion on popular contributions. Such a 
society was organized. For a time it 
used the Indianapolis City Hospital, but 
early in 1866 purchased Knightstown 
Springs, and on April 26 of that year 
opened there the Home for Disabled Sol- 
diers. The property was taken over by 
the legislature of 1867 and formally 
opened June 15, 1867, as the Indiana sol- 
diers' and seamen's home, for sick and 
disabled soldiers and seamen, their wid- 
ows and orphans. 

The home was divided into two depart- 
ments, one for veterans and one for 
orphans. Ten years later the part oc- 
cupied by the adults was burned and as 
the federal government had adopted the 
system of national homes, it was not 
thought at that time necessary to re- 
build: but later, in 1895. a State Home 
for Veterans of the CivU War and Their 
Wives or Widows was established. 

This was done quite as much as a duty 
to the wives or widows, whose sacrifices 
for their country had been only a little, 
if any. less, than those of their husbands, 
as it was for the veterans themselves. It 
was also a concession to certain of the 
veterans by whom the somewhat strict 
discipline of the National Homes is 
found irksome. To such an extent is 
this true that previous to the building 
of the state home many veterans actually 
preferred to live in county poor asylum-, 
rather than at the National Home. 



The home at Knightstown was reor- 
ganized after a second fire, in 1887, as the 
Indiana Soldiers' and Sailors' Orphans 
Home, and still exists with a large popu- 
laf'on of orphans. The term "soldiers' 
orphans'' meant at first children who 
were orphaned by the war, but was ex- 
tended, as in many other states, to mean 
children born after the war, so long as 
their fathers had been soldiers. Now 
children of Union soldiers and seamen of 
the Civil War, the war with Spain, the 
war in the Philippine Islands, or in the 
regular service ; and grandchildren of 
soldiers and seamen whose parents are 
dead or in an insane asylum are admis- 
sible. 

About 1879, the then superintendent 
conceived the idea that the need of 
a home of the kind would soon disappear, 
and succeeded in getting the legislature 
to allow a part of the institution to be 
used for feebleminded children, expect- 
ing that in a very few years the entire 
institution could be devoted to them. 

When, however, by the extension of 
the meaning of the term soldiers' orphan, 
this idea had to be given up. the legis- 
lature decided to create an institution for 
feebleminded youth. The institution was 
to receive feebleminded, idiotic, epileptic 
and paralytic children under 18, to be 
discharged when of age. 

For the Feebleminded 

At that time the feebleminded were 
generally classed with the blind and 
deaf as defectives who could be educated 
and then discharged as self-supporting, 
self-controlling citizens. But this as- 
sumption slowly gave way to the modern 
idea, namely, that the defect of feeble- 
mindedness is as permanent as blindness 
and deafness, but that unlike the other 
two classes, the feebleminded can never 
be properly considered capable of self- 
control or self-direction, while, unfor- 
tunately, unlike most of the deaf and the 
blind, their defect is almost certainly in- 
heritable so that their care, to be effec- 
tive, must be permanent. As a conse- 
quence of this change of opinion, after 
a few years the limit of discharge was 
removed and that of reception was low- 
ered from 18 to 16 years. Since that 
change a feebleminded person once re- 
ceived is kept indefinitely. 

Besrinning as a separate institution at 
Knightstown the school was removed to 
temporary quarters in some unfinished 
buildings which were designed for the 
Eastern Hospital for the Tnsane. near 
Richmond, until a special place was 
made for the feebleminded at Fort 
Wavne. This was begun in 1887 and oc- 
cupied in Jul v. 18O0: since then it has 
been enlarged from a capacity of 400 to 
one of 1.200 and a farm colony has been 
operated very successfully in connection 
with the school. A law of 1°4"H. allow- 
ed the reception of feebleminded women 
from 16 to 45 by commitment and thus 
created a department for adult females 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 2 9 , i 9 i6 



119 




ERNEST P. BICKNELL 

Inasmuch as the editor, not the author, is writing the 
captions for these pictures, the men above may be 




AMOS 



ALEXANDER JOHNSON 

say there are many other reasons. Since its creation 
?7 years ago the Board of State Charities has known no 
described as the three reasons for Indiana's leadership in other secretaries than these. Each has been president of 
charitable and benevolent policies. Each of them zvould the National Conference of Charities and Correction. 



With all that has been done, the pro- 
vision for the feebleminded is still far 
from adequate, and at the present 
moment a state commission appointed by 
the governor is preparing to make a re- 
port which will be considered by the leg- 
islature of 1917, and it is hoped, will re- 
sult in some increased provision. 

Political Entanglements 

P01 itics has always been an important 
part of the duty of an Indiana citizen. 
When the various state institutions' be- 
gan to require large numbers of em- 
ployes, the politicians seized upon the op- 
portunity that so many jobs offered them. 
The pernicious doctrine "to the victors 
belong the spoils" became thoroughly im- 
bued into the political methods, with the 
deplorable consequences that partisan 
domination always brings, and the spoils 
evil became rampant. 

One contributory cause of this was the 
fact that until 1882, Indiana was what 
was called an "October state," i.e., the 
state election was held in the month 
preceding the national one. As it was 
also a doubtful state, the parties being 
nearly equal in strength, every possible 
effort was made by the national commit- 
tees of both parties to assist the state 
committees, with money and spell-bind- 
ers, to carry the state election. The re- 
mark was often heard in the 70's, "As 
goes Indiana in October, so goes the na- 
tion in November." 

Every six years a redistribution of 
representatives to the state legislature 
was made, the number remaining fixed at 
100 in the House and 50 in the Senate. 
The party which had the majority at the 
time of redistribution always tried to 
gerrymander the state so as to remain in 
power. This was done so successfully 
that several times it happened that the 
governor and state officers were of one 
party and the majority of the assembly 
of another. This difference in party be- 
tween the governor and the legislature, 
though often inconvenient, was> not an 



unmixed evil ; although, it sometimes ac- 
centuated partisan rancor, it did also 
temper it to some extent. Certain boards 
of trustees were appointed by the gov- 
ernor with the consent of the Senate, 
leading to boards divided politically, so 
accustoming the people to consider that 
not all the officials were necessarily of 
the dominant party. 

For some years the charitable, penal 
and educational institutions of the state 
were the football of politics. Almost 
every position under them was a matter 
for political reward to a party worker, 
and, with a few brilliant exceptions, the 
quality of their administration was of the 
low standard that such a condition must 
inevitably bring about. The change of 
date of the state election, from October 
to November, was made by the assembly 
of 1881, under the influence of a band of 
earnest reformers, who m'ade that legis- 
lative year a memorable one. The 
change became operative in 1882. 

At the subsequent elections, efforts 
were made to remove the incubus of 
partisanship. Led by Benjamin Harri- 
son, a leading Republican, and David 
Starr Jordan, a leading Democrat, the 
reformers of both parties succeeded in 
taking the state university, the normal 
school, and Purdue University, almost if 
not completely, out of the political quag- 
mire, but the benevolent and penal in- 
stitutions remained submerged. 

At the legislative session of 1887, 
charges were made by the Civil Service 
Reform Association which led to an in- 
vestigation of the Central Hospital for 
the Insane, which uncovered graft, cruel- 
ty and other abuses, almost beyond be- 
lief. The condition of the public institu- 
tions, or of many of them, was probably 
at its lowest ebb. 

This did much to lose the state and 
national elections of 1888 for the Demo- 
crats who were held responsible, so that 
it might be said that Grover Cleveland 
was defeated for re-election by the bad 
condition of a hospital for insane in 



Indiana — Indiana's electoral vote would 
have changed the national result. 

The local campaign of that year was 
largely fought on issues of state adminis- 
trative reform, although in both party 
platforms there were declarations of the 
kind. Although the state and national 
tickets were elected by the Republicans, 
the last gerrymander had been so adroit 
that the assembly had a Democratic ma- 
jority of 22 on joint ballot. This fact 
with the results t.f the investigation men- 
tioned above, and the declarations in the 
platform of each party, convinced the 
leaders of the majority that the time had 
come for a change for the better, which 
would redound to the honor of the party 
which made .it. The opportunity was 
embraced and although some conspicu- 
ously wrong things were dene by it. the 
legislature of 1889 has passed into his- 
tory as one of the great reform sessions. 

Legislature of 1889 

Among the measures enacted in 1889. 
were the Australian ballot law, the law 
creating the Boards of Children's Guard- 
ians, and that for the Board of State 
Charities. A fee and salary bill was in- 
troduced and referred to a committee 
which brought in a successful measure 
in 1891. All these bills were promptly 
vetoed by the governor and promptly 
passed over his veto. 

There had been a peculiarly vicious 
system of boards of directors for the 
three state benevolent institutions in In- 
dianapolis — the Schools for Deaf and 
Blind, and the Central Hospital. Each 
had a board, consisting of two directors 
of its own, and a chairman who was also 
chairman of the other two, so constitu- 
ting really a joint board of control for 
the three. 

This chairmanship was a position 
greatly desired. It was always given to 
a faithful party henchman. It carried 
with it the appointment of several hun- 
dred employes, the control of monthly 
contracts for many thousands of dollars 



M JO 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 29, 1916 



worth of supplies and occasional con- 
tracts for buildings and improvements. 
The salary was three times as much as 
that of each of the other members of the 
boaids, but even then was trifling in 
comparison with the possibility of graft 
and of political power. 

The advocates of a single board of 
control to replace the present highly suc- 
cessful system of an individual board 
for each institution under the supervision 
of the Board of State Charities, would 
do well to study what this single-headed, 
triple-bodied, partnership system, did to 
the benevolent institutions prior to 1889, 
and especially to read the 700 pages of 
testimony taken at the investigation of 
the Central Hospital. The conspiracy 
then disclosed for the looting of the 
hospital and the robbery of the state 
and the patients was fatal to the meth- 
ods under which it flourished. 

Before the reforms of 1889 some of 
the more recently created institutions 
had been organized with improved plans 
of government; the system of bi-partisan 
boards, with women as well as men upon 
them, had been introduced into the state. 
In 1889 the newer system was extended 
to all institutions, and a real reform was 
begun, which was greatly aided by the 
Board of State Charities to whose in- 
fluence much of the progress that has 
been made since it was appointed in 1889, 
has been due. 

New Provisions 

Among the new provisions was a very 
emphatic one, placing the responsibility 
for all subordinate institutional appoint- 
ments solely upon the superintendent, and 
strictly charging that no one should be 
appointed for any reason other than sup- 
posed merit and only proved merit 
should be a reason for promotion. At 
first this did not apply fully to all the in- 
stitutions, but by a later law it was ex- 
tended to include every benevolent and 
correctional agency of the state. It 
was hard for politicians, bred under the 
spoils regime, to believe that this law 
would be observed. Yet it' has been in- 
creasingly observed since its enactment, 
and the good condition of the institutions 
today is largely due to this fact. 

Since 1889 changes in heads of institu- 
tions for politics have not occurred. 
When changes have been made there has 
always been some other reason, although 
not invariably a creditable one to the 
persons causing or making the change. 
The state has never adopted technical 
civil service. Its merit system is based 
upon public demand and approval and 
the precise location of responsibility on 
the person making the appointment. Ap- 
pointees have been brought from other 
states, the first and most conspicuous in- 
stance of this being the first secretary 
of the Board of State Charities, who was 
a citizen of Chicago when appointed. It 
would be today a governor of unusual 
hardihood who would suggest to a board 



of trustees that they make a place for a 
friend of his by removing a worthy pub- 
lic servant of high or low degree. 

The great reforms which began in 
1889 have not been accomplished with- 
out stress and struggle. Much of the 
success is due to the high-minded and 
intelligent men who have occupied the 
governor's chair. But the strongest in- 
fluence in upholding the work of the 
Board of State Charities and the reforms 
which it has advocated, has been the 
newspaper press of the state, so ably led 
by the metropolitan papers of Indian- 
apolis. The three leading newspapers of 
the state, Democratic, Republican and 
Independent (with Republican leanings) 
were controlled by men : 6f conspicuous 
ability and public spirit. They had sur- 
rounded themselves with a group of bril- 
liant young newspaper men, as reporters, 
city editors, etc. 4 many Of whom have 
since occupied distinguished positions in 
connection with the press and other af- 
fairs. 

The newspaper group were the lead- 
ing members of a literary club to which 
belonged the best of the younger busi- 
ness and professional men of the city and 
which exercised, in an entirely unofficial 
way, a great influence in politics both of 
the city and the state. Reform was in 
the air and these men were on the right 
side of nearly every public question.' 
When they found a public servant, who, 
in their opinion, was able and honest, 
they helped him as only the press can 
help. But those who did not have the 
ring of true metal got what they de- 
served. 

Next to the influence of the press in 
supporting the work of the Board of 
State Charities has been that of the 
State Conferences of Charities. The 
board has taken advantage of the op- 
portunities of the National Conference 
of Charities and Correction, and has so 
well represented the state to that na- 
tional body that three members of the 
board and all three of its secretaries 
have been elected to the presidency, 5 the 
present secretary having been also presi- 
dent of the American Prison Association. 
Recognizing the value of the conference 
idea, especially in a democracy where 
the work of the state is the expression 
of the intelligent will of the people, the 
board promoted the state conference. 
This was begun in 1890, and has had 
excellent fruit in harmonizing the work 
of public and private agencies: in rais- 



4 At the risk of seeming invidious I can- 
not refrain from mentioning with grateful 
anpreciation in this connection the names of 
Bicknell. Brown. Fortune. Fuller, Horna- 
day, Lane and Nicholson. No faithful pub- 
lic servant, who served during the stressful 
decade from 1888 to 1898, will decry this 
tribute. 

5 Tn the matter of the National Conference, 
Indiana might be called the "mother of 
presidents." six of them in 26 years, having 
been from that state. 



ing administrative standards; in promot- 
ing reforms and in popularizing the work 
of the board. 

Following the example of the national 
conference, the scope of the state con- 
ference has widened far beyond the nar- 
row limits of technical charities and cor- 
rection and now includes all forms of 
social effort. Recently a new departure 
has been made by the organizing of local 
or county conferences which are popu- 
lar and promise well. 

Incidental to and concurrent with the 
reforms in the benevolent and correc- 
tional affairs of the state there has been 
a real reform in politics as they are con- 
cerned with the institutions. While it 
would be Utopian to claim absolute pur- 
ity, yet it is no longer true, if it ever 
were, that "purity in politics is an irri- 
descent dream." The leaders have taken 
to heart the lessons of 1888 and 1889. 
They have come to the conclusion that 
political interference with the state's 
charities is bad politics; that gains from 
patronage are so small, since for every 
party worker rewarded with a job sev- 
eral applicants are turned down and it? 
evils and dangers so great that the rule 
of "let the institutions alone" prevails. 

The Charities Board 

As the social consciousness has de- 
veloped the range of state activity has 
widened. Since the Board of State 
Charities was created, besides the institu- 
tions and amendments which have been 
described above, most of which, occur- 
ring since 1889, have been largely the ef- 
fect of the board's work and influence, 
several new departments of state activity 
have arisen. These include a Hospital 
for the Treatment of Incipient Pulmon- 
ory Tuberculosis; a Village for Epilep- 
tics, which has already become famous 
and is being copied in other states; an 
extension of the colony plan to the hos- 
pitals for the insane; and last but not 
least, a state General Hospital in In- 
dianapolis, made possible by the gift of 
Dr. and Mrs. Long and conducted for 
the state by the Medical School of In- 
diana University. Besides these there 
have been a host of minor reforms and 
improvements. 

During the 27 years of the board's ex- 
istence, its influence on the county insti- 
tutions has been no less salutary. Allu- 
sion has been made to the poor asylums 
and orphanages. Many of the jails have 
been greatly bettered, and the hope is 
strong that these, formerly, "schools of 
vice and recruiting stations for the army 
of professional criminals." will soon 
serve a better purpose. 

Besides all its effective work in pub- 
lic affairs, the private charities of the 
state have not been neglected by the 
board. From the beginning of its ex- 
istence, it has regarded the injunction of 
its organic law and has studied the whole 
field of charities of the state. None of 
its secretaries has ever been heedless of 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 29, 1916 



121 



an opportunity of helpfulness to the As- 
sociated Charities or other useful volun- 
teer agencies. 

The work of the State Board has been 
the subject of commendation by every 
governor who has passed upon its re- 
ports. Governor Hanley's story of the 
reform of outdoor relief has been quoted. 
Governor Marshall said, in effect, that 
every time the board's advice has been 
heeded by the legislature, the results 
have been excellent, and that nothing that 
has been done on its suggestion has been 
repealed or seriously amended. Other 
governors have expressed themselves 
similarly. Its history from the beginning 
has been a story of faithful, enlighten- 
ed and successful activity. 

When the first report of the board was 
in preparation, a program of needed re- 
forms was incorporated in it, some ex- 
plicitly and some by inference. One of 
its leading members, in commenting up- 
on the proposed report, said: "Friends, 
if all we here suggest is accomplished in 
30 or 40 years, we shall be wonderfully 
successful." Before twenty-five years 
had passed everything was accomplished 
and the board had to create a new pro- 
gram of advance. 

When the eighteenth National Con- 
ference met in Indianapolis in 1891, its 
president was Oscar Carlton McCulloch, 
the author of the bills that made the 
Board of State Charities and the Board 
of Children's Guardians. He was one of 



the first members of the Board of State 
Charities. His influence greatly helped 
to shape its policies, and to promote its 
methods of reasonableness; of construc- 
tive activity; of the securing of improve- 
ments in the institutions from within, not 
attempting to force reforms upon them 
from without; of faith in the people and 
belief that when they know what should 
be done they will want to do it ; of faith 
in the press that it greatly desires to lead 
the people aright. 

These have been the beliefs upon which 
the wonderfully successful work of this 
useful board has been founded. It has 
stood for the right with absolute fair- 
ness and freedom from selfish aims, and 
the people have believed in it, the public 
men have trusted it. In speaking of the 
possibilities of the board's work among 
the people of Indiana, Mr. McCulloch 
said to the author of this sketch : "They 
are a wholesome, honest, kindly, intelli- 
gent folk; they are frank and hospitable 
both to new men and new ideas." He 
knew them and he loved them and was 
beloved. He died before the nineteenth 
conference met, but his influence is a liv- 
ing force today. Rarely has one man 
achieved so much. His greatest achieve- 
ments live after him, indeed they have 
culminated since he has passed away. 
He has "joined the choir invisible whose 
music is the gladness of the world." but 
the effect of his words and work flows on 
in a constantly widening and deepening 



stream. 

Indiana has still much to do. It were 
idle to claim perfection. The work of 
the counties is wonderfully better than 
it was in 1889, but there is still much 
improvement to make, much base political 
influence to quench. The jails are being 
depleted of their inmates by the state 
penal farm, soon they will be merely 
places for the detention of accused per- 
sons not for the punishment of convicted 
ones. 

And there are betterments still to make 
in state affairs, better dealing with the 
incipient insane, psychopathic wards in 
every city and large town, which shall 
lift the reproach of putting the sick-in- 
mind into jail, even for a night; better 
work at some of the hospitals, an im- 
provement of medical care, and an exten- 
sion of the system of occupation for its 
curative as well as economic value; 
double or treble the present accommoda- 
tion for the feebleminded. One hapless 
class of defectives, the cripples, is still 
neglected, and there are other things to 
be done. But what has been done causes 
us to be hopeful, to thank God and take 
courage. 

If the gains of the next one hundred 
years shall be as much greater in pro- 
portion to the time, as the gains of the 
past thirty years have surpassed those of 
the previous seventy, the millennium in 
state affairs will surely be due to arrive 
shortly thereafter. 



The Deceiver 

By Sarah N. Cleghorn 

AVERY sly, deceitful woman this ! 
She sends a secret telegram, and then 
Pretends surprise, when the neglectful son 
Comes home at last to see his aging, fond, 
Long-hoping parents. Or she buttonholes 
And artfully disturbs the peace of mind 
Of careless husbands, with a whispered word 
About the pale wife's slowly hollowing cheek. 
She shrewdly was suspected, twice or thrice, 
Of warming and enlarging messages, 
(A little cold, a little cold and brief), 
Entrusted to her by estranging friends : 
So sly and deep and meddlesome she is ! 
'Tis known she sold her ancient heirloom watch 
To send away a convalescent child 
For seaside air : and yet she brazenly 
Declared she lost it in the Gypsy woods 
Along the road that leads to Pleasantvale 
Such a deceiving woman as she is ! 



T_>- 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 29, 1916 



CIVICS 



Improved Disciplinary Methods for 
City Employes 



Ii\ Leonhard Felix Fuld 



ASSISTANT CHIKK EXAMINER, MUNICIPAL CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION, NEW YORK 



^T ~V / HEN a man punches your 
\/\/ nose, do you go home and 
▼ ▼ beat up his wife? If not, 
why did the city of New York form- 
erly deprive the wife of a fireman of 
the necessities of life whenever he vio- 
lated a regulation of the department? 
When a fireman was fined, this action 
of the fire commissioner caused the fire- 
man to sit up and take notice because it 
affected his earning capacity. To this 
extent it was very effective. 

From a social and from an administra- 
tive point of view it had two serious 
drawbacks, however. Since the pension 
fund of which the fire commissioner is a 
trustee, was benefited to the extent that 
the fireman suffered pecuniarily, there 
was always a feeling of suspicion among 
the firemen that fines were inflicted to 
swell the revenues of the pension fund. 
A second and more serious objection to 
the fining system was the fact that it 
inflicted punishment upon innocent vic- 
tims, — the wives and the children of the 
men who had violated the regulations of 
the department. 

When these arguments against the fin- 
ing system were brought to the atten- 
tion of Robert Adamson, the fire com- 
missioner of New York, he promptly 
abolished the fining system in his depart- 
ment. Firemen in New 'York who vio- 
late the rules of the department are now 
required to work longer hours instead 
of being fined. Working longer hours 
punishes the fireman and not the inno- 
cent members of bis family. 

When your wife scolds you in the 
morning, this may spoil your entire day. 
Do you believe that, in addition, it 
should be permitted to make another 
man and his wife and children unhappy 
for a week or for a month? If not, 
then why does the city of New York vest 
in the man who happens to be the head 
of one of the city departments the power 
summarily to dismiss an employe? 

Psychology teaches us that most men 
have whims and prejudices. Heads of 
city departments are no exception to this 
rule, and city employes resent the fact 
that their welfare and the welfare of 
their families so frequently depend upon 
the whim or the prejudice of the head 



of department. If they rub the head 
of the department the wrong way they 
may lose their jobs. 

It requires a large mind to recognize 
and acknowledge one's own shortcom- 
ings, and few individuals possess such 
a large mind. City employes are no ex- 
ception to this rule and they are inclined 
to ascribe their dismissal to whim or 
prejudice even when it is based upon 
sound disciplinary grounds. What a 
dismissed employe thinks of the man 
who dismissed him may be of compara- 
tively small importance but the fact that 
his fellow employes generally take the 
same view of the situation as the dis- 
missed employe results in a bad influ- 
ence upon discipline. 

Marcus M. Marks, president of the 
borough of Manhattan of the city of 
New York, realized the truth of these 
observations regarding the arbitrary ex- 
ercise of the power of dismissal. He ac- 
cordingly has established a joint trial 
board consisting of two officials selected 
by himself and of two employes of the 
same rank as the accused selected by 
lot. These four trial jurors hear all the 
evidence in the case including the em- 
ploye's explanation and then after the 
accuser has left the room they decide 
what punishment shall be given to the 
accused. 

President Marks has referred to the 
trial board more than fifty cases in which 
he possessed the arbitrary power of re- 
moval. In every case the judgment of 
the trial board has been unanimous, the 
two fellow employes in each case reach- 
ing the same conclusion as the represen- 
tatives of the president. Men who are 
entrusted with the sacred duty of dis- 
pensing justice always seek to be just 
and almost invariably are just. 

The effect of this joint trial board 
upon the discipline of the department 
has been most salutary. Instead of dis- 
torted descriptions of the star-chamber 
proceedings which preceded the arbitrary 
dismissal of a guilty employe, the em- 
ployes who have served on the joint 
trial board have returned to their fellow 
employes with the doctrine of the square 
deal. No innocent employe can lose his 
position while his fellow employes sit 



upon the trial board to protect his in- 
terests, but his fellow employes cannot 
undertake to protect him if he has really 
been guilty of serious misconduct. 

Fire Commissioner Adamson abolished 
the fining system in his department about 
two years ago and President Marks abdi- 
cated his arbitrary power of removal 
two years ago by establishing a joint 
trial board. In both of these New York 
departments the discipline has improved 
tremendously during this period. 

Under the joint trial board in the 
■borough president's office, there have 
been since July, 1914, 56 trials, and in 
every case the man has been found 
guilty. As regards the penalty inflicted, 
in 24 cases, which is almost 50 per cent, 
the penalty was dismissal from the serv- 
ice. Eighteen employes were fined from 
one to two weeks' pay, 7 were fined from 
one to three days' pay, 4 were repri- 
manded, 2 were suspended and one given 
a leave of absence to secure medical 
treatment. 

It is evident that the reasons which 
made feasible the abolition of the fining 
system in the fire department do not ap- 
ply in the office of the borough president. 
The office closes at a given hour and the 
employe cannot, with advantage to the 
work, be employed extra hours. 

Should this not teach a lesson to other 
cities and to private employers who have 
the interests of their employes serious- 
ly at heart? 

CIVIC PERIODICALS OF 
RECENT BIRTH 

THE birth-rate of new periodicals 
in the field of civics is on the in- 
crease. In February appeared the first 
issue of the Public Servant, which is 
published monthly by the Society for 
the Promotion of Training for Public 
Service. The editor is Edward A. Fitz- 
patrick, the society's executive. The 
first issue contained a national program 
of training for public service and an arti- 
cle by Prof. Clyde L. King of the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania on the local resi- 
dent's requirement for public office. 

There are several new local publica- 
tions. The most important of these is 
the Toledo City Journal which is pub- 
lished by the Toledo Commission of Pub- 
licity and Efficiency. With attractive il- 
lustrations and popularly written arti- 
cles, it describes the activities of vari- 
ous municipal departments. The council 
proceedings are published in full each 
week. 

Washington Municipalities is the new- 
official organ of the League of Municipal- 
ities in that state. The magazine will 
publish the papers and discussions at the 
league's annual conventions, model ordi- 
nances, answers to questions, notes or 
reviews of new publications and other 
items of interest to city officials. It is 
to appear monthly. The first issue of 
Minnesota Municipalities, which will be 
published bi-monthly by the League of 



XHM SfJRVEY FOR APRIL 29, 1916 



123 






Minnesota Municipalities, appeared in 
February. 
. The Municipal Bulletin of Asheville, 
N.. C, a new monthly, published by the 
city and delivered free to all tax-payers 
appeared for the first time in January. 
It contains descriptive and statistical 
material concerning the work of the city 
departments. 

A WARD SURVEY IN 
NEWARK 

NEWARK is getting ready to cele- 
brate this year her 250th birthday. 
Committees of enthusiastic citizens are 
preparing historical pageants and exhibits 
showing industrial growth — there are 
now more than 2,000 factories in New- 
ark. Meanwhile, writes Helen B. Pen- 
dleton of the Associated Charities, the 
Newark Evening News has tried its 
hand at a survey of one ward in the city 
and has thus directed attention to some 
of the social and civic conditions of 
which the city can hardly be proud. 

The third ward, the one selected, has 
much overcrowding and only 10.93 per 
cent of the population are native-born of 
native parents. Over 70 per cent are 
Jewish. The survey indicates that 89 
per cent of the people in the ward live 
in 27 tenement houses in which there 
are 68 rooms without windows. The law 
does not prohibit the use of a dark room 
for sleeping purposes provided it has an 
aperture opening into another room. 

No less than 230 stables were counted 
and the collection of garbage, which is 
done by contract, was found to be in- 
adequate. 

Tuberculosis, according to the report, 
is strengthening its grip and children's 
diseases were flourishing. The need for 
city planning was evident in the unre- 
stricted, haphazard land development — 
stores, tenements, factories and stables 
jumbled together. 

While the survey has been of value 
in calling attention to these conditions, 
the surveyor dismisses in a sentence the 
results of private philanthropic work. 
"In spite of all these agencies," he says, 
"poverty and social distress are just as 
prevalent as they always have been." 

CITY-PLANNING INTEREST 
BY NEIGHBORHOODS 

NEIGHBORHOOD interest is mani- 
festing itself in the report of the 
New York Commission on Building Dis- 
tricts and Restrictions. This city-plan- 
ning effort "to save New York block by 
block" gives every dweller in the city a 
chance to be heard on the needs of his 
neighborhood — as to which blocks should 
be devoted to residence, business or in- 
dustrial purposes. 

The hearings held by the commission 
have brought out overwhelming approval 
of the restrictions and districts from all 
sorts of neighborhood organizations. 
Scarcely a voice has been raised in op- 




THE SMOKE NUISANCE IN 
PITTSBURGH 

SEVENTY dollars a year would 
scarcely seem to be sufficient 
sinews of war for fighting Pitts- 
burgh's soot. But the Smoke and 
Dust Abatement League of that city 
feels, measured by achievement dur- 
ing three years, that such an annual 
income has been an effective pebble 
against the Goliath they are fighting. 
In its first year the league con- 
ducted two exhibits to shoiv the na- 
ture and extent of . Pittsburgh's 
smoke nuisance. It has secured 
more effective municipal attention to 
the problem through the Bureau of 
Smoke Regulation, and it drezv up 
the ordinance which now regulates 
the emission of smoke. Committees 
of the league have co-operated in the 
enforcement of the ordinance. 



position on the basis that owners of 
property will be deprived of future 
values. 

The favorable reception accorded the 
report indicates how rapidly the public 
has come to understand the necessity 
for community control. Some groups 
interested in city planning feel, how- 
ever, that the commission in its efforts 
to gain popular support has not gone as 
far as it should. The committee on city 
planning of the City Club, of which 
Frank B. Williams is chairman, calls at- 
tention to some of the points in which it 
feels the report has fallen short of the 
best that could be secured. Too much 
allowance is made, the committee be- 
lieves, for incidental industry in business 
districts. The tentative report permits 
25 per cent or, in any event, two floors 
of any building. The committee further 
suggests the creation of a fourth "use" 
class of districts — for shops on the 
ground floor with residences above. It 
urges the preservation for residential 
purposes of streets in the neighborhood 
of small parks and suggests provision 
for the location of neighborhood public 
buildings and theaters grouped around 
small parks. 

It would restrict buildings to a height 
equal to the width of the street, or even 
less, in many districts in which the com- 
mission would allow a height of one and 
a half times the width of the street. The 
committee shows that the latter height 
limit would allow eight- and nine-story 
buildings in districts which are now de- 
veloping with three- and four-story apart- 



ments and in some cases small one- and 
two-family houses. This is due, the com- 
mittee feels, to a mistaken principle, 
which seems to be implied in the com- 
mission's report — to treat in the same 
way districts which are the same dis- 
tance from the city hall by the new dual 
transit system. 

Similarly, the committee urges stricter 
limiting of the proportion of lot area 
wh'ch may be occupied. 

The Greenwich Village Improvement 
Society sees in the adoption of the re- 
port of the Commission on Districting 
"an unparalleled opportunity for the per- 
manent securing and development of an 
inexpensive residential district in Green- 
wich Village." The society has sub- 
mitted a map on which it indicates the 
blocks it hopes will be reserved ex- 
clusively for residential purposes. 

The movement to save Fifth avenue, 
between Thirty-third and Fifty-ninth 
streets, from the invasion of factories 
has enlisted the support of the manu- 
facturers themselves. As indicated in 
The Survey for March 25, the merch- 
ants in this region co-operated in an- 
nouncing, through full-page advertise- 
ments in the daily papers, that after 
February 1, 1917, they would give pref- 
erence in their purchases of garments 
to manufacturers whose plants were lo- 
cated outside of the district. 

The Shall-We-Save-New-York Com- 
mittee again used full-page advertise- 
ments in the newspapers for April 2 to 
give the list of nearly 300 members of the 
Cloak, Suit and Skirt Manufacturers' As- 
sociation who pledged their co-operation 
in the effort to prevent factories from in- 
vading the upper Fifth avenue district 
and to encourage the rehabilitation of the 
lower and deserted part of the city 
through the erection of proper factory 
buildings. 

In this connection, George M. Price, 
M.D., director of the Joint Board of 
Sanitary Control, points out that it would 
be a calamity if the effort to save upper 
Fifth avenue should result in compelling 
manufacturers to remain in antiquated 
and unsafeguarded loft structures in the 
lower districts where work people would 
be menaced by far greater fire risks than 
in the newer and better loft buildings in 
the upper region. 

Municipal Reference Librarian C. C. 
Williamson has undertaken to show a 
"historical perspective" by calling atten- 
tion to an official housing survey and dis- 
tricting commission which labored no 
less than 241 years ago. In the office of 
the commissioner of records the original 
manuscript minutes of the mayor's court 
of April 26, 1675, that 

"The Worshippful Mayor and Alder- 
men went about the Citty and surveyed 
all the vacancies of ground and old de- 
cayed houses as alsoe to finde a Propper 
place for a Church and Shoomakers Tan 
Pitts, and took an account thereof as in a 
Paper tytled the Surveigh of ye Cittv." 



124 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 29, ipid 



HEALTH 



HEART DISEASE, RIVAL OF 
TUBERCULOSIS 

APPARENTLY while we have been 
. fighting one enemy face to face, 
another has stolen upon us from behind. 
New York has reduced her deaths from 
tuberculosis from 421 per hundred thou- 
sand in 1870 to 169 in 1914; but during 
this same time her deaths from heart 
disease have increased from 74 to 169. 
The experience of New York is repeated 
in other cities. In Worcester, Mass., no 
less than 21.5 per cent of all deaths in 
the industrial population are caused by 
organic heart disease; 15.2 per cent is 
the proportion for the whole population 
of that city. 

The situation, or rather the realization, 
has come upon us suddenly, and we are 
not equipped to deal with heart disease 
as we are with tuberculosis; yet it is 
clear that we shall have to cope with it 
and devote to it the same study and the 
same persistent effort to get at under- 
lying causes as we have given to tuber- 
culosis ever since the eighties. 

Several articles recently written for 
medical journals show how similar are 
the methods needed in the prevention 
and cure of heart disease, to those we 
are familiar with in the case of tuber- 
culosis. In both, it is in childhood that 
preventive work is most needed ; in both 



the symptoms are slight and latent and 
the treatment must be prolonged and 
persisted in after all signs of real trouble 
have disappeared. Both depend greatly 
upon environment for cure ; and in both, 
home care is beginning to take the place 
of institutional care. 

Both leave the child handicapped and 
needing vocational training in some occu- 
pation which will not make too great 
demands on his strength. 

The Massachusetts General Hospital, 
Boston, has been making an interesting 
experiment in the home care of children 
with heart disease and with diseases 
which threaten the heart, such as chorea 
and rheumatism. At first these children 
were kept in the hospital for weeks or 
even months, but the results were dis- 
couraging. When they went home not 
only improved but usually looking in 
the best of health, it was impossible to 
make the parents believe that the great- 
est care was still necessary. So relapses 
came, and the children returned to the 
clinic sometimes in a worse condition 
than before. 

The physicians realized that "heart 
disease is a social disease and must be 
treated socially; the child and his family 
must be educated, his environment must 
be altered and adapted to his limitations 
and he must be kept under supervision 
for a long period, not merely until he 



has recovered from the acute symptoms.' 

So in 1911 a social worker was se- 
cured to supervise the home treatment 
of these children. The results have 
been so gratifying that home care has 
been substituted for hospital care, for 
all but the acutely sick. 

There is not nearly so much danger 
of relapse if the child has been in his 
own home from the beginning and his 
parents have had the care of him dur- 
ing his sickness and have gone through 
the long, tedious process of nursing him 
back to health. There is no need then 
of readjusting him to his old environ- 
ment, and there is much less difficulty in 
adjusting the environment to him when 
he is really ill than when he comes home 
apparently well. When the home is 
manifestly unfit, boarding the child out 
in another family has been found better 
than sending him to an institution. 

The hospital chose a "visiting teacher" 
rather than a nurse, for though there are 
a few medical facts which she must be 
able to note, they are easily learned and 
most of her duties are non-medical. She 
must be able so to arrange the home care 
of the child that he will have rest and 
quiet and yet be happily occupied; and 
later on, she must be able to plan his 
return to school or his entrance into in- 
dustry in such a way that it will not 
overtax his strength. 

For the tuberculous child we have de- 
manded open-air schools; for the car- 
diac child we must demand schoolrooms 
on the ground floor, and ungraded classes 
where he can make uo his lost time with- 
out too much effort and perhaps work 
only half time, being dismissed before 
the closing hour with its rush and crowd. 

The tuberculous wage-earner is a 




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yr^ «2 


I Ti air m T *JMfk- . ^ 1 *" 






PUTTING POUNDS ON TUBERCULOUS CHILDREN 



TJ/'HERE log children gained last summer in weight, in af>- 
** petite, and well-being all over. Twice that number will 
have the opportunity this summer in the camp at Bamford 
Hills, directed by the Cincinnati Anti-Tuberculosis League. 
The annual report of the league, which has just appeared. 
tells of the remarkable gain of 4V2 pounds for each child 
last year. The youngsters stayed at Bamford Hills for 5-; 
days the first year the camp was opened; for 53 days in 1015, 
and it is hoped that this coming summer will see an even 
greater length added to this country outing of city children. 
Groups of children who went to the camp are classified as 



nicinic, pre-tubcrculous and tuberculous, although no open or 
infectious cases are under any circumstances received. 

"I just told the neighbors." said one mother, zcho had been 
reluctant to port with her two little girls, "that they were so 
poorly that if it didn't do them any good, it wouldn't do them 
iny harm. But I never saw anybody that was s skinny and 
poor as those girls, get so fat in so short a time. 1 am glad 
I sent them." 

A number of Cincinnati people have taken keen interest in 
the welfare of this camp, and are planning to extend this I 
in every possible way this summer 



THE SURVEY EOR APRIL 39. 1916 



125 



familiar problem. We must learn as 
much about the wage-earner with a dam- 
aged heart and be prepared to provide 
for him as well. 

KINDS OF DIRT WE DO NOT 
WISH TO EAT 

PRESENT-day sanitarians lay much 
more stress on cleanliness than on 
the prevention of adulteration in food. 
We used to be frightened by tales of 
benzoate of soda, salicylic acid, borax; 
but now those supposed poisons have 
slipped into the background and it is 
plain dirt that we are told we must view 
with alarm. 

This does not mean the dirt that flies 
off dusty pavements and settles on fruit 
and vegetables and candy. However dis- 
tasteful it may be to think of eating 
street sweepings, there is little danger in 
them, for germs cannot grow and 
multiply on raw fruit and vegetables ; 
while as for candy— sugar is one of the 
best of germicides. 

The dirt that is dangerous is human 
dirt. Carriers of typhoid and paraty- 
phoid and dysentery bacilli who handle 
soups and cooked meats and vegetables 
and milk, often infect these foods, and 
unfortunately they are all excellent cul- 
ture media for just those germs. Diph- 
theria and streptococcus carriers have 
been responsible for widespread epi- 
demics — and no wonder, for milk is one 
of the foods the laboratory worker 
selects when he wishes to grow those 
bacteria. 

There has just appeared a document 
recording investigations by the New- 
York Department of Health in this field 
and which will be read with painful in- 
terest by those of us who in our inno- 
cence frequent hotels and restaurants. 
It is a series of recommendations which 
the department addresses to the owners 
of these places of public feeding in the 
earnest hope that it can secure their co- 
operation and that the reforms will be 
voluntarily adopted — a hope we all de- 
voutly echo. This is the high standard 
set by the department: 

1. That every cook, waiter or omnibus 
boy should carefully clean his nails and 
hands before beginning his day's work. 

2. That every one of these employes 
should carefully cleanse his hands after 
visiting the toilet. 

3. That no waiter or other employe 
be allowed to sneeze into a towel, napkin, 
or table-cloth which may subsequently be 
used by a patron of the hotel or restaur- 
ant. 

4. That every such employe should be 
compelled to wash his hands after blow- 
ing his nose, coughing, sneezing, and that 
he be instructed and supervised to pre- 
vent his coughing or sneezing or ex- 
pectorating in such a way as to con- 
taminate his hands or any article that 
may be used in connection with dining- 
room service. 

5. That plates and other eating utensils 



be handled as little as possible by the 
fingers or hands of those who serve 
them. 

6. That no such employe shall use 
towel, table-cloth or napkin intended for 
public use for wiping perspiration from 
any part of his body, or in cleaning or 
drying his hands or face or nose. 

7. That the old clothes of a former em- 
ploye be not given to his successor till 
they have been washed or cleaned, as 
they are often very filthy. 

HEALTH CENTER PROGRESS 
IN BUFFALO 

A HEALTH center has been defined 
. as "public health work in a limit- 
ed area within which an attempt is made 
to reach the whole population with a co- 
ordination of medical, sanitary, nursing 
and social service." 






:■. . ' — 




OPPOSED TO POOR POSTURES 

QNE field of research by the 
American Posture League, this 
past year, has been that with the 
X-ray on the effects of exercise, 
dress and posture on abdominal or- 
gans. An illustrated report of this 
committee will be published by the 
league in a scientific monograph. 

The league will emphasize especial- 
ly this year proper seating of school 
children during their reading and 
drawing courses by anatomic chairs 
which, by a careful adjustment of 
lines, will help children to sit up- 
right instinctively instead of half 
lying down, and will therefore, grad- 
ually benefit the spine and pelvic or- 
gans. The league does not claim 
that by the use of such seats children 
ivill never take a bad posture, but it 
does claim that poor positions will 
be largely eliminated and good posi- 
tions encouraged. 



The experiment has been tried lately 
in various forms in New York, Boston, 
Philadelphia, Milwaukee, Cincinnati and 
other cities. Buffalo was early in the 
field with a health center in July, 1914. 
and in the autumn of 1915, the Health 
Department asked the Charity Organiza- 
tion Society to give active co-operation. 

In Cincinnati the health center work 
is in the hands of a joint committee rep- 
resenting the public and private health 
and relief agencies, with control of 
health and relief work in the district. 
Something like this is being undertaken 
in Buffalo where three health centers 
are under way, a fourth is in prospect, 
and the plan contemplates covering the 
whole city with miniature health depart- 
ments each of which may possibly be 
open night and day. Those so far es- 
tablished follow the boundary lines of 
the C. O. S. districts, ten in number, and 
the C. O. S. district committees are asked 
to take charge of the social work. This 
involves investigation, relief and family 
re-habilitation. 

The Buffalo plan covers both curative 
and preventive work, and the pamphlet 
issued gives stated hours at the health 
centers for dentistry, tuberculosis, gen- 
eral medicine, infants, children, obstet- 
rics, mental hygiene, venereal diseases, 
sanitary inspection and social service. 
The general advisory board has several 
representatives from the Charity Organ- 
ization Society and from the settle- 
ments, the district nursing association 
and the tuberculosis association. The 
experiment is full of complexities and 
will require patience and time. 

The new commission government in 
Buffalo which began January 1, has 
has granted the request of the health 
centers to substitute for many city phy- 
sicians on small pay, under control of 
the overseer of the poor, a few on full 
time and better pay under control of the 
health commissioner. 

TRAINING TRAINERS, A NEW 
COLLEGE COURSE 

A NOVEL plan is to be developed 
by the Women's Medical College 
of Pennsylvania for the benefit of club- 
women, social workers and mothers of 
families in the city. 

The college is offering a course in pub- 
lic health and elementary medicine which 
will cover the ordinary problems which 
women have to deal with in keeping 
themselves and their homes in hygienic 
condition. The course will include dis- 
cussions of the health of the individual, 
then that of the family, and later mat- 
ters pertaining to the health and sanita- 
tion of the entire community. 

The suggestion of the course is traced 
to Dr. Richard C. Cabot who recently 
urged that all women should have at 
least the rudiments of a medical educa- 
tion. 



126 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 2 9) ipi6 



Communications 



"SOCIALIZED GERMANY" 

To the Editor: Socialized Germany 
[reviewed] in your issue of February 26 
is one of the many products now appear- 
ing in America which knowingly mis- 
represent the facts. At the beginning 
of the war we thought that such absurd- 
ities were due to ignorance. Now we 
know that their aim is to mislead the 
public. This is your preparation for war. 
G. von Hoffmann. 

Berlin. 

"MAY IT PLEASE THE COURT" 

To the Editor: In The Survey for 
April 8 Representative Finis J. Garrett 
is quoted as saying that "The chair does 
not think that there has ever been a 
legal definition given of the word 'strike.' 
No definition of that word has ever been 
given by any court or by any arm of 
the government." 

I am writing to inform the representa- 
tive of the ninth district of Tennessee 
that in that excellent book, Groat's At- 
titude of the American Courts in Labor 
Cases, chap. IV, The Strike, he will find 
several court definitions, notably one by 
Circuit Justice Harlan in Arthur v. 
Oakes : "A 'strike' is properly defined as 
a simultaneous cessation of work on the 
part of the workmen." 

It occurred to me that some of the 
readers of The Survey might wish to 
know where to find an answer to the 
statement that "there is no legal definition 
of contests between capital and labor." 
Jno. B. Leeds. 

Philadelphia. 

GOOD CASK WORK 

To the Editor: "Most people believe 
the charities are not very serious when 
they talk of trying to put themselves out 
of business. As I see it, the organiza- 
tions can't urge upon us the kind of giv- 
ing which 'helps the poof out of their 
poverty' without begging for their own 
sifts in ways better calculated to heal and 
prevent the particular social sores they 
are treating and so to put themselves as 
organizations out of their own poverty." 

These words came recently from the 
lips of an editor who hut a short while 
ago had difficulty in "seeing" the spend- 
ing of a dollar in the salaries for service ! 
How many organizations are testing their 
money-getting methods by this measure 
of constructive casework? Does not the 
constantly increasing difficulty of obtain- 
ing the necessary funds for social work 
look as though we were not applying 
our own standards to the treatment of 
our own institutional poverty? 

Every charity ball, everv tango tea. 
every cold-day appeal, every hot-weather 
letter — every appeal that substitutes per- 
gonal connections, society pressure or a 
half hundred other pulls and pushes for 
intelligent understanding of the underly- 



ing welfare problem — is a sign that our 
social finance has not yet dared to be 
fundamentally social, has not yet dared to 
attempt to relate the entire resources of 
the whole community to the particular 
problem under consideration and treat- 
ment. 

Our fellow citizens are beginning to 
"see" good case work and its require- 
ments. But unless we are seriously and 
fundamentally planning an educational 
program to secure their intelligent inter- 
est as a means to both their gifts and 
their indispensable co-operation in the 
prevention of the huge problems we are 
here to treat and solve, are we quite 
ready to have them ingeniously ask us to 
explain the connection between good case 
work and constantly larger budgets and 
constantly greater difficulty in raising 
those budgets dollar for dollar? 

Charles Whiting Williams. 
[Executive Secretary, Cleveland Federa- 
tion for Charity and Philanthropy] 

Cleveland. 

PREPAREDNESS 

To the Editor: England regrets not 
having been prepared with men for de- 
fense on land. America's prospect is 
similar. What have we done mean- 
while to forestall regrets. If the spirit 
is willing, the will lacks spirit. A few 
summer weather camps and battalions 
of untrained mature men. When Eng- 
land's eyes were opened to her loss in 
volunteers, she turned to compulsory 
methods. 

We have the material if we had the 
sense and energy to manufacture it. 
There are boys of fifteen to seventeen 
years old in the city of New York 
alone, to whom an organization of phy- 
sical training would appeal tremendous- 
ly. There are parents who would be 
grateful for a substitute for street play 
and gang exploits. In any of our streets, 
in the apartment dwellers' section of 
New York and other large cities, out of 
school hours, there are enough phy- 
sically splendid boys to make a fair 
sized army within a year or two. Their 
parents, unable to enjoy the luxury of 
a vacation, have to sit and watch and 
hope for the possibility of a short per- 
iod when the hoys may enjoy the stimu- 
lation and uplift of a summer at work 
in the woods and meadows. 

Preparedness, as it is in Switzerland, 
would he hailed by the boys as recrea- 
tion, by the parents as relief. Some de- 
gree of organization and a little "gin- 
ger" would, with small cost and no poli- 
tics, convert the "street boy" into a 
worthy member of society, prepared for 
a position of efficiency in case of either 
warfare or peace. Some park space de- 
voted to drills and camp details once or 
twice a week, in charge of a petty offi- 
cer of the regular army, would accom- 
modate some thousands of pupils and 



put the legislative councils to the blush. 

The Boy Scouts and the marine cadets 
are doubtless doing much, or should be, 
but similar movements should be uni- 
versal, if only with the object of clear- 
ing the streets of an idle generation. 
And what are our public schools aiming 
at in their plan of study? Are they 
training the minds to preparedness for 
invasion, the bodies for the practical 
avocation which would be likely to fol- 
low a state of warfare? 

These simple opportunities thrown 
away for the lack of a bit of co-opera- 
tion between the authorities and the 
masses, while we hear the cry from 
Washington that the stripes in our flag 
represent the blood that may be spilled 
in case we are unprepared for war ! 
Egerton Brown. 

New York. 

PREPAREDNESS AND WOMEN 

To the Editor: The attempt to estab- 
lish at federal expense, or with federal 
aid, vocational military schools for young 
men should fail in the United States. If 
the vocational training part is to pre- 
pare for entering industries, young 
women have the same right to its op- 
portunities that young men have, since 
women's property is equally taxed for 
the purpose, and their training would 
equally benefit the nation. 

Moreover, in a nation where 4,000,000 
women now vote on equal terms with 
men and where in nineteen states, out- 
side the equal suffrage states, women 
vote on bond issues and for members of 
school boards, such a one-sided use of 
federal funds would surely be defeated 
But, suppose the vocational training is 
needed for war, and both military and 
vocational training are solely for possible 
war. 

The modern war of nations has demon- 
strated that in modern warfare women 
have to fill the places in vocations form- 
erly held by men now at the front. In 
France, Germany and England, women 
in increasing numbers, are taking men's 
places in the vocations. This may any 
day become a patriotic duty as well as 
a possible necessity for earning a living 
Women, without pay. and with little 
training are serving as nurses and aids in 
hospitals in great numbers. Yet the 
proposed plan makes no provision for the 
training of women ! 

Eminent men have declared that mili- 
tary training will secure a national spirit 
— a cohesion of state and nation, a spirit 
of loyalty and obedience — of voluntary 
co-operation with a government govern- 
ing for the good of all. Yet the women 
of the nation are expected to get this 
spirit intuitively — or else it doesn't mat- 
ter whether they get it or not ! 

The need of training in sanitation for 
camp life, in order to preserve the lives 
of the defenders of the country is empha- 
sized. Vet the need of training in sani- 
tation in times of peace is >ust .i> great, 
to preserve the lives of our citizens 
Yet sanitation must start with the homes, 
where women, ignorant or careless, may 
endanger a whole city. Do not our 
women equally need training in sanita- 
tion for times of peao 

Our federal government should take 



THE SURVEY TOR APRIL 29, 1916 



127 



the first step toward equalizing the politi- 
cal status of men and women throughout 
the United States. Give the American 
women the same incentives to loyalty and 
obedience and training that are given 
young men. On this basis, then, plan a 
new kind of school which trains for 
peace and efficiency in industry and citi- 
zenship; but so trains that, if necessary, 
every man and every woman will be pre- 
pared to defend the nation that makes 
actual in times of peace the greatest 
spirit of democracy the world has known. 
Laura L. Runyon. 
Warrensburg, Mo. 

"SAVE THE LITTLE BRICK 
SCHOOL HOUSE" 

To the Editor: For the first time in 
the history of this country millions of 
her citizens will be disfranchised next 
November. Never before have the is- 
sues been more clearly defined, but with- 
out a candidate and an organization the 
citizen holding to certain definite and 
well-defined principles will remain silent 
rather than cast his vote for a condition 
that his conscience, business and family 
interests rebel against. 

The old parties are committed to ex- 
treme preparedness and next November 
it will simply be a choice between the 
size of their guns and their number. 
Are we to have a million or half a mil- 
lion men taken from the schools, their 
homes and industrial life and made ready 
for the "trenches"? The voter will be 
called upon to decide this issue, but he 
will not be informed that it is the first 
step to militarism, that regardless of 
either party we have overthrown our 
form of government and adopted meth- 
ods employed by the monarchs of 
Europe that have kept their broods on 
the throne for ages, and enslaved their 
subjects except those that have fled to 
America to escape military duty. 

Is it reasonable to suppose that those 
two or three millions of foreigners but 
naturalized American citizens will vote 
for the same form of government they 
have already escaped from? 

To a man, these industrious, frugal 
and useful citizens will vote against mili- 
tarism ; increased taxation, conscription 
and the disgusting army aristocracy and 
flunkyism. This class of voters, however, 
are only a small majority that have a 
right to be heard from at the polls. 

A tremendous "vest pocket" vote is 
ready to come from the tax-payers who 
see a burden about to be laid on them 
and their decendants for future ages and 
generations. These men will not talk 
but they will vote to protect themselves 
against such burdens of taxation as their 
foreign brethren are breaking under. 
The mother, who secretly yearns for her 
hoy. will either vote or use her influence 
to secure votes to keep her boy in school 
and "out of the trenches." 

Jacob M. Loeb, president of the Board 
of Education of Chicago, has offered to 
equip with uniforms and instruments a 
full fife and drum corps in the high 
school which shows the best record in 
scholarship as he "anticipates the adop- 
tion of a course of military training in 
all the high schools of Chicago" this 
vear. 



It is Mr. Loeb's idea to establish in 
every high school one prize company 
thoroughly equipped and uniformed and 
he has called on Chicago citizens and 
business concerns to contribute. One of 
the largest high schools in the city has 
already recruited a regiment of 1000 
boys. 

Wars will cease when rich men are 
compelled to hire men to drill and fight 
for them and the mothers refuse to make 
the free-will offering. 

The laborer, the farmer, the Christian 
and all genuine Americans that are 
naturally opposed to royalty and their 
forms of preparedness, will quietly cast 
their vote for freedom against military 
financial oppression and conscription. 
Let a call be issued for a national con- 
vention, stating the issues involved, and 
let the representative members of the 
citizens above mentioned meet and form 
a national party or the American Peace 
Party, nominate a candidate to represent 
them from these plain people — an Abra- 
ham Lincoln, the man of the hour will 
be discovered. History will be repeated, 
militarism and oppression like slavery 
will vanish from our nation forever. 
Charles A. Thomas. 

Winnetka, 111. 

ST. PAUL ON VICE REPORTS 

To the Editor: After all our experi- 
ence in New York with the Parkhurst 
disclosures, I am surprised that you give 
space to the Baltimore report. [The 
Survey for March 25.] There is noth- 
ing new in it. It throws no light on any 
problem. Nor suggests any solution. 

Do you think Baltimore is any worse 
than Boston or Albany, or than Paterson 
or Newark in New Jersey ? What good 
does it do to open a cesspool and stir up 
the contents, unless there is to be a 
prompt measure of sanitation and disin- 
fection ? Such publicity only results in 
scattering the germs. 

Those who did not know of the con- 
ditions exposed will not be benefited and 
one result that it suggests is to under- 
mine the confidence of the young in the 
morality of their elders, especially as the 
exposures are made without identification 
or discrimination. 

Baltimore has a cardinal and several 
bishops. These men are official overseers 
of the morals of that community. Should 
not the report have been taken privately 
to them for consideration and action? 
No wonder that the grand jury found 
no indictments, and no wonder, as the 
writer of the article suggests, "nothing 
has been done about it." 

St. Paul found such conditions in Rome 
and in Corinth, and you will read his 
opinion of the whole matter in the fifth 
chapter of his letter to "the saints which 
are at Ephesus." I call your attention, 
as I have before, to the twelfth verse 
where he says : "For it is a shame even 
to speak of those things." 

I again ask you what benefit will re- 
sult from making an "eight-day" sensa- 
tion of immoral conditions unless they 
are to be attacked on religious grounds 
and with an appeal to the conscience of 
the community and the individual. 

Joseph D. Holmes. 

fersev Citv. 



[Ihe Caltimore vice report is of par- 
ticular value, in our view, as showing not 
only the extent of commercialized pros- 
titution but also of personal sexual im- 
morality in high places. One correspond- 
ent thinks there is "nothing new in it." 
Why, then, would it have been desirable 
to take it privately to the cardinal and 
bishops "for consideration and action" ? 
These gentlemen, whom The Survey 
does not know, have had years in which 
to do something about the matter "pri- 
vately". 

But our correspondent would not think 
that there was nothing new in the report 
if he had chanced to be in Baltimore last 
December, when portions of it were pub- 
lished in the newspapers. Baltimore, 
practically as one person, rose and de- 
clared that the descriptions of conditions 
were "scandalously untrue." Does our 
correspondent think that everyone in 
Baltimore knew, for example, that over 
three-fourths of the city's "furnished 
rooms" cater in one way or another t>> 
illicitness? 

We do not, of course, think that Balti- 
more is any worse than Boston or Al- 
bany or any other city. We said so in 
tl e article summarizing the report. That 
the report has failed, so far, to lead to 
remedial action can hardly lie charged 
against it; rather, one would think 
against the authorities. But our corre- 
spondent is in too great a hurry for re- 
sults. The experience of Chicago sug- 
gests that the response, while frequenth 
delayed, is nevertheless eventually forth- 
coming. Nor is it true that the report 
suggests no solution. It contains a spe- 
cific recommendation for a permanent 
morals welfare commission which shall 
continuously and aggressively take cog- 
nizance of sexual illicitness. 

The Baltimore commission, we imagine, 
will be inclined to make no apology for 
following in the footsteps of St. Paul. If 
that learned apostle believed, however, 
that it is "a shame even to speak of those 
things." we respectfully be£ to disagree 
with him. and to surest that if he were 
living today he might possibly rewrite 
much of what he wrote. However, our 
correspondent did not read far enough. 
If he had only gone on to the very next 
verse, he would have been told: "But 
all things that are reproved are made 
manifest by the light; for whatsoever 
doth make manifest is light." We submit 
St. John as our authority : "And ye shall 
know the truth, arid the truth shall make 
you free." 

Shall make you free, that is, if you be- 
lieve in truth. If not, bondage shall be 
your portion forever. — Editor.] 

COXING THE COMPASS 

To the Editor: You are so outspoken 
an enthusiast for the cause of woman 
suffrage, that I think you will not deny 
that had women not the vote in Chicago 
you would have coupled your editorial 
on Chicago Politics and a Tragic Death 
with a statement that it is to prevent 
such shameful misuse of political power 
that women desire the vote ! Why not 
say frankly that in this instance all the 
boasted influence for civic betterment 
contained in votes for women has failed, 
and that Mayor Thompson, put into of- 



128 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 29, ipi6 



See with such acclaim by women voters, 
has not "made good"? 

I can just imagine the outcry which 
would have been made by suffragists had 
poor Dr. Sachs been a New Yorker. 
They would have demanded the vote to 
put a stop to the outrageous entrance of 
politics into philanthropy. They would 
have assured the world that women and 
women only can prevent men from suc- 
cumbing to the temptation of playing pol- 
itics in the management of public institu- 
tions. Do let us once in a while have a 
frank, honest statement that the political 
rule of women is no better than that of 
men and that if women are to have the 
vote, it must be based upon some better 
argument than women's spiritual higher- 
mindedness. 

Annie Nathan Meyer. 

Mew York. 

To the Editor: Since The Survey 
hase become an anti-suffrage medium 
will you kindly stop my subscription at 
the end of the year? 

I cannot understand how a progressive 
paper, such as I have always supposed 
The Survey to be, could lend itself to 
John Martin for a series of retrogressive 
articles. I know that you will reply that 
his articles have been answered, but when 
a public paper lends several issues and 
many pages to one side of the question, 
and only one issue and a few pages to 
the other side, it is quite fair to suppose 
that the side having five times as much 
space as the other, represents the views 
of the paper. The only way that you can 
set your paper straight with progressive 
people will be to have a series of articles 
not only as long as those of Mr. Martin, 
but longer, on the right side of the ques- 
tion. Unless this is done my subscription 
must cease. 

1 was greatly pleased with the fairness 
that The Survey displayed in its report 
of the Ford peace expedition. Miss Lat- 
timore's articles were able and honest, 
but again I cannot understand why hav- 
ing been so fair at the time when every- 
one was crying out against the expedi- 
tion, you should now have joined the 
conspiracy of silence which the great 
newspapers have entered into. Few peo- 
ple know that a conference of very able 
people representing the neutral nations 
is now sitting in Stockholm and study- 
ing the whole question. . . . [See 
America and the Neutral Conference, 
The Survey for April 15. — Editor.] 
Kate Devereux Blake. 

New York. 

To the Editor: Please have a copy of 
April 15 sent me. It is "altogether love- 
ly," and I have lapped it up, as a hungry 
puss laps cream. So glad you gave John 
Martin a show. Otherwise, how could 
we have had this week's symposium? 

I still have the cover design — the little 
g"irl white slave — and I still find my eyes 
wet when I look at it. The Survey is the 
best possible place for such things. Your 
readers, as a rule, are men and women 
inspired by a hope of bettering conditions 
— not individuals with depraved appe- 
tites for unprintable matter. 

Y . 

Pres Woman Suffrage Association.] 
( leor.a'ia. 



To the Editor: As a long-time reader 
of The Survey who disagrees with John 
Martin, permit me to join the minority 
who congratulate you on your editorial 
policy. I am glad it is tenaciously one 
of freedom of speech. Even more de- 
plorable than the conservatives objection 
to free statement of radical thought is 
the radical's resentment of a like state- 
ment of conservative view. The conserv- 
ative usually knows no better than to 
kick ; from the standpoint of philosophy 
and experience the radical surely ought 
to know better. After all, human nature 
is pretty much the same in all of us. 
How often the "liberal" in religion is 
the bigot when he views the orthodox ! 

I thought it might comfort you to know 
that at least one reader who doesn't like 
Martin's views is nevertheless glad you 
printed them and will renew his subscrip- 
tion so long as you adhere to the policy 
of giving a hearing to those you don't 
agree with. X 

To the Editor: I can readily under- 
stand the eagerness with which those 
earnest ladies seized their more-or-less 
facile pens and pressed to the onslaught 
against John Martin. I can also under- 
stand with equal ease how Mr. Martin 
must have placed his lance in rest for 
the come-back — counter-attack I believe 
we say now. 

The problems involving matters of sex 
are not exactly settled yet and I think it 
not unfair to insist upon suspended judg- 
ment rather than dogmatic statement on 
either side. 

What I can not therefore understand 
is the attitude of subscribers who by 
threat or implication propose the eco- 
nomic undoing of The Survey for giving 
both sides a fair hearing on this most 
undetermined of all questions. 

When I read a trade journal that uni- 
formly favors investment rather than 
sale, I know at once that I am not get- 
ting news or discussion but dope! Such 
newspapers, like editors who always lean 
to one side on fairly debatable matters, 
make the most excellent strangers. 

Here's hoping that The Survey may 
firmly hold its present course of giving 
a fair hearing, making a fair sum-up 
for us, and leaving us readers free to 
agree or differ without feeling ourselves 
enemies to the great work The Survey 
is honestly and efficiently doing. 

H. H. Howe. 

Brooklyn. 

SAID OF THE SURVEY 

To the Editor: I note with much in- 
terest your new edition and the once-a- 
month plan. . . . Send me a few sub- 
scription blanks . . . and I will try 
a little lenten missionary work. 

A. F. Corbin. 

Ithaca, N. Y. 

To the Editor: The new monthly 
number [April 1] was a surprise, and it 
will have a very strong appeal to many 
thousands of people. The great require- 
ment now is to get it introduced. The 
result would be certain. It would take 
its place among the most popular month- 
lies for three very powerful reasons: it 



is different, it is interesting, it has a dis- 
tinct purpose. The last reason is ex- 
tremely attractive if it is carried out in 
a popular, interesting way. 

Chas. H. Forster. 
Vacaville, Calif. 

The Survey is a weekly journal de- 
voted to the interests of charitable and 
social service work and the support of it 
is a matter of public interest and concern 
Some of the very best men in the country 
are its supporters and one can hardly 
keep informed concerning the improve- 
ment of communities, great social under- 
takings, strikes of national importance, 
etc., without reading The Survey. If the 
minister of the parish does not take it, it 
would be well for some layman to take 
the paper, read it himself and give it to 
the rector. — Nczuark Churchman. 



1 


JOTTINGS 


1 



The National Index, a new magazine 
announced in The Survey for March 11. 
has suspended publication. 



Arthur J. Strawson, formerly of Chi- 
cago, is now executive secretary of the 
Indiana Society for the Prevention of 
Tuberculosis. 



A school in which blind soldiers max 
learn massage has been opened at Rieully. 
France, by M. J. Brissac, director of public 
charities and hygiene of the Department of 
the Interior. In Japan, massage has long 
been a profession of the blind because of 
their sensitiveness of touch. 



Any one who has contributed to the Na- 
tional Aid Society in response to appeals 
from the Norwich Pathological Labora- 
tory, 146 Cliff Street, Norwich, Conn., is 
asked to communicate with the Bureau of 
A.lvice and Information of the Charity 
Organization Society, 105 East Twenty- 
second street, New York city. 

More than eighty colleges and normal 
schools will have, the coming summer, the 
courses on international affairs, Latin- 
American affairs and Spanish offered by 
the American Association for Internation- 
al Conciliation as a part of its educational 
work in advancing "the interests of in- 
ternational understanding." 

The Association to Abolish War is one 
of the most recent peace organization^ 
which have sprung into existence in the 
last year through a feeling of impatience 
with the old-line peace organizations. Its 
headquarters are in Boston. The Rev 
Charles F. Dole is chairman and Wilbur 
K. Thomas, 21 Hazehvood street. Rox- 
bury, Mass., is secretary. 

Annie I. Gerry, who on May 1 is to be- 
rome general secretary of the Union Re- 
lief Association oi Springfield, Mass. is 
a graduate of Smith College, and during 
'he last six years has been with the asso- 
ciated Charities of Boston. She succeeds 
Emma C. Youngquist, who gave up her 
connection with the Springfield society sen 
eral months ago 



The Charity Organization Society of 
Bridgeport, Conn., the city which baa 
grown like the proverbial boom tow- 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 2p, ipi6 



129 



the West since the war began, is to have 
George L. Warren of Boston to succeed 
Leet B. Myers as general secretary. Mr. 
Warren is a graduate of Harvard Uni- 
versity and since 1913, he has been district 
secretary of the Charlestown district of 
the Associated Charities of Boston. 

An interesting opportunity is opened up 
to the right person by a call from Changsa, 
China. The Social Service League, whose 
work was described by Mrs. E. H. Hume 
in The Survey for September 25, 1915, 
has grown so rapidly that the league needs 
the assistance of a trained social worker 
with "college education and true mission- 
ary spirit." Applications for this position 
may be made to Dr. W. H. Welch, Johns 
Hopkins University, Baltimore. 

Announcement is made by the Commit- 
tee of Fourteen of New York city of a 
proposed series of informal conferences 
to be held during the National Conference 
of Charities and Correction at Indian- 
apolis, May 7-10, to discuss law enforce- 
ment as related to prostitution and other 
phases of social hygiene work. Informa- 
tion may be had of Frederick H. Whitin, 
secretary of the Committee of Fourteen, 
27 East 22 street, New York city. 

Warden Osborne of Sing Sing has for 
the second time had one of the charges 
against him dismissed by the court without 
going before a jury. This charge — of im- 
morality — is freely characterized by the 
New York Evening Post as a desperate at- 
tempt of the bipartizan political machine in 
Westchester county to "get" the man who 
not only interfered with appointments and 
contracts but actually favored the removal 
of the prison out of the county. There re- 
mains but one charge pending against 
Warden Osborne — neglect of duty. 

Thirty-one states and two territories 
are covered by the digest revised to De- 
cember, 1915, of workmen's compensation 
laws in the United States and territories, 
compiled by F. Robertson Jones. The 
digest is annotated and affords a conveni- 
ent means of comparing the chief features 
of the workmen's compensation laws in 
the various states. It is published by the 
Workmen's Compensation Publicity Bu- 
reau, 80 Maiden Lane, New York city, in 
paper covers at $2. 

Charles L. Burt, the new secretary of 
the Juvenile Protective League of Minne- 
apolis, comes to his new work from the 
Lake Superior Mission in Superior, Wis. 
Like his brother, Henry F. Burt of Unity 
Settlement, Minneapolis, he had his early 
experience in the boys' activities at Chi- 
cago Commons. In Superior he has also 
served as secretary of the Public Welfare 
Association, president of the Twin Ports 
Social Service Club, Boy Scout master 
and as one of the leaders in the activities 
of Pilgrim Congregational Church. He 
goes to Minneapolis May 1. 

Governor Whitman has appointed 
James M. Carter of Buffalo as superin- 
tendent of New York state prisons to 
succeed John B. Riley who, it will be re- 
membered, the governor dismissed for in- 
terfering with the work of Warden Os- 
borne at Sing Sing. Mr. Carter is a suc- 
cessful contractor and secretary of the 
Builders' Exchange of Buffalo. He has 
had no experience of prison matters. It 
is believed he was appointed in the ex- 
pectation that he would build up the prison 
industries and that he will be given a 
deputy experienced in prison work. 

What is believed to be the first attempt 
to teach hygiene by the co-operation of 
members of a public school system, is 
marked in Albany by the appearance of the 



first issue of the Health Messenger, a 
little pamphlet which will appear monthly 
during the school year, containing mate- 
rial for class discussions of health and 
sickness. It will be prepared by members 
of the Department of Education forming 
an "organization for health direction of 
schools," and printed in the department's 
school of printing. The Messenger be- 
lieves that "it is as important for a child 
to know the name of the state commis- 
sioner of health and what he is doing as 
to know the name of the President of the 
United States." 

Hilda Muhlhauser, for over a year di- 
rector of the Girls' and Women's Bureau 
of the State-City Labor Exchange in 
Cleveland, has taken up the work of or- 
ganizer of federal employment offices for 
the Bureau of Immigration of the fed- 
eral Department of Labor. She is suc- 
ceeded in Cleveland by Rachel Gallagher, 
former placement secretary. Last August 
at the first National Conference on Em- 
ployment at San Francisco, Miss Muhl- 
hauser proposed a plan for federal-state- 
city employment bureaus which was one 
of the features of the conference, and 
was adopted, with the expectation that the 
first office would be established in Cleve- 
land. In her new federal office, she will 
endeavor to carry out the plan. 

The Buffalo Children's Aid Society, 
which for 44 years has conducted a home 
for boys, is now legally merged with the 
Queen City Society for the Prevention of 
Cruelty to Children, under Edward H. 
Letchworth as president of the joint or- 
ganization. Conrad E. Meinecke, the di- 
rector of men and boys work at West- 
minster House, one of the chief Buffalo 
settlements, became superintendent of the 
Boys' Home April 1. The society also 
conducts a children's bureau for cases of 
cruelty and neglect, and a shelter for 
children under its care. John P. Sander- 
son, who has been trained with the Buf- 
falo Charity Organization Society and the 
Boston Children's Aid Society, is making 
the Children's Aid Society one of the 
chief social factors of the city. 

The delay and expense now involved in 
the trial of small wage claims in New 
York city deter many employes from prose- 
cuting their cases against employers, de- 
clares the Courts Committee of the Brook- 
lyn Bureau of Charities. To facilitate trials 
involving claims under $50, the committee 
has urged the Board of Justices of the 
Municipal Court to establish a special part 
of the court for hearing such cases in 
the evening. 

Other cities, says the committee, have 
created such courts. Cleveland has a con- 
ciliation court for cases under $35. Kan- 
sas has had a small debtors' court since 
1913. Chicago has a small claims court. 
In New York at present, says the commit- 
tee, the worker is as a rule compelled to 
spend a portion of three or four separate 
days in court. 



Scientists and business men have joined 
hands in what is to be known as the Eco- 
nomic Psychology Association, with head- 
quarters in New York city, to learn more 
about "the human equation in industry." 
The scientists and special investigators on 
the advisory council are Prof. Hugo Mun- 
sterberg and Prof. F. W. Taussig, of Har- 
vard University ; H. L. Hollingworth, Prof. 
R. S. Woodworth and Prof. E. L. Thorn- 
dike, of Columbia University; and G. J. 
Fisher, of the Y. M. C. A. 

The purpose of the association is stated 
as follows : "The Economic Psychology As- 
sociation is intended to be the beginning 
of a greater manifestation of the human 
nature element as it affects business and 



TUBERCULOSIS 

AND ITS RELATION TO 

SOCIAL CONDITIONS 

This vital phase of the anti-tuberculosis 
campaign is being emphasized more and 
more daily. Social workers who are 
battling against the problems bred of 
tuberculosis are finding new ways to 
combat old evils. 

WHAT ARE THE NEW 
DEVELOPMENTS? 

The recital or the experiences and re- 
search of tried social workers, their 
methods and their achievements is a 
regular feature of the 

Journal of the Outdoor Life 

■ "The Anti-Tuberculosis Magazine" 
Monthly — $ 1 .00 a year 

Special Subscription Offer for Social 
Workers : Journal of the Outdoor Life 
for one year, and a handbook of concrete 
statistical information — "Facts About 
Tuberculosis" — By Lilian Brandt. 

(Regular price, $ 1 .25)-both for 85c 



Subscribe now— or send for sample copy 

Journal of the Outdoor Life 

289 Fourth Avenue, New York City 



The Great Social Issue 

BIRTH CONTROL 

Civilization is the measure of man's con- 
trol over nature. The great issue involved 
in Birth Control is conscious control of the 
process of birth. 

A most stimulating article on Birth Con- 
trot and Democracy in the current issue of 
the NEW REVIEW discusses the social 
and progressive aspects of the question. 

The NEW REVIEW is a magazine in- 
dispensable to the man or woman who is 
interested in the social and economic 
questions of the day in all their phases. 

The Limitation of Offspring 

The great classic on Rirth Control is Dr. 
Wm. J. Robinson's book. The Limitation of 
Offspring by the Prevention of Conception. 
Dr. Robins*>n was a pioneer in the move- 
ment for birth control in this country. 
The book sells for $1.00 net. 

An Exceptional Offer 

The annual subscription price of the 
NEW REVIEW is $1.50 a year. Send us 
$1.65 and we will enter your subscrip- 
tion for one year and send you a copy of 
the above book. 



NEW REVIEW 



256 Broadway 



New York City 



BUY YOUR BOOKS 

from 

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of 

SURVEY ASSOCIATES,Inc. 

We specialize in books on social, civic and 

economic subjects, but we handle 

all current publications 



130 



THE SURVEY FOR APRIL 29, 1016 



New fork g>rl)0ol 

nf 

pj|tlantljropg 

105 East 22 Street 



/BOURSE No. 4, Principles 



and Methods of Social Re- 
search, by Kate Holladay 
Claghorn. 

The aim of this course is to give 
an intelligent appreciation of the 
evidence advanced in support of 
social theory and social action, and ability to perform such parts 
of the task of social research as the social worker constantly 
needs to do. This includes : planning the investigation, collect- 
ing the material, arranging it in correct and interesting form, and 
interpreting the results. 

In 1916-17 the topics will be: (a) Race Problems, (b) 
Poverty, (c) Disease and Defects, (d) Delinquency. 

In some or all of the above fields opportunity will be afforded 
as far as possible, of coming in direct contact with the actual 
work of such investigations as are carried on in New York dur- 
ing the winter. 

The regular two-year course of the School provides pro- 
fessional training for social work. Complete announcement for 
1916-17 will be sent free on request. Entrance examinations 
required of all students, will be held May 6 and September 1 2. 

SCHOOL PUBLICATIONS.-/V0. 6, The Section on Charity from the Schulhan Aralch. trans- 
lated by Louis Feinberg, 25 cents; /Vo. 7, Facts about the Death Hate, by Lilian Brandt, 25 cents. 



THE WORLD'S SOCIAL EVIL 

By Wm. Burgess. Introduction by Graham Taylor 

Published by Saul Bros., Chicago. 400 pages, $1 .50 

We bought 700 of this remarkable book. While 

they last offer them et $1.25 prepaid. Send check 

or M. O. to THE BOOK BUREAU, DESPLAINES. 

ILLS. Circular Free. 



SOCIAL WORKERS 

Are you seeking a position ? 

Are you looking for trained 

workers for your staff? 

Apply to the Department for Social Workers 

Intercollegiate Bureau of Occupations 

1 30 East 22nd Street, New York 
It is a clearing house for social workers 




HERE'S A PEACE TREATY 
YOU CAN SIGN 

BIG, STRONG READER! 



I enclose $ toward the campaign for the Federal 

Child Labor Bill pending in the U. S. Senate, and which has 
now been reported favorably by the Senate Committee. 

I will urge my Senators at Washington (sending a contribution does not obligate you to do 

his) to pass the bill. 

Yours on behalf of 150,000 Child Laborers 

to whom the bill will bring freedom from oppression. 



(Signed) 

Check for 

$ enclosed. (Address) 

Send to National Child Labor Committee, 105 East 22d Street. New York City 



economic, life. .It means the application 
of the laboratory method to the investiga- 
tion and solution, by experiment and inter- 
change, of the many problems that are now 
an unknown quantity." 



Marketing and Farm Credits, a paper 
bound volume of more than 500 pages, 
containing a collection of papers read at 
the third annual session of the National 
Conference on Farm Credits and the Na- 
tional Council of Farmers Co-operative 
Associations, in Chicago, last December 
(see The Survey for January 15), has 
been published at $1, postage 15 cents 
extra, from the office of the secretary. 
Charles W. Holman, Washington building. 
Madison, Wis. Included also are a few 
of the papers delivered at the second con- 
ference of the preceding year. The fore- 
word declares that "If the conference dis- 
cussions be an index of the public mind, 
the time is not far from us when America 
will grapple with the land question as a 
social issue, just as from the discussions 
of co-operation at this conference has 
sprung an agency whose purpose is the 
proper training of the American farmer 
for self-help in his business operations." 



Dr. G. Burgess Cornell, formerly execu- 
tive secretary of the Maryland Mental 
Hygiene Society and a graduate of the 
Medical School of Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity, has been made superintendent of 
the Children's Hospital and Schools on 
Randall's Island, New York city's institu- 
tion for the feebleminded. Dr. Walter 
E. Fernald, superintendent of the Massa- 
chusetts School for the Feebleminded at 
Waverly, has been employed as consulting 
expert in connection with the reorganiza- 
tion of the Randall's Island institution. 
Under Dr. Cornell the reconstruction of a 
large part of the hospital and schools will 
be begun. Six hundred thousand dollar' 
has already been appropriated for build- 
ings. This is regarded as merely an in- 
itial expenditure. Before the year is out 
it is hoped, says John A. Kingsbury, Com- 
missioner of Public Charities, to have two 
new infirmaries, one for girls and one for 
boys, each accommodating 160 low grade 
feebleminded children, as well as several 
new cottages for higher grade children 



The National Federation of Settlements 
has adopted an entirely new scheme of rep- 
resentation for its forthcoming convention 
in New York, May 19 to 24. Heretofore 
these conventions have been largely made 
up of settlement residents. This year each 
house is asked to send three delegates — the 
headworker. a representative from the board 
of managers, and a representative from 
the neighborhood clubs. The plan is, where- 
ever possible, to bnve the latter pay the ex- 
penses of their delegates. 

Incidentally, this year's meeting tinder the 
presidency of Mrs. Simkhovitch of Green- 
wich House has some of the lighter touches 
which go into settlement houses, and mark 
them off with lights and music as centers 
for enchantment as well as centers for seri- 
ous work. Thus, at the close of the con- 
vention something like 500 seats have been 
reserved for the Sheakespeare Masque in 
the stadium; while two full days of the 
convention will be spent at Long Beach, 
with the notion that not only will the 
ocean have a "come hither" about it, but 
the distractions of the city will be far 
enough removed so that some solid work 
can be done in round-tables and section 
meetings. 






THE NEW ONCE-A-MONT H EDITION 

SOKCW 

A JOURNAL OF SOCIAL EXPLORATION 

MAY 6, I916 








MAY 1 1 2926 



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Turned Back in IV ar Time: 
Ellis Island an International 
) Detention Camp 

By Frederic C. Howe 

Jr Commissioner at the Port of New York 



England under the Eaves 
of War 

Arizona* s Embargo Against 
Strike- Breakers 

People's 'Theater of Belgium 

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~I~~I"!~" « "I*"I"I — t-*4-"| j ~V^^- ^ "* ^ '* ? " ^ ~ ^ "^*?-*^**I-** I " I '* T **;-**I*"I*' I ** J **^**^**I** T '* J j ' 3 *" I '*|**J*' I '' I ** ^ '' I ''I''I'* I '' I ''T ,, T i1 ^' -T ■~-^-- T " T" J -- T -- T --T — l' - !**!"!**?"!"!"*"?"!"! "!".'*!"!"!' »%» ? »» % . * ». T ..T..T.» f ..*».*i 

The Loeb Classical Library 

A New Comprehensive and Uniform Series of Classical 

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It is the idea of Mr. James Loeb, who has entered upon the undertaking- with commendable enthusiasm, to 
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GREEK AUTHORS {Bound in Green) 

Apollonius Rhodius. Translated by R. C. Seaton. 1 Vol. 
The Apostolic Fathers. Translated by Kirsopp Lake. 2 \ "Is. 
Appian's Roman History. Translated by Ilorate White. 4 

Vols. 
Dio Cassius. Roman History. Translated by E. Cary, Vols. 

I, II and III. 
Euripides. Translated by A. S. Way. 4 Vols. 
The Greek Bucolic Poets (Theocritus, Bion, Moschus). 

Translated by J. M. Edmonds. 1 Vol. 
Hesiod and the Homeric Hymns. Translated by 11. (i. 

Evelyn-White. 1 Vol. 
Julian. Translated by Wilmer Cave Wright. Vols. I and II. 
Lucian. Translated by A. M. Harmon. Vols. I and 11. 
Marcus Aurelius Antoninus. Translated by C. R. Haines. 
Philostratus: The Life of Apollonius of Tvana. Translated by 

F, C. Conybeare. 2 Vols. 
Pindar. Translated by Sir J. E. Sandys, i Vol. 
Plato: Euthyphro, Apology, Crito, Phaedo, Phaedrus. 

Translated by II. M. Fowler. I Vol. 
Plutarch: The Parallel Lives. Translated by B. Pen-in. 

Vols. I. II and III. 
Procopius. Translated by II. 1!. Dewing. Vol. I. 
Quintus Smyrnaeus. Translated by A. S. Way. i Vol. 
Sophocles. Translated by F. Storr. 2 Vols. 
St. John Damascene: Barlaam and loasaph. Trans- 
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Xenophon : Cyropaedia. Translated by Walter Miller. 2 

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LATIN AUTHORS (Bout. d in Red) 

Apuleius. The Golden Ass. (Metamorphoses.) W. Adlington 

11560) Revised by S. Gaselee. 1 Vol. 
St. Augustine's Confessions. Translated by W. Watts. 

(1631). 2 Vols. 
Caesar: Civil Wars. Translated by A. G. Peskett. 1 Vol. 
Catullus. 'Translated by F. W. Cornish. 
Tibullus. Translated by ]. P. Postdate 

Pervigilium Veneris. Translated by J. M Mackail. 1 Vol. 
Cicero: De Finibus. Translated by II. Uackham. 1 Vol. 
Cicero: De Officiis. Translated by Walter Miller. 1 Vol. 
Cicero: Letters to Atticus. Translated by E. C). Winstedt. 

Vols. I and II. 
Horace: Odes and Epodes. Translated by C. E. Bennett. 

1 Vol. 
Ovid: Heroides and Amores. Translated by Grant Show- 

erman. I Vol. 



In 



Vols 



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I). 



Ovid : Metamorphoses. 

Justus Miller. 

Petronius. Translated by M. Heseltine. 
Seneca: Apocolocyntosis. Translated by W. II. 
1 Vol. 

PlaUtUS. In 4 Vols. Vol. I. 'Translated by Paul Nixon. 

Pliny: Letters. Melmoth's Translation revised by W, M. L. 

Hutchinson. 2 Vols. 
Propertius. Translated by II. E. butler. 
Suetonius. Translated by J. C. R<>lte 

Tacitus; Dialogus. Translated by Maurice Hutton. 1 Vol. 
Terence. Translated by John Sargeaunt. 2 \ ols. 



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GREEK AUTHORS. — Achilles Tatius.-Daphn 
Galen.— Greek Anthology. — Homer, the Odyssey. — PI 
Xenophon. 

LATIN AUTHORS. — Seneca, Tragedies (Vol. 1).— Seneca, Epistles. -Virgil 



shed during 1916 

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utarch (Vol. IV). — Procopius. — Strabo. - Theophrastus.— 



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CONTENTS for MAY 6, 1916 

VOL. XXXVI, NO. 6 

FRONTISPIECE 

CONTRIBUTED ARTICLES 

Washington at Work — VI. The Neighborly Service of the United States 

Post Office ------- GRAHAM R0MEYN TAYLOR 133 

My Bit of Green, a poem - - - - Florence ripley mastin 136 

The Lantern Bearers — IX. For a New Drama - - john collier 137 

Life's Clinic — IV. The Widower - - edith houghton hooker 142 

Arizona's Embargo on Strike-Breakers - - - john a. fitch 143 

Turned Back in Time of War: Ellis Island Under War Conditions 

FREDERIC C. HOWE 147 

Just Flickerings of Life ------ winthrop d. lane 157 

England Under the Eaves of War - - alice lewisohn 161 

Faith, a poem hannah parker kimball 162 

EDITORIALS 

Flower Aristocrats - - 163 

The Amusement Parks of Chicago - - 163 

The Bread of Life - - - - 164 

An Animal of Extinction - - 165 

THE COMMON WELFARE 

The Month ------ - 166 

Proposing That Women's Work Be Never Done - 166 

The Adventures of Alice in Tincanland - - 167 

The Old Armenia in New America - - - 167 

How Grown-ups Act in School - - - 169 

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ROBERT W. de FOREST President 
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JANE ADDAMS, Chicago 

ERNEST P. BICKNELL, Washington 

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RICHARD C. CABOT, Boston 

J. LIONBERGER DAVIS, St. Louis 

EDWARD T. DEVINE, New York 

ARTHUR F. ESTABROOK, Boston 

LIVINGSTON FARRAND, Boulder, Colo. 

SAMUEL S. FELS, Philadelphia 

LEE K. FRANKEL, New York 

JOHN M. GLENN, New York 

C. M. GOETHE, Sacramento, Calif. 



FOREST Chairman 

WILLIAM E. HARMON, New York 
\\ M. TEMPLETON JOHNSON, San Diego 
JOSEPH LEE, Boston 
JULIAN W. MACK, Chicago 
V. EVER IT MACY, New York 
CHARLES D. NORTON, New York 
SIMON N. PAXTEN, Philadelphia 
JULIUS ROSENWALD, Chicago 
GRAHAM TAYLOR, Chicago 
FRANK TUCKER, New York 
LILLIAN D. WALD, New York 
ALFRED T. WHITE, Brooklyn 



Survey Associates, Inc., is an adventure in co-operative journalism; incorporated under the laws of the state of 
New York, November, 1912, as a membership organization without shares or stockholders. Membership is open to 
Teaders who become contributors of $10 or more a year. It is this widespread, convinced backing and personal interesl 
which has made The Survey a living thing. 

The Survey is a weekly journal of constructive philanthropy, founded in the 90's by the Charity Organization 
Society of the City of New York. The first weekly issue of each month appears as an enlarged magazine number. 

From the start, the magazine and its related activities have been broadly conceived as an educational enterprise, to 
be employed and developed beyond the limits of advertising and commercial receipts. 

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be sent only upon request. Copyright, 1916, by Survey Associates, Inc. Entered as second class matter March 
25, 1909, at the Post Office at New York, N. Y., under the act of March 3, 1879. 



The GIST of IT 

MOTORS in place of leg-power, containers 
for perishable goods and an open mind 
toward every sort of modern improvement 
is making of the post office the spriest 
sort of public servant. But in its lack of 
service pensions and in its "efficiency" treat- 
ment of postal employes, the government 
is accused of being pretty mean as com- 
pared with private employers. Page 133. 

OUT OF IMMIGRANT groups, country- 
side and city neighborhoods, are springing 
up the beginnings of a drama that is com- 
parable to the co-operative folk theaters of 
Europe, a thousand miles removed from the 
commercialized theater of Broadway. Page 
137. 

"HONEYMOON APPENDICITIS" is the 
ironic name for gonorrheal infections of 
brides — the wilful blindness of an age 
which must look at everything con- 
nected with matrimony through rose-colored 
glasses. Page 142. 

GOVERNOR HUNT of Arizona gives an 
explanation of his unique order to the 
militia to keep strike-breakers out of the 
state during the copper strike, the swearing 
in of strikers as deputy sheriffs charged 
with preserving order and the charge of 
inciting to riot lodged against the mine 
owners. Page 14,"). 

IMMIGRANTS who cannot be deported 
because of war conditions have made of 
Ellis Island a polyglot concentration camp 
and given Uncle Sam another opportunity 
to do social work on a large scale. "Noth- 
ing." writes Commissioner Howe, "has so 
confirmed my philosophy that the wrong 
of the world, evil, vice and criminal ac- 
tions, are traceable back to the environment 
in which people live, as the way America 
absorbs and builds up discards whenever 
they are given a fair chance." Page 147. 

TWO INSTITUTIONS found by the Bal- 
timore Vice Commission made a business 
of separating illegitimate babies from their 
mothers. They charged fees commensurate 
to their death-rates of 72 to 88 per cent, 
and they buried the tiny bodies, two in a 
box, in a hole that was kept conveniently 
open. Physicians, midwives, nurses, even 
ministers, did not object to the separation of 
mother and child. Page 157. 

WITH A WHOLE nation thinking and 
working for but one thing — war, England 
is paying some heavy bills in social costs 
and piling up social liabilities in addition to 
the national debt. Page 161. 

CHICAGO'S JUVENILE Protective Asso- 
ciation found that in the private amusement 
parks recreation for the young and the 
carefree is tainted with the grossest im- 
morality. Page 163. 

WHEREIN IT IS shown how certain 
working women have gained 700 working 
centuries. Page 104. Which a paternal 
legislature proposes to curb as extravagant. 
Page 166. With timely comment thereon 
by Alice of Wonderland. Page 167. 

ARMENIANS in New York city observed 
Easter as their forefathers did in the first 
Christian century. Page 1G7. 




SOCIAL WORKER EXTRAORDINARY 




The coDtnlnov which makes (he post offlpp n 
go between between h«"n roo«t mil lirpnkfasl l.lblf 



Over the new Washington city Post Office there is an inscription written 
by President Eliot of Han aid which reads: 

CARRIER OF NEWS AND KNOWLEDGE 

INSTRUMENT OF TRADE AND INDUSTRY 

PROMOTER OF MUTUAL ACQUAINTANCE, 

OF PEACE AND GOOD-WILL AMONG MEN AND NATIONS 

MESSENGER OF SYMPATHY AND LOVE 

SERVANT OF PARTED FRIENDS 

CONSOLER OF THE LONELY 

BOND OF THE SCATTERED FAMILY 

EXI.ARGF.R OF THE COMMON LIFE 






VOLUME XXXVI, No. 6 




MAY 6, 1918 







At Your Door-Step 

The Neighborly Service of the United States Post Office 

By Graham Romeyn Taylor 



WHETHER it is the letter-carrier's whistle 
several times a day along the residence 
streets of a city, the rattle of wheels as the 
rural free delivery driver approaches an out- 
lying farm, the swish of a paddle twice a week along some 
of the Maine rivers, the crack of the whip as the mail 
sledge dog-team races into an Alaskan village, or the 
steamship's blast as she carries the mail into a Philippine 
harbor, there is no more regular and usually more wel- 
come reminder of the citizen's concern in government 
service. 

Every stamp-collecting boy can trace on the pages of 
his album the development of the postal service, from the 
picture of the galloping "pony post" on early stamps to 
the bicycle boy on the present special delivery stamps and 
the various modern ways of transporting mail as shown 
on recent issues particularly designed for the parcel post. 
But the last few years, with their wide extension of the 
rural free delivery, their introduction of postal savings, 
and their establishment of the parcel post, have seen more 
progress than any previous decade. 

Newspapers and magazines tell almost every day and 
week of some new way in which the parcel post is serving 
the business man or householder. But experiments with 
new methods are by no means confined to that branch of 
the post office department's activities. There is still, and 
perhaps inevitably in so large an organization, much red 
tape which would appear to hamper the department's 
greatest usefulness, one instance being the regulation 
against using postage stamps for small remittances to the 
government. But red tape can be cut. 

Perhaps not so picturesque as parcel post experiments, 
but counting for much in daily efficiency and administrative 
economies, are the short cuts and new devices which are 
rapidly being developed. These new administrative meth- 
ods are best seen if you get a chance to observe them at 
work in one of the more progressive local post offices, 
some of which are definitely regarded as try-out places 
for innovations. 



The local post office in the city of Washington is ren- 
dering especial service in this respect, and for three good 
reasons : it is situated where the postmaster-general and 
other high officials of the service can be in close touch 
and consultation ; it has recently been equipped with one 
of the finest and most up-to-date post office buildings in 
the country ; and a new postmaster, Otto Praeger, was 
put in charge who was considered by Postmaster-General 
Burleson as unusually progressive and ingenious in devel- 
oping efficiency schemes. After a comparatively short 
service he was recently promoted to be second assistant 
postmaster-general. But his successor, Merritt O. Chance, 
is said to be carrying forward the same policies. The 
people of Washington are watching the development of 
these methods with keen interest. Although many of them 
protested against the abandonment of the Pennsylvania 
avenue office when the new one near the railroad station 
was built, most of them seem to be enthusiastic over the 
enterprise which they feel that Postmaster Praeger mani- 
fested in promoting the farm-to-table service of the parcel 
post and a "pick up" service for packages. 

His experiments in efficiency through the larger use of 
automobiles — Washington was the first city to have gov- 
ernment owned motors in the postal service — have reduced 
mileage cost and assured prompter deliveries of mail 
throughout the city. And his reorganization of the work- 
ing force was the main factor in an annual saving of more 
than a hundred thousand dollars in a total yearly operat- 
ing expense of about $1,200,000, though there is much pro- 
test from clerks and carriers that this saving has been 
made through ruthless discharge o4 the older men and 
summary reductions in salaries. It is considered by postal 
employes to be part of a country-wide effort on the part 
of Postmaster-General Burleson to make economies at 
the expense of the human factor in the service. 

Postmaster Praeger was looked upon as being a personal 
representative of his chief, for they were friends in their 
home state, Texas, before either of them came to Wash- 
ington. He was another instance of the newspaper man in 

133 



134 



THE SURVEY FOR MAY 6, 1916 



government service in the District of Columbia. Two of 
the three district commissioners were selected by Presi- 
dent Wilson from among Washington correspondents. 
Their choice of a police chief drew Raymond W. Pullman 
from the same group. Mr. Praeger was formerly Wash- 
ington correspondent of the Dallas News. 

The new post office at Washington, costing $3,000,000, 
is a notable addition to the imposing architecture of the 
capital. But its modern equipment and arrangement make 
its efficiency quite as impressive. There is, for example, 
an intricate system of moving belts, installed at a cost of 
nearly $200,000, for the distribution of mail. No clerk or 
carrier has to take more than two dozen steps out of his 
way in performing his routine duties. An underground 
belt-line brings in the twelve hundred sacks of matter 
from the government printing office, two hundred yards 
away. 

Modern appliances, including the installation of a re- 
frigerator for perishable matter in the parcel post, helped 
greatly in the successful development of the "farm-to 



taining everything from turkey to apples. One enthusi- 
astic Washington housewife wrote that from a Virginia 
farm she received during the winter sausage meat in a 
bucket, and during the summer beautiful cut flowers ; and 
she commended the prompt delivery and good handling of 
both products. 

Perhaps the most famous instance, however, was the 
steer which — not on the hoof but in a large number of 
small pieces — came through the mail from the farm to 
Washington kitchen ranges. The farmer had sent word 
to the Washington post office that he expected to kill the 
steer and would sell the meat by mail at one-third less 
than the Washington retail prices. When enough orders 
were secured he killed the animal and sent the pieces to 
the purchasers. He had been offered $35 on the hoof 
but was enabled to sell about two hundred pounds for a 
little more than $35 and had fifty pounds left over for his 
profit. The hide paid for the help he got to dress and 
carve the steer. 

The devising of containers especially adapted to the 




THE LATEST IN CITY MAIL DELIVERY 

Washington ivas the first city to have government owned automobiles in the postal service. They expedite mail deliv- 
ery by taking carriers to their routes. This conserves time equal to the service of nearly five carriers a day. Incidentally 

carfares totalling $3,250 a year are saved 



table" service of the post office. But perhaps the largest 
factor is the educational campaign which city postmasters 
like Praeger are engineering. Lists of farmers with their 
addresses, kind of produce they furnish and prices, are 
regularly sent to Washington householders. The farmers 
themselves were first educated by 125,000 circulars sent 
throughout the rural regions nearby, giving instructions 
how to pack and ship produce. Many farmers at first 
listed their products at the prices which they found city 
dealers were charging. But when they were shown that 
the average housewife must have a special inducement to 
purchase supplies unseen instead of supplies at retail 
stores where the quality could be examined at the time 
of purchase, they soou showed a disposition to meet the 
consumer half way. Some farmers list their eggs, for 
example, not at a fixed price but at "three cents above 
wholesale prices." 

While eggs, butter and poultry seem to furnish the main 
volume of business, almost every other farm product finds 
its way through the parcel post — fruits and vegetables in 
season, preserves and jellies, meats, honey, etc. Some 
farmers are making a specialty of dinner hampers con- 



pa reel post service will help greatly in the extension of 
the farm-to-table movement. Various manufacturers and 
the Department of Agriculture are devoting expert study 
to the problem. 

A most effective means of stimulating the farm-to-table 
movement is through exhibits at county fairs and munici- 
pal expositions. These show samples of some of the mer- 
chandise being transported daily by parcel post. Methods 
of packing are illustrated, and the consequences of fail- 
ure to pack in accordance with the post office regulations 
are vividly displayed. 

The "pick up" service for parcels which was started in 
Washington is greatly appreciated by residents of the 
District. Any householder can telephone the Washington 
post office in the morning that he has a package for the 
parcel post. By afternoon, a collection wagon arrives in 
the course of its rounds to letter collection boxes. The 
collector brings the scales and a parcel post guide into the 
house, weighs the package and tells the amount of postage 
required. When the stamps are affixed there is no further 
bother to the householder except perhaps to answer his 
'phone, that same evening, and hear his friend in another 



THE SURVEY FOR MAY 6, 1916 



135 



part of the city acknowledge the receipt of the parcel. 
This service is limited to packages weighing not more than 
ten pounds each or aggregating not more than that weight. 
At some business houses regular stops are made each day. 
In the prompt delivery not only of parcel post packages 
but of the regular mail the automobiles purchased for the 
use of the Washington post office have been an important 
factor. And, as indicated, they have contributed very sub- 
stantially to the annual saving in operating cost. Under 
the old contract system the government paid thirty-seven 
cents per mile. The installation of the government's own 
motors has reduced the cost of this service to a fraction 
over nine cents per mile. This has been accomplished by 
the use of the trucks for all sorts of purposes instead of 
for the specific work stipulated in an inelastic contract. 
Instead of standing idle during the parts of the day when 
they were not required for hauling mail sacks, these motor 
trucks are helping to expedite mail delivery. Ten or a 
dozen carriers at a trip are rushed to their particular out- 
lying section of the city, each man being dropped as the 
motor reaches his route. 



and government official was apt to want one directly in 
front of his house — have helped to make the annual sav- 
ing of $103,000 in the operating cost of the Washington 
post office. 

But the main factor in the financial statement appears 
as "reduction in force and salary adjustments." The 
figure opposite this entry is $89,638. This is the saving 
which postal employes declare to have been made at large 
human cost. They point out that many of the carriers 
and clerks discharged had been in the service from twelve 
to thirty-five years, that some of them were G.A.R. 
veterans, that work conditions were already hard enough 
without the speeding up which they say has come, and 
that wages were too low even before the reductions. 

Mr. Praeger acknowledges that among the sixty dis- 
charged clerks and carriers very few had saved a penny 
and a large proportion were old men — the ages of seven- 
teen of them were between seventy and eighty-three years. 
Many of the others, he declared, had gained a foot-hold 
through a political "loading up" of the force. In some in- 
stances three clerks were doing what could be done by one 

Phototjraph by the Rev. h. H. Pederson, Skagway, Alaska 




AT THE FAR END OF THE POSTAL ROUTE 



Dog teams are used nn all trails and rough roads in Alaska. From Seward to Iditarod. the trip is 512 miles. Under 
favorable conditions, the dog teams make 30 miles a day. The hardiest dogs are sired by wild wolf ; such have great endur- 
ance but are very treacherous 



Such trips save nine minutes a man on each trip 
over the street-car time, besides a saving of $3,250 a year 
in carfare. The saving in time is equivalent to the services 
of \ 2 /i carriers per day. The carrier trip schedules for 
the automobiles are interwoven with the schedule for the 
delivery of parcel post, collection of mail and train and 
station dispatches. 

Rapid automobile transportation has permitted the con- 
centration of nearly all the District of Columbia mail 
service under one roof and under one supervision. It 
thus resulted in the saving of considerable overhead 
charges, and made possible the complete abandonment of 
the Pennsylvania avenue local office when the new build- 
ing near the railway station was completed — which meant 
another large saving. In this remarkable economy account 
has been taken of every cost factor. It allows depreciation 
charges of from 20 to 33^ per cent on the motors and 
provides also for tire depreciation. 

Several other items of economy, down to the removal 
of unnecessary letter boxes — each senator, congressman 



with an extra clerk to help out with the work during rush 
hours. 

Neither the public nor the postal employes themselves 
should have any fault to find with discharges of those 
whose inefficiency was proved, whether they received their 
appointments through political influence or not. But the 
problem of the old men is one more instance — and every 
government bureau in Washington contains many in- 
stances — revealing the condition due to the failure of the 
government to provide an adequate pension or other plan 
for the retirement of aged employes. Most government 
officials recognize clearly enough the inefficiency due to 
the continued employment of these aged office-holders, 
but few executives have the heart or courage to turn them 
out. 

Mr. Praeger, however, freely and bluntly said that he has 
little sympathy with the discharged men and sees no need 
of any pension system. Government salaries, he considers, 
are sufficient and the employe ought to save enough for his 
old age. This, of course, represents a policy much behind 



136 



THE SURVEY FOR MAY 6, 1916 



the times as compared with the larger and more progres- 
sive corporations. 

The employes declare that this bluntness was also to be 
noted in Postmaster Praeger's dealings with the employes 
whose salaries he reduced. The letter sent to such em- 
ployes stated that : "In view of your inefficiency, as indi- 
cated by your inability to perform satisfactory service on 
the average delivery route, you are hereby requested to 
show cause, in writing, within five days after the receipt 
of this notice, why you should not be reduced in salary 
to a grade commensurate with your ability." This, 
representatives of the men state, failed to provide specific 
charges of inefficiency to which the men could reply. 

The methods whereby the carriers were adjudged in- 
efficient are declared by the representatives of the men to 
be a little less than brutal. They say that additional 
blocks were added to routes ; that when a man could not 
carry out the new schedule he was replaced ; but that if 
the new carrier found the increased route too heavy, it 
was reduced for him and he held his job, while the man 
whose labors were increased beyond the breaking point 
was not given another chance at the route as it was finally 
made up. They point out, moreover, that many of the 
carriers work longer hours than the records would indi- 
cate since their work day is figured up to the delivery of 
their last letter, their trip back to the office not being made 
on government time. 

With the increasing cost of living the men declare that 
the salaries of regular carriers, from $800 to $1,100 a 
year, with $1,200 only in case of exceptionally meritorious 
work, are low. It is further stated that while the hourly 
rate for a substitute carrier is thirty-five cents, the num- 
ber of hours he works per month may yield him as little 
as $25. Yet he must be on call. 

In explaining his reorganization, Mr. Praeger called 
attention to the fact that the salary law enacted in 
1907 provided for the successive promotion of car- 
riers in the large cities to the $1,100 grade and of 
the more efficient ones to the $1,200 grade, that 
Congress has appropriated from year to year 
sufficient funds for the promotion of only 
50 t o 70 per cent of those eligible for 
the $1,200 grade. It is necessary, says Mr. 

WASHINGTON 
AT WORK 

VI 




Praeger, to reduce inefficient carriers in order to make 
possible the promotion of efficient ones. 

He also makes clear the difference in ability required 
to be a carrier as compared with a collector. The carrier 
must arrange his mail rapidly for delivery upon the route ; 
he must remember names and addresses and removals to 
new addresses. He has much responsibility in the case 
of registered letters. The collector, on the other hand, 
has none of this work but merely unlocks a mail or pack- 
age box and brings tne contents to the post office. In 
offering old carriers who drew $1,200 positions as col- 
lector at $1,000, post office officials want it understood 
that the pay is in accordance with the kind of work. 

What the merits of this controversy are, it is not the 
purpose of this article to determine. But the public may 
well give consideration to the fact that the postal em- 
ployes seem to find cause for more frequent complaint 
than any other employes in the service of the government. 
One of the main points has been the right to organize and 
present their grievances. 

The ability to effect improvement in their conditions 
varies in different groups in the service. For example, 
one observer has pointed out that the men engaged in the 
rural free delivery are able to exert much greater political 
influence than city carriers. They have a relation or per- 
sonal acquaintance or friendship with nearly every family 
on their route and no congressman from a rural region 
would dare vote contrary to the sentiment which the rural 
free delivery man can easily arouse among his constituents. 
This is one reason, it is said, why the pay in this branch 
of the service has risen much more rapidly than that for 
city letter carriers. Some congressmen see in the exercise 
of influence by rural carriers a handicap to the movement 
for government ownership of the telephone and telegraph 
and other utilities. They fear the development of a 
powerful political machine in a vast body of employes 
anxious for salary increases. 

With the new inventions which are rendering 
the post office more and more useful to citizens, 
it may well be that the citizens in turn should 
give attention to conditions surrounding the 
work of the human factor which makes such 
service possible. 

The next article in this series will 
deal with some aspects of life and 
labor among government employes 



MY BIT OF GREEN 

By Florence Ripley Mastin 



ONE narrow little fenced-in plot 
Below dark roofs is all I've got 
In way of May ; 
But here warm buds and little things 
That push above the ground bright wings, 
Make holiday. 



I, in their midst, am happy quite 
To sec my cherry's misty white 

Above me lean ; 
To mark the rain upon the twigs 
And touch round heads in tiny wigs 

Of 



Because the city roars so near, 
I hold my bit of green more dear. 



___ 


HP ' 




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I 






'is 


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7^ LANTERN BEARERS 

A SERIES OF ESSAYS 

EXPLORING SOME THOROUGHFARES OF 

THE PEOPLE'S LEISURE 



, T - -; 




IX 



For a New Drama 

5y J^Atf Collier 

DIRECTOR NEW YORK TRAINING SCHOOL FOR COMMUNITY CENTER WORKERS 



IN SPITE of what the scholastics say, the so-called 
legitimate commercial theater has very little to do 
with present-day drama ; the interesting things of 
the theater have to be sought far afield, or often 
near at hand in places that are not called theaters at all. 
The scholastics, whether disciples of Freytag or of Brander 
Matthews, would say : this Lithuanian folk-carnival or 
home-made drama of the Polish National Alliance ; this 
fire ceremonial of the Campfire Girls ; or this dramatic 
sketch composed, prepared and acted by the women of 
the House of Refuge in Philadelphia, three-fourths of 
whom are classed as defectives; these festivals of the 
soil in North Dakota, where young girls do not imperson- 
ate the opening of lilies or tulips but of cabbages ; that 
fire of St. John, kept burning for years on a rocky point 
in the Hudson river by a gang of youngsters calling them- 
selves the Suicide Club — all these, and the more formalized 
non-professional theaters, the pageants that hang together 
by mere force of contiguity, the self-wrought rythmic pan- 
tomimes of Elise Du Four's children and working girls — 
these are humanizing, they are educative, they are recrea- 
tive ; and, conceivably, sometime a genius of the theater 
may grasp on element